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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Steel Construction
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Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 4 - Dec 1997
Volume 9, Issue 3 - Sep 1997
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Jun 1997
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Mar 1997
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Damage Detection of a Steel Member Using Modal Testing
Jang, Jeong Hwan ; Lee, Jung Whee ; Kim, Sung Kon ; Chang, Sung Pil ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 467~477
A series of experimental tests have been performed on a tube beam in which artificial damage is applied in order to address damage detectability using modal analysis. Modal parameters considered are frequency, displacement mode shape and strain mode shape CoMAC(Coordinate Modal Assurance Criterion) and Modal Vector Error have been adopted for presenting the change of displacement mode shape and strain mode shape. It is revealed strain mode shape is the most sensitive to damage.
The Basic Study of Semi-Rigid Connections with Reformed T-stubs
Yu, Bong Huoun ; Lee, Myung Jae ; Kim, WonKi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 479~487
The use of semi-rigid joints can be considered in the beam-to-column connections of buildings. The advantages of semi-rigid joints can be found in the convenience of construction and the ability of effective moment distribution of members. This study is a basic step to acertain the application of middle high rise buildings by using reformed T-stub, of which rotation capacity is thought to be excellent compared with that of existing T-stubs. The tests of tensile and compressive elements of reformed T-stubs were performed to investigate the behavior of reformed T-stubs. The beam-to-column connections using reformed T-stubs are tested under monotonic loading. The structural behaviors of reformed T-stubs were understood qualitatively and the possibility of application of semi-rigid connections with reformed T-stub was acertained.
Assessment of the Impact Factor and the Stress Histogram of Railway Bridges in Korea
Choi, Jun Hyeok ; Cho, Sun Kyu ; Chang, Dong Il ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 489~500
The number of railway bridges in Korea reaches to about 3,000. Among them, the ratio of steel bridges is about 47%. Most of the long span railway bridges take the truss type, its number is 15 in Korea. These bridges have more than 30 years service life, it is expected that the damages of cracks and corrosion is going. Therefore, the estimation of fatigue life with random stress is considered as significant subject in maintenance. In this paper, the random stress was measured in bridges and counted the stress cycles using the rainflow counting method So, the stress range frequencies and their equivalent stress are obtained and the amplification factor for the span length, bridge types and traveling speed is assessed by the dynamic testing. From the results, the stress range of the stringer and the lower chord is higher than the other members and the characteristics of the stress histogram is varied to the loading system and the amount of the passing through trains. And the impact effects are depended on the traveling speed as well as the span length.
A Study on Influence Line of Curved I-Girder Grid Bridge with Constant Cross Section
Chang, Byung Soon ; Ryoo, Eun Yeol ; Joo, Jae Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 501~513
The general behavior of curved girder including the warping effects is formulated by series of differential equations postulated by Vlasov. In order to determine the maximum shear force, the maximum bending moment, the maximum pure torsion, the maximum warping torsion, and the maximum bimoment for the curved girder grid bridges, it is important to find the location of live load applied to the curved girder grid bridges, so that the influence line can be estimated. In this paper, the influence line of shear force, bending moment, pure torsion, warping torsion, and bimoment due to unit vertical load and unit torsional moment for curved I-girder grid bridges are obtained by using the finite difference method.
Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of a Magnesium-Based Composite
Kim, Doo Hwan ; Park, Yong Gul ; Kim, Sung Hoon ; Han, Suk Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 515~521
The effects of heat treatment and fiber orientation on tensile strength and fatigue behavior were studied in a continuously reinforced. magnesium-based composite Following an earlier TEM investigation, specimens were thermally aged to modified the interfacial zone between the alumina fibers and the magnesium alloy matrix. From the tensile experimental results, the ultimate tensile strength of the aged specimens were lower than that of the as-fabricated due to weak fiber-matrix interfacial strength with chemical reaction during the thermal processing. The fatigue crack growth experiments were conducted with specimens having the fiber orientation normal to the crack growth direction (longitudinal) and also specimens with the fibers oriented parallel to the crack growth direction(transverse). A comparison of the fatigue crack growth behavior indicates that aged longitudinal specimens are more resistant to fatigue crack growth the as-fabricated longitudinal specimens. Conversely, as-fabricated transverse specimens are more resistant to fatigue crack growth than aged transverse specimens.
Proposed Limit State Design Method for Encased Composite Columns
Kim, WonKi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 523~533
Current limit state design method for encased composite columns contains irrational and uncertain design equations in defining section and material properties of composite members. Through investigating previous research used in formulating the design equation, this paper explores the irrationality and uncertainty such as 1) transformation of yield stress and elastic modulus for composite section, 2) an equation influencing buckling strength in terms of area rather than moment of inertia, and 3) selection of larger radius of gyration between steel and concrete sections. Improving the design equations this paper proposes two design methods which can be directly used in practical design.
A Study on the Expection of the Stress to the Stiffness Variation of Members on Truss Railway Bridge
Cho, Sun Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 535~541
It is proper that the load distribution and the actual stress of members is analyzed by field measurement in estimating to the behavior of truss railway bridges, but those procedures are very difficult. So, the studies for the deduction of the stress, using the indirect data which are able to get from the research and investigation without field measurement, are needed. In this study, to investigate quantitically the variation of the stress of members, the stresses are obtained from the simulation which is considered the the reduction of the section area and the stiffness due to the corrosion and the degree of the stress ratio and the distribution is calculated. As the results, the stress of truss members is almost lineary increased to the decreasing of the area and the lower chord is greatly affected. And the increasing of the stress is predicted by the superposition to the results of the amount of that in each members.
A Study on the Composite Behavior of Simply Supported Composite Girders Considering the Partial Interaction
Yong, Hwan Sun ; Kim, Seok Tae ; Park, Jae Yil ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 543~555
Generally, in a steel-concrete composite gilder, the shear connector which was constructed between concrete deck and steel girder should have enough stiffness to behave as one body, because the conformity between plate and concrete deck is influences by the stiffness and spacing of the shear connectors. If the stiffness of shear connectors are insufficient, slip would happen at the contact surface. Partial interaction is the case that takes account of slips. In this paper, an easy method is presented to evaluate the stiffness or spacing of the shear connector according to the degree of imperfection without difficult calculations for a composite gilder with partial interaction. Also, the horizontal shearing force applied to the shear connector and the longitudinal axial force, which is occurs at contact surface between concrete deck and steel girder, have been presented in a simple influence line that is various to the parameters of sectional properties, degree of imperfection and applied load points. Furthermore, through the case study, it determined the relationships between the degree of imperfection and the follows 1) spring constants 2) axial force and horizontal shearing force 3) stress and neutral axis by using the partial differential equation based on Newmark's Partial Interaction Theory.
Beam-Column Element Applicable to Nonlinear Seismic Analysis
Kim, Kee Dong ; Ko, Man Gi ; Lee, Sang Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 557~578
The objective of the study in this paper was to develop a beam-column element to model members with purely flexural yielding, as well as members with yielding under combined flexure and axial force during severe earthquake ground motins. The developed element can be considered as an one-component series hinge type model. It has the capability to model plastic axial deformation and changes in axial stiffness, and employs hardening rules to handle monotonic, cyclic or arbitrary loading. In general, when compared to experimental results and fiber model predictions, the element showed significantly better performance than the bilinear hinger model and could properly model the beam-column behavior of bare steel members in moment resisting frames. The developed element can more accurately predict local deformation demands and overall responses of structural systems under earthquake loadings than the bilinear hinge element.
Cable Adjustment of Composite Cable Stayed Bridge with Fuzzy Linear Regression Analysis
Kwon, Jang Sub ; Chang, Seung Pil ; Cho, Suh Kyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 579~588
During the construction of cable stayed bridge, errors are always caused by various reasons, accumulated and amplified through the complex construction steps. It is likely that the undesirable stress distribution of members and the large deflection of the bridge different from design values come out The adjustment of cables during construction is absolutely indispensable to correct the stress distribution of the members and the geometrical configuration of the bridge. In the conventional method, weight coefficients are used to consider the difference of units between cable forces and girder deflections during the optimization process of cable adjustment. However, it is not easy to determine weight coefficients and the adjustment must be repeated several times with the time consuming process of the determination of new weight coefficients in case that errors are out of design allowable limits. In this paper, fuzzy linear regression analysis is applied to the cable adjustment to overcome those problems. In the application of fuzzy linear regression analysis method the designer's intention and the design allowable limits can be formulated in the form of the constraints of the linear optimization problem. Therefore, the cable adjustment in construction site can be carried out with the fuzzy linear regression analysis more rapidly than with the convetional method.
A Study on the Structural Behavior of the Composite Slabs Using the New Shaped Deck Plate
Kim, Chang Woo ; Choi, Sung Mo ; Kang, Do An ; Kim, Dong Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 589~600
Cold-formed deck sections are used in many composite floor slab applications wherein the steel deck serves not only as the form for the concrete during construction but also as the principal tensile reinforcement for the bottom fiber of the composite slab. This paper provides the results of an experimental study performed for the composite slabs with the new shaped deck plates with the locking ribs, the dove tails, and the powerful embossment, which are the mechanical means to improve positive interlocking effect between the deck and the concrete. A total of 28 specimens are tested to investigate the composite effects between the concrete and metal deck plate. Important parameters in this are the span length, the thickness of the deck plate, support condition, and whether shear studs are placed at each support or not. The test results are summarized for the maximum load and failure behavior for the specimens.
Bending and Dynamic Characteristics of Antisymmetric Laminated Composite Plates considering a Simplified Higher-Order Shear Deformation
Han, Seong Cheon ; Yoon, Seok Ho ; Chang, Suk Yoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 601~609
Bending and vibration results for a laminated plate base on a simplified higher-order plate theory with four variables are presented. Assuming a constant in-plane rotation tensor through the thickness in Reddy's higher-order shear deformation theory it is shown that a simpler higher-order theory can be obtained with the reduction of one variable without significant loss in the accuracy. This simple higher-order shear deformation theory is then used for predicting the natural frequencies and deflection of simply-supported laminated composite plates. The results obtained for antisymmetrical laminated composite plates compare favorably with third-order and first-order shear deformation theory. The information presented should be useful to composite-structure designers, to researchers seeking to obtain better correlation between theory and experiment and to numerical analysts in checking out their programs.
A Study on the Strength and Stiffness of the Concrete Filled Circular Tube Beam to Column Connections under the Gravity Loads
Lee, Myung Woo ; Choi, Sung Mo ; Kim, Dong Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 611~623
This paper provides the results of an experimental and analytical study performed on the beam to Concrete Filled Circular Steel Column connections with the external stiffener rings under the gravity loads. Specimens are modeled as a 1/4 scale of the beam-columns as gravity loads are applied to a multi-story frame. Important parameters in this study are the width of the external rings, the diameter-thickness ratios of column and whether or not the external rings are welded to the circular column. A total of 20 specimens are tested to clarify the structural behavior of the CFT column connections with the external stiffener rings. The test results are summarized for the yield and maximum strength and stiffness. The existing design equations for the allowable and yield load capacities are referred to verify the structural characteristics for the connections.
A Study of Seismic Resistant Design for Base-Isolated Bridges(I)
Lee, Sang Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 625~635
The base isolation technique and its benefits in reducing the transmitted earthquake energy into a structure have gained increasing recognition during the last two decades. Unfortunately, the current available design procedures, especially for base-isolated bridges, seem inadequate and too restrictive. As a result, practical design procedure still relies upon a series of deterministic time history analyses. In this study, the evaluation of the possibility of the normal mode method to predict the nonlinear seismic responses of base isolated bridges has been performed. The applicability has been examined through the numerical approach with isolator's elastic or plastic states of the base isolated bridges. Numerical results show that the 1st. mode period and the various responses are varied with the state but are conversed. And, the result show that the normal mode method is applicable to predict the seismic responses and to design the babe isolated bridge. Various analysis method to bridges with bilinearized hysteresis isolator and various pier heights are evalulated.
A Study of Seismic Resistant Design for Base-Isolated Bridges(II)
Lee, Sang Soo ; Yu, ChulSoo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 637~647
As stated in Part(I), the use of the isolator is meant to protect a structure from seismic risk, by concentrating the inelastic deformations to relatively cheap and replaceable devices while the rest of the structures remains elastic. This research has been carried out to investigate the effects of various structural parameters and isolator characteristics on the seismic response of Base Isolated Bridges. Simplified analysis method for practical design is developed by using the results. The Proposed Code-Type approach method can be used to estimate the inertial forces accurately, not only at the isolator but throughout the height of the Base-Isolated Bridges. The proposed method is recommended to use in preliminary design tool or even a final design tool for Base Isolated Bridges. For the validation of simplified design method, examples with artificial earthquake time history and design response spectrum for P.C Box Bridge with bilinear hysteretic steel damper are evaluated.
A Theoretical Study on the Characteristics of Fire Resistance for the Concrete Filled Tubular Steel Columns
Chung, Kyung Soo ; Choi, Sung Mo ; Kim, Dong Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 649~658
When steel tube as a column is filled with concrete, it is common that the load-bearing capacities of CFST(Concrete Filled Steel Tube) column are increased substantially, And the CFST column can obtain a capacity of fire resistance without any additional detail on the surface of the steel tube for fire protection. In order to clarify the behavior of CFST column during fire occurrence, a theoretical study is performed, that is, a thermal analysis is used to find temperature gradient dependent on the time on the steel tube and the infilled concrete. N-M (axial force-moment) interaction curves are summarized under the consideration for time dependent variation. The material properties of concrete and steel in accordance with a temperature variation are referred to the existing general data. Thermal transient analyses are performed by finite element method through ANSYS and then these results are verified by comparing with the existing test results. On the basis of analytical results, load-carrying capacities (N-M interaction curves) are calculated by numerical analysis method.
Temperature-Induced Stresses and Deformation in Composite Box Girder Bridges
Chang, Sung Pil ; Im, Chang Kyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 659~672
Thermal response induced from nonlinear temperature distribution in composite box gilder bridges depends on several variables(environmental conditions, physical and material properties, location and orientation of bridge, and cross-section geometry). In this paper, parametric study are conducted in order to find the effects of variations of seasons, location and orientation of bridge, sectional geometry and some material properties on the axial deformation, curvature and stresses in composite box girder bridge. A two-dimensional transient finite element model to conduct this parametric studies is briefly presented. Firstly, the effects of the parameters on the diurnal variation of curvature are considered, and for the time of maximum curvature, on the distribution of temperature and stresses of composite box girder sectional are considered. Finally, some considerations about the influence of the parameters on the daily maximum values of axial deformation, curvature and stresses are carried out. The influence of thermal effect on structures is important as much as the influence of live or dead load in some cases. In the design of steel composite bridges, the thermal stresses calculated on the supposition that the temperature difference between the concrete slab and steel girder is
and the temperature distributions are uniform in concrete slab and steel girder can be underestimated.
Effects of Rotatory Inertia and Shear Deformation on Natural Frequencies of Arches with Variable Curvature
Oh, Sang Jin ; Lee, Byoung Koo ; Lee, In Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 673~682
The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of rotatory inertia and shear deformation on the natural frequencies of arches with variable curvature. The differential equations are derived for the in-plane free vibration of linearly elastic arches of uniform stiffness and constant mass per unit length. The governing equations are solved numerically for parabolic, circular and elliptic geometries with hinged-hinged, hinged-clamped and clamped-clamped end constraints. For each cases, the four lowest frequency parameters are presented as functions of the two dimensionless system parameters; the arch rise to span length ratio, and the slenderness ratio.
Panel Zone Behavior of Steel Box Connections
Hwang, Won Sup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 683~695
This paper presents the shear behavior of panel zone in steel frame piers. The results of loading tests on twenty box connections and three types of analysis model are reported herein. It is indicate that the major cause of the reduction of strength and shear deformation capacity (ductility) is the sectional-area ratio and the shear buckling of panel zone. Based on the results, some new proposals are presented for the evalution of strength and ductility of panel zone. This paper is also discussed the ductility of connections by current design procedure.
A Study on the Experiment of Represtressed Preflexional Composite Beams
Chang, Dong Il ; Hwang, Yoon Kook ; Kim, Jung Ho ; Cho, Tae Jun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, volume 9, issue 4, 1997, Pages 697~705
The conventional preflex beams are designed by the method of paritial prestressing and allow the tensile stresses at the lower concrete of beams. As a consequence, most of preflex beams experience the tensile cracks under the service loads. This study was conducted to develop the most effective preflex beams, which do not allow tensile stress under the service load, by introducing additional prestressing called 'represtressing' at the lower concrete of beams. The objective of the study was accomplished by developing a computer analysis and design program and conducting experiments. Using the developed computer program, standard sections of the represtressed preflex beams were determined by computer modeling. In the experiment, two actual size of represtressed beams were tested under the imitated service loads. The results of test have shown that the performance of the represtressed preflex beams is generally excellent. A remarkable improvement was made in the design of preflex composite beams. Since the represtressed preflex beams(RPF) do not experience the tensile cracks under the service loads, the use of this beam for the bridge structures will lead to easy bridge maintenance and management. Furthermore, due to the low beam depth, high clearance and economical design can be realized in the bridge design using RPF.