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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Dec 1995
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Sep 1995
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jun 1995
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Mar 1995
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Teaching/Learning Strategies and Materials for the Enhancement of Scientific Inquiry Skills of High School Students : Part II, Instructional Materials
Cho, Hee-Hyung ; Lee, Moon-Won ; Cho, Young-Sin ; Jee, Chan-Soo ; Kang, Soon-Hee ; Park, Jong-Yoon ; Hur, Myung ; Kim, Chan-Jong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 133~148
This study has been performed in order to achieve three objectives. They are as follows: To analyze, based on the research literatures, the nature of scientific inquiry ability and the characteristics of its constitutive elements. To identify inquiry skills and techniques essential to such areas as physics, chemistry, biology. and earth science. To develop instructional models and materials for enhancing inquiry ability on the part of high school students. It was found in the study that the scientific inquiry was interpreted in terms of different meanings according to the viewpoint of the person who are interested in the nature of science. The scientific inquiry has been viewed as the process of knowledge formation, scientific method, inquiry process or process skills depending on the epistemological, methodological, educational perspectives, respectively. It was also identified that certain kind of skills or techniques would be used for inquiry in only one specific area of the science. This study drew a conclusion based on the findings that the skills and techniques will effectively be learned when those are taught with specific knowledge in each area of the science. Reported in this paper are the materials developed, for fostering scienctific inquiry skills on the part of the high school students. The materials were developed, using two themes of a theoretical-abstract chemistry topic and a conceptual-concrete biology topic. Those materals were designed for an experiment and an observation, respectively.
The Evaluation of Research Contest in Science Education in 1993
Kim, Ik-Gyun ; Hur, Myung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 149~157
The questionnaires were sent to 49 participators of Research Contest in Science Education(RCSE) in 1993. Seventeen participators responded to the questionnaire about RCSE consists of 19 questions and have seven categories such as announcement, process and result, selection of topics and research methods, writing paper, meaning of the contest and planning and processing. The results are as follows : 1) Many participators aware the contest before two to four weeks from the beginning of contest from not only official note but also pamphlet or mass media. 2) Participators require to announce the results of contest to all the participators and to increase awards according to the majors and levels. Most of participators agree to give study points to the awards. 3) Some responders prefer to select the topics from the two types, free topics and assignable topics and the others prefer assignable topics. 4) Most of responders perceive the RCSE contributes to improving school science education, encouraging science teacher's research and developing science educations.
Analysis of Elementary Science Area in Southern Arizona Science Engineering Fair
Kim, Hyo-Nam ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 158~163
The 40th Annual Southern Arizona Regional Science and Engineering Fair was analyzed in terms of contents of exhibits and research methods. Elementary school students like to choose first, biology; secondly. physics; thirdly, chemistry; fourthly. consumer science; fifthly, S.T.S; sixthly. earth science area topics. Chemistry area topics are 20 %, which are much more than rates appeared in American elementary science textbooks. Elementary school students like topics such as pollutions, energy saving materials and characteristics/selection of products required in every-day life. In the most preferential area, biology, students do experiments or survey about plants growth, microbiology, learning/behavior of animals, health/exercise, which are reconcile with the analysis of American elementary science contents.
Effect of Using Computer Interface on Learning Speed Concept in the Korean Elementary School
Kim, Hyoung-Soo ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 164~172
In this study, the researcher tried to find out the effect of using a computer interface in teaching speed concept in the elementary school. The 4th and 5th pupils were sampled for this study. The school is located in a sub-urban agricultural area in Korea. In the study, the subjects were divided into two groups: experimental and comparison group. From the pretest, two groups did not show any difference in the understanding of speed concept. The computer interface and the programs to operate the interface and data analysis were developed by researcher. The interface is a modular type and designed ready to connect to microcomputer. The test items were consisted of (1) comparison of speed, (2) change of motion, (3) acceleration, and (4) deceleration. As the result, the researcher found the following results: 1. In case of speed comparison, no significant difference was found between experimental and comparison group. 2. In case of change of motion, acceleration, and deceleration, the experimental groups showed higher achievement both in 4th grade and 5th grade. However, the 4th graders showed more learning than the 5th graders. In conclusion, this study showed that the use of computer interface seemed to be very effective in teaching and learning speed concept in elementary school.
Critical Analyses of '2nd Science Inquiry Experiment Contest'
Paik, Seoung-Hey ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 173~184
The purpose of this study was to analyse the problems of 'Science Inquiry Experiment Contest(SIEC)' which was one of 8 programs of 'The 2nd Student Science Inquiry Olympic Meet(SSIOM)'. The results and conclusions of this study were as follows: 1. It needs to reconsider the role of practical work within science experiment because practical work skills form one of the mainstays in current science. But the assessment of students' laboratory skills in the contest was made little account of. It is necessary to remind of what it means to be 'good at science'. There are two aspects: knowing and doing. Both are important and, in certain respects, quite distinct. Doing science is more of a craft activity, relying more on craft skill and tacit knowledge than on the conscious application of explicit knowledge. Doing science is also divided into two aspects, 'process' and 'skill' by many science educators. 2. The report's and checklist's assessment items were overlapped. Therefore it was suggested that the checklist assessment items were set limit to the students' acts which can't be found in reports. It is important to identify those activities which produce a permanent assessable product, and those which do not. Skills connected with recording and reporting are likely to produce permanent evidence which can be evaluated after the experiment. Those connected with manipulative skills involving processes are more ephemeral and need to be assessed as they occur. The division of student's experimental skills will contribute to the accurate assess of student's scientific inquiry experimental ability. 3. There was a wide difference among the scores of one participant recorded by three evaluators. This means that there was no concrete discussion among the evaluators before the contest. Despite the items of the checklists were set by preparers of the contest experiments, the concrete discussions before the contest were necessary because students' experimental acts were very diverse. There is a variety of scientific skills. So it is necessary to assess the performance of individual students in a range of skills. But the most of the difficulties in the assessment of skills arise from the interaction between measurement and the use. To overcome the difficulties, not only must the mark needed for each skill be recorded, something which all examination groups obviously need, but also a description of the work that the student did when the skill was assessed must also be given, and not all groups need this. Fuller details must also be available for the purposes of moderation. This is a requirement for all students that there must be provision for samples of any end-product or other tangible form of evidence of candidates' work to be submitted for inspection. This is rather important if one is to be as fair as possible to students because, not only can this work be made available to moderators if necessary, but also it can be used to help in arriving at common standards among several evaluators, and in ensuring consistent standards from one evaluator over the assessment period. This need arises because there are problems associated with assessing different students on the same skill in different activities. 4. Most of the students' reports were assessed intuitively by the evaluators despite the assessment items were established concretely by preparers of the experiment. This result means that the evaluators were new to grasp the essence of the established assessment items of the experiment report and that the students' assessment scores were short of objectivity. Lastly, there are suggestions from the results and the conclusions. The students' experimental acts which were difficult to observe because they occur in a flash and which can be easily imitated should be excluded from the assessment items. Evaluators are likely to miss the time to observe the acts, and the students who are assessed later have more opportunity to practise the skill which is being assessed. It is necessary to be aware of these problems and try to reduce their influence or remove them. The skills and processes analysis has made a very useful checklist for scientific inquiry experiment assessment. But in itself it is of little value. It must be seen alongside the other vital attributes needed in the making of a good scientist, the affective aspects of commitment and confidence, the personal insights which come both through formal and informal learning, and the tacit knowledge that comes through experience, both structured and acquired in play. These four aspects must be continually interacting, in a flexible and individualistic way, throughout the scientific education of students. An increasing ability to be good at science, to be good at doing investigational practical work, will be gained through continually, successively, but often unpredictably, developing more experience, developing more insights, developing more skills, and producing more confidence and commitment.
Psychological Approach on Common Core of Misconceptions by Pascual-Leone's neo Piagetian Theory.
Ahn, Soo-Young ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 185~193
The purpose of this article is to find out psychological mechanism on the core of misconceptions. Theoretical frame to search for the core of misconceptions is based on the Pascual-Leone's neo Piagetian theory. Although Pascual-Leone's theory is a cognitive developmental theory, its psychological mechanism gives us new insights on misconception. According to the comparison between Pascual-Leone's psychological mechanism and the common specifics of misconceptions and their items, conclusions could be summarized as follows: 1) Children's misconceptions and LC learning structures have the same nature. 2) Structures in items of misconceptions and misleading factor structures in cognitive tasks affect mental process with the same mechanism. 3) LC learning structures was activated preferentially in knowledge structures by F operator, with the same activation mechanism, the process children's misconceptions was activated firstly among other conceptions could be explained.
A Study on Attitudes Related to the Science of Elementary and Middle School Student
Lim, Cheong-Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 194~200
The purpose of this study is to investigate the attitudes related to the science of elementary and middle school students. The instrument used for measuring attitudes was developed by Korea National University of Education. 1488 students were sampled by stratified cluster sampling method. The major findings of this study are as follows. 1.Elementary school students have significantly higher attitude scores than middle school students. 2.The value of Pearson's correlation coefficient among the sub-categories of science attitudes was 0.3773 - 0.6336, which was significant at the 0.001 level. 3.There was no statistically significant difference between grade and sex in middle school students. 4.There was statistically significant difference between grade and sex in elementary school students.
Theoretical Analyses of Science Teaching Models
Kim, Han-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 201~212
The purpose of this study was to analyze science teaching models: Cognitive Conflict Teaching Model(CCTM), Generative Learning Model(GLM), Learning Cycle Model(LCM), Hypothesis-Testing Model(HTM), and Discovery Teaching Model(DTM). Using literature review, the models were analyzed and compared in several aspects; philosophical and psychological bases, primary goals and assumptions, syntax, implementation environments, and probable effects. The major finding were as follows; 1. Science teaching models had been diverse features. In the comparisons of science teaching models, some differences and similarities were founded. These were different in the degree of similarity and emphasis. 2. CCTM and GLM resemble each other in philosophical and psychological bases, primary goals and main assumptions, implementation environments, and probable effects. 3. LCM and HTM showed similarities in philosophical bases, syntax, and implementation environments. But differences were founded in other aspects These results showed that the diverse features of science teaching models should be considered in choosing a model for science teaching.
An Analysis of Chap. 'The Cell' of High School Biology Textbook by Concept Map
Kim, Mi-Ok ; Chung, Young-Lan ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 213~222
Analyzing textbook is the first step for enhancing the level of biology education especially in Korea. Prior studies of textbook analysis have mostly dealt with such topics as terminology analysis, content analysis, relationship analysis of chapters, and comparative studies. However, not much attention was paid to concept system to be learned and to relevance of concepts chosen. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to clarify the concept system and to elucidate the relationship among concepts for effective learning. Novak's concept map was utilized as a theoretical framework for the analysis of chapter I of high school biology textbook. Concept map has several distinctive merits in many aspects such as teaching, learning, and evaluation. It not only makes the understanding of key concepts and proposition a lot easier, but also helps to link prior knowledge and new concepts more effectively. This study will be a basic material for improving textbook for effective biology learning. The conclusions of the study are as follows: 1. Concepts in subchapters were arranged unsystematically or they were overlapping. For more effective understanding, those items should be rearranged. 2. Key concepts are not arrayed properly according to their hierarchy. Therefore, it was hard for students to set up concept structure. 3. The concepts emphasized by bold letters were not selected properly in accordance with their importance. Appropriate concepts should be chosen. 4. Key concepts should be explained by using examples in everyday life for easy understanding. 5. Many concepts in molecular biology is too abstract to grasp their meaning. Therefore, many audio-visual materials should be used to aid concept building.
THE EFFECT OF CONCEPT MAPPING STRATEGIES ON THE ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDE CHANGE IN SCIENCE LEARNING.
Lee, Jeong-Yi ; Hur, Myung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 223~232
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of concept mapping strategies on the learner's achievement and their attitude change in science learning. The subject was 159 male students in a middle school in Seoul. Three experimental groups were instructed with different kinds of teaching methods about the unit of photosynthesis and digestive organs. Group I was instructed with traditional teaching method, GroupII was instructed with guided concept mapping strategy, GroupIII was instructed with student-centered concept mapping strategy. The major findings of this study are as follows. 1. Student-centered concept mapping strategy was observed effective at 0.05 significance level in achievement and retention. 2. Only student-centered concept mapping strategy changed students' attitude toward science learning positively. 3. It was observed that there was very significant correlation between the learning ability and science achievement (p<0.01). 4. Student-centered concept mapping strategy was found effective in upper learning-ability group, and guided concept mapping strategy in middle learning-ability group(p < 0.05). 5. Student-centered concept mapping strategy was effective to the groups of upper and middle learning-ability in changing students' attitude toward science learning(p < 0.05).
A Study on the Teaching Effect Based on the Learning Hierarchy in the "Life Continuity"
Kim, Young-Shin ; Chung, Wan-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 15, issue 2, 1995, Pages 233~240
The purpose of the study is to certify the validity and effectiveness of the learning hierarchy and to define the effective teaching order in life continuity. To achieve this purpose, two experimental groups which were instructed varying the sequence of the instructional units. Teaching order based on the learning hierarchy was given to experimental group and descriptive order of current text was given to control group. The findings of the study are as follows: 1. Learning Hierarchy before learning had differ with order of the textbook, but hierarchy of both group has showed similar to the sequence of textbook, after learning. 2. The effect of learning hierarchy represented no significant different between control and experimental group.