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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Dec 1993
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Aug 1993
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Apr 1993
Selecting the target year
Middle School Student's Evidence Evaluation
Park, Jong-Won ; Chang, Byung-Gi ; Yoon, Hyeg-Young ; Pak, Sung-Jae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 13, issue 2, 1993, Pages 135~145
This study investigated student's prior conceptions and evidence evaluation about Light and shadow. One hundred twenty six students were given Explanation-after-choice type Questions to investigate student' prior conceptions and Choicd type Question to identify student's idea about scientific method and characteristics od observation. Forty-four of the 126 students were interviewed to explore student's evidence evaluation. Eighty students (63.5%) thought that the shape of material affected the shape of shadow but the shape of light source did not Only 58.8 precents of all responses were evidence-based responses. Characteristics of evidence affected student's evidence evaluation : student made evidence-based responsed to the accord evidence more frequently than discord evidence. Among evidence-based response to the discord evidence. 35.5% of responses were the case that student felt cognitive conflict or explored other variables by recognizing discord between his/her own ideas and evidence or distort the evidence. Student's idea about characteristics of observation did not affect the evidence evaluation, but student's idea about scientific method affected the evidence evaluation.
Inquiry Learning in the high School Biology: Status Survey and Problem Analysis
Chung, Kun-Sang ; Hur, Myung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 13, issue 2, 1993, Pages 146~151
This study analyzed the problem associated with inquiry centered science education and formulated some improvement Strategies for inquiry learning in the standard Korean high school course. In order to attain the goals of questionaire survey methods were used. To examine the current status of biology education, seperate questionaires were developed through an educational research and development procedure used for tearchers and student. The questionaires were developed to ask about instruction and evaluation methods, the level of inquiry learing and abstacles to it. Here are some of our results: 1) Biology instruction and learning is more knowledge-orinted than inquiry-orinted, 2) Inquiry approach in science teaching is hard to be applied because of crowed classroom conditions. 3) The material is too broad in range and too difficult in content. There is virtually nothing that can be related to everyday life. The material focusing on inquiry activities is unsatisfactorily selected and organized. 4) Effective methods of inquiry-based instruction and evaluation are not available. 5) Biology teachers are burdened with too many class hour a week and too many varieties of additional works. 6) 91.1% of biology teachers and 90.3% of students recognize that lab and field works are needed to enhance inquiry learning. However, in reality, such inquiry activities are lacking. 7) 73.3% of schools have no lab assistants. 8) The university entrance examination is the greatest factor against inquiry learning. 9) There are very few chances of in-service education for biology teachers to learn more about biology curriculum and science education theory.
The High School Students' Problem Solving Patterns and Their Features in Scientific Inquiry
Kim, Ik-Gyun ; Hwang, Yu-Jeong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 13, issue 2, 1993, Pages 152~162
The high school students' problem solving patterns and their features in scientific inquiry, especially on controlling variables and stating hypothesis have been investigated. The 8 problems on controlling variables and stating hypothesis were selected out of the scientific inquiry area in the experimental tryout of Aptitude Assessment for College Education, and had been used to find the patterns and their features. The results of findings are as follows: There were seven patterns in the process of solving problems. Five of seven patterns were found in right answers and four patterns in wrong answers. Two patterns were found in both right and wrong answers. Some students could solve the problems even though they did not understand the elements of the scientific inquiry, controlling variables and stating hypothesis. The false application of physics concepts, misunderstanding about the elements of the scientific inquiry and using unrelated experience and conjectures were the features of students' wrong answers. On the other hand, the right application of physics concepts, understanding and applying the elements right, infering answers from the tables and figures on statements of suggested problems were the features of right answers. The further studies on this kind may helpful to find the higher mental abilities related to scientific inquiry and to develop tools for testing students' scientific inquiry thinking skills.
Cognitive Preferences and Evaluation of Science Curriculum
Kwon, Huck-Soon ; Paik, Seoung-Hey ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 13, issue 2, 1993, Pages 163~171
The purpose of this study was to evaluation of science curriculum by the cognitive preference construct, the instrument of emotional domain. The effects of students' variables on the cognitive preference were also examined. Samples of 216 boys and 166 girls for this study were selected from the secondary school students. he data were analyzed by ANOVA, Pearson correlation, factor analysis, etc. The results of this study are as follows: (1) The students prefer the Principles of science than any other kind of cognitive preference. (2) Sex has influence on the tendency of students' cognitive preference among the studnets' variables. (3) It is not significantly different the tendency of student's cognitive preference according to IQ among the studnets' variables. (4) Most of the students avoid Critical Questions and Applications of cognitive preference in spite of the difference of sex, grade, and department of the students.
A Study on the Selection Criteria of Science Gifted Children
Ser, Hyung-Doo ; Chung, Wan-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 13, issue 2, 1993, Pages 172~186
This stady was carried out to define Gifted student for science, model for selection, the tools and methods and related theory for the selection of the Gifted students for the science in primary school level. Also the developed tools and materials are applied to student and analysed the results to generalize the methods for the selection of Gifted students for science. The definition of Gifted students for science was carried out by the three-ring conception model by Renzulli(1982) and Lee long-Sung which defined the characteristics as three parts such as above average ability, creativity and tesk comitment. The Gifted students for science upper 2 percent which have three characteristics at the same times, namely overlapping three characteristics. The model for the selection of Gifted students consist of four step; such as screeing, selection,differentiation, judgement. The materials for the selection are input at each stage, analysed the results and standard for the selection are made. In the first stage screening, 202 students are selected from the 5060 of 4th and 5th graders according to their achievment, intellecture ability and observation of students activity. In second selection and third differentiation stage, 65 students are seletted according to their achievement In this study it is approved that the Gifted students in science have to be selection by various test such as achievement, intellectual ability, aptitude in science, inquiry activity, manual skill etc, rather rather then simple test such as achievement and intellecture ability. Also it is important to select upper 2 percent who have general abilites overlapping three characteristics mentioned in definition of Gifted students in science and selections model
Analysis on Contents Of Public Science Magazines in Korea And Secondary School Students and Science Teachers' Viewpoints
Kim, Sung-Won ; Hur, Hee-Sun ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 13, issue 2, 1993, Pages 187~197
On the premise that it is effective and necessary to make use of science magazines among any other media, the desirable direction of science magazines and, further more and the merits of magazines to promote the development of good science magazines are suggested. To see the present status of science magazines in Korea, we analyzed the public view on the science magazines by secondary school students and science teachers. We also assorted and analyzed the contents through the subjects of the issues of three major magazines published in 1991. Through the interview with the editor staffs of each magazine, the characteristics of each magazine and the editers' hopes to present the direction in the future were analyzed. As a result, the basic conditions which science magazines should equip and the required conditions to apply the basic conditions to make them better were suggested.
A Study on the Curriculum of the Common Science subject - the background for newly formed subject and the focus of the side of integrated science -
Lee, Kyu-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 13, issue 2, 1993, Pages 198~209
This paper was made for the purpose of research for newly formed of Common Science subject and setting up for Common Science subject's place. For this purpose, I 1) reviewed the bacground of curriculum revision and newly formed Common Science subject. 2)reviewed the change of the current of science education and the study of Common Science subject in Korea. 3) examined Common Science subject as integrated science The results were as follow: l.Newly formed of Common Science subject motivated by current of science education in the wordwide, direction of the 6th curriculum in Korea and the actual condition of integrated science in foreign country. 2.1t emphasize on learning of inquiry method than system of knowlege,introduction to material connected with real life and science and technology in society in the Common Science subject. In principle,the level of concept in Common Science subject keep within level of Science subject in middle school. 3.Common Science subject is characterized by integrated science. And Common Science subject have to become more integrated science in the textbook and the teaching-learning as well as in curriculum.
The Opportunity to Learn About Korean Natural Environment in Schools
Kim, Chan-Jong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 13, issue 2, 1993, Pages 210~218
Scientific literacy for all became a new goal and introducing STS issues into science curriculum shows new trends in science education. The educational importance of natural environment of a region is increasing because it can serve as a vehicle to meet the new goal and trends of science education. The opportunity to learn about Korean natural environment in schools was investigated. The characteristics and unique patterns of Korean natural environment are not well reflected in the intended curriculum. School teachers mostly believe that education of Korean natural environment will greatly contribute to the students' learning of the subject matter they teach and environmental problems. However, they have limited opportunity to teach Korean natural environment. Various elective courses dealing with our natural environment should be provided in schools, especially for non-science majors. Out-of-school activities and facilities for Korean natural environment should be made available.
A Study on the College Science Students' and Science Teachers' Understaning of Chromosome Behavior
Cho, Jung-Il ; Kim, Kyoung-Joo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 13, issue 2, 1993, Pages 219~229
The purpose of this study is to investigate college science students' and science teachers' understanding of chromosomal behavior in the context of cell division. The research problems were as follows: 1. What is the level of college science students' understandings of chromosomal behaviors? 2. What is the level of science teachers' understandings of chromosomal behaviors? 3. What is the level of understanding by grade and major area? The sample consisted of 28 sophomore, 17 junior and 23 senior biology students; and 23 middle school science teachers and 14 high school biology teachers. The instrument of the study was a short answer required paper and pencil test. The results of the study were as follows: 1) About 15 percent of the sample could not count the number of chromosome in a cell in appropriate. 2) Seventy percent of the students, and 80 percent of the teachers identified homologous chromosomes as ones with the similar shape and size, and 30 percent of the whole sample could not pair two homologous chromosomes. 3) About 70 percent of the students and 30 percent of the teachers could not mark corresponding allele on chromosome. 4) Biology major students showed higher understanding of overall chromosomal behaviors than non Biology students. Based upon the results, some implications were made. The major one was a development of a teaching model in which students can improve the ability to connect chromosome theory to mendelian genetics.
The Effect of Computer Assisted Science Instruction on Children's Preconceptions about Computer
Woo, Jeong-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 13, issue 2, 1993, Pages 230~246
The purpose of this study was to investigate the computer-naive children's preconceptions of computer concept, anxieties for computer, the changes in preconceptions and anxieties by computer literacy teaching, and the effect of CASI(Computer Assisted Science Instruction) on the science achievement. For this study, 42 5th graders were sampled. They were divided into two groups, experimental group(male:10, female:11) and control group(male:12, female:9). Each group was randomly assigned in the elementary school. Preconceptions about computer were examined by individual interview. Computer anxiety score was measured by questionaires. The questionaires developed in this study consisted of total 21 items measured by Chronbach
(0.93) and Total Item Correlationtp(p=0.01, r =
). Computer literacy curriculum based on children's preconceptions was developed and then was treated for experimental group as a computer literacy course. Preconceptions of computer, computer anxiety, and CASI achievements were compared between experimental group and control group in pre and post test. The results of this study are as follows; 1) children's preconceptions of computer showed various non-scientific concepts as animism and obvious visiual thinking. 2) children's misconceptions and anxieties about computer did not show significant differences in terms of learning experience of computer. 3) computer literacy had an effect on eliminating children's misconception about computer. 4) computer literacy had an effect on diminishing children's computer anxiety. 5) children's misconceptions and anxieties about computer showed significant inter-correlation. 6) children's misconceptions and anxieties about computer were appeared negative effect on CASI achievements. As the results, children's misconception and anxieties about computer had an effect on CASI acheivements. Therefore before performing CASI, more systematic computer literacy might be taught in formal education.
An analysis of contents and problems on astronomical area in the elementary science textbooks
Lim, Cheong-Hwan ; Jeong, Jin-Woo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 13, issue 2, 1993, Pages 247~256
The purpose of this study is to analyze the contents and problems on astronomical areas in the elementary science textbooks. The results of analysis are as follows; 1. In objective analysis of the elementary science textbooks, completeness of unit was shown 50% in chapters, 67% in sections. and 100% in periods. 2. In inquiry activities, the total number of inquiry tasks are 108, among them observation has much more percentage(30%) than any other task. 3. The total inquiry index of the science textbooks are found about 73.4, this index is higher than 35-50 of NSTA. 4. The openness scale of the science textbooks is found to be scale 2 for all sections.
The Differences In Knowledges Activated inLaboratory and Earth Environmental Contexts
Lee, Myeong-Je ; Kim, Chan-Jong ; Choe, Seung-Eon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 13, issue 2, 1993, Pages 257~271
Four science concepts were selected from high school earth science textbook to investigate the differences in students knowledges activated in laboratory and earth environmemtal contexts. Two items, one is for laboratory and the other for earth environmental contexts, were develped for each selected concept. Students' responses were analyzed in terms of 'Common Activated Knowledges' (CAK), 'Specific Activated Knowledges'(SAK) across students' cognitive frames, grades and sexes. As contextual differences of the problems increased, gender contributed more than other variables to the frequencies of activating CAK and SAK. Context effects were also reported across cognitive frames for CAK, but SAK became more avtivated when the contextual differences of the items become smaller. As a whole, students with laboratory cognitive frames showed more significant context effects than others. Students in 11th grade, with scientific frames and with earth science cognitive frames showed relatively small context effects. The results of the study showed that sciene concepts learned in a laboratory context are not usually transferred spontaneously to earth environmental contexts. Special instructional strategies should developed to overcome the context effects.
Development of an instrument to assess middle school students' attitude toward environmental pollution
Jeong, Eun-Young ; Kim, Young-Soc ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 13, issue 2, 1993, Pages 272~281
The purpose of this study was. to develop a valid and reliable Likert-type scale to assess middle school students' attitude toward environmental pollution. The evaluation categories of this instrument were cognition and conaction levels. Initially, 42 statements (29 statements for cognition level and 13 statements for conaction level) were framed. This pilot instrument was administered to 1015 middle school students. To select valid and reliable statements, the 42 initial statements were analyzed by item mean, standard deviation, and response distribution. In addition, the emotional intensity: of each statement was judged. As a result, 22 final statements (14 statements for cognition level and 8 statements for conaction level) were developed. Cronbach alpha coefficient of the instrument was 0.76 with a range of item-total correlation from 0.229 to 0.488. Factor analysis was done to explore the potential constructs of this instrument. As a result, six factors were extracted. Those factors were identified as "Conaction to prevent environmental pollution", "Confrontation with the enterprise which causes environmental pollution", "Voluntary inclination to participate in the group which prevents environmental pollution", "Discussion on environmental pollution", "Environmental pollution and interests", and "Everyday sources of environmental pollution".
A Survey of Current Status on the Science Education of the Special Classroom(School) managed by Firm
Chung, Won-Woo ; Yoh, Sao-Dong ; Park, Jong-Hwan ; Kim, En-Kyung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 13, issue 2, 1993, Pages 282~295
This study was accomplished to survey of current situation and management of science education in the special classroom(school) managed by firm. The status of management and the evalution of the scientific inquiry ability were taken on workers attending 17 Special Classes and 9 Special Schools located in Taegu City and Kyungpuk Province. As a responses, most students chose the subject "Science"as an option within their limited 8 units credits. About 88.5% of the students were female. About 78.3% of the classes/schools were conducted in the evening only. About 59.4% of teaching staffs were prevailed with female in these classes, and most of them were young, naive, and unexperienced with their major in chemistry and physics. Insufficient facilities and equipments, crowded classes, understaffed instructors, and inappropriated text materials. etc., were reasons for the students not receiving maximum benefit from these classes and schools. In order to evaluate of scientific inquiry ability, 25 items were constructed and administered to 250 students. The processes of scientific inquiry were classified into 5 categories(category I : establishing a subjects, category II : planning a experiments, category III : conducting a experiments. category IV : interpreting a result of experiments, category V : formulating generalization). As the result obtained from the achivement test analysis, the scores for all the students were significantly low, and the scores for girls were higher than those for boys. The results of test in the selected students showed that inquiry abilities in the category I, II and V were higher than those in category III and IV.
An Analysis on the Relationship between Cognitive Levels and Science Inquiry Skills in High School Students
Woo, Jong-Ok ; Kim, Jong-Eal ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 13, issue 2, 1993, Pages 296~307
The purpose of this study was to identify concretely how to improve inquiry learning. To put the purpose in detail : 1) to define the inquiry skills 2) to select the factors of inquiry skills appropriate to the content of Science I (earth science) textbook 3) to develop items which consist of experimental inquiry and concept inquiry in due proportion, to evalute inquiry skills 4) to analyze the relationship between high school students' cognitive levels and the achievement of science inquiry skills. To achieve these objectives, the investigator sampled 558 students in eleventh grade, living in Seoul, Chung-Ju and Kwang-Ju, and evaluated their cognitive levels and the achievement of science inquiry skills. The results of this study showed that the cognitive levels of students were lower than those identified in Piaget's work and that the achievement of science inquiry skills were low also. It may be thought that one of most important reasons to bring about those results is lacking in adaptation capability of science inquiry items and inquiry learning. So, it can be recommended as a way to heighten cognitive levels to make inquiry learning using the textbook content. In conclusion, the investigator make suggestions as follows : 1) to give inquiry learning which consist of experimental inquiry and concept inquiry in due proportion 2) to develop inquiry items to include content for evaluating inquiry learning, and test items for psycho-motor areas 3) to publish textbooks which motivate students' inquiry activities and develop their creative thinking, considering students' cognitive levels and inquiry skills.