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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 1996
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 1996
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 1996
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 1996
Selecting the target year
A Study of the Validating Evaluation of Science Curriculum Sequence and Instructional Effectiveness with the Application and Hierarchical Analysis of Science Conceptions
Jeong, Jin-Woo ; Cho, Seon-Hyeng ; Lim, Cheong-Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 1, 1996, Pages 1~12
The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological hierarchy structure of science concepts and to determine the effective teaching order by comparing the teaching effects of the psychological hierarchy order with those of teaching order of the current text in order to inquire validating evaluation framework of science curriculum sequence. Key concepts were selected by tasks analysis in the seven units of elementary and secondary school curriculum. Concept formation tests were developed to evaluate each concepts achievement,. The test items were made according to each of the concepts based on 12 prototype tasks developed by Frayer(1969). To identify the students' psychological hierarchy the test items were administrated to elementary and secondary school students. Ordering theory was used to identify the students' psychological hierarchy. Nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used in this study as an experimental design. Teaching with psychological hierarchy order was applied tp experimental group and teaching with concept order described in the current text was applied to control group. The major results of this study are as followings: 1. The students' psychological hierarchy structures are different from logical hierarchy structures. 2. The science teachers' psychological hierarchy structures are different from not only logical hierarchy structures but also students' psychological hierarchy structures. 3. The mean score of experimental group applied psychological hierarchy order is significantly higher(p<.05) than the control group in the concept achievement.
The Identification and Comparison of Science Teaching Models and Development of Appropriate Science Teaching Models by Types of Contents and Activities
Chung, Wan-Ho ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ; Choi, Byung-Soon ; Jeong, Jin-Woo ; Kim, Hyo-Nam ; Hur, Myung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 1, 1996, Pages 13~34
The purpose of this study is to develop appropriate science teaching models which can be applied effectively to relevant situations. Five science teaching models; cognitive conflict teaching models, generative teaching model, learning cycle teaching model, hypothesis verification teaching model and discovery teaching model, were identified from the existing models. The teaching models were modified and in primary and secondary students using a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Major findings of this study were as follows: 1. For teaching science concepts, three teaching models were found more effective; cognitive conflict teaching model, generative teaching model and discovery teaching model. 2. For teaching inquiry skills, two teaching models were found more effective; learning cycle teaching model and hypothesis verification teaching model. 3. For teaching scientific attitudes, two teaching models were found more effective; learning cycle teaching models and discovery teaching model. Each teaching model requires specific learning environment. It is strongly suggested that teachers should select a suitable teaching model carefully after evaluating the learning environment including teacher and student variables, learning objectives and curricular materials.
A Comparison of Elementary Science Teaching Materials in the United States and Korea
Kim, Hyo-Nam ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 1, 1996, Pages 35~40
Teaching materials are an important aspect to decide the quality of education. Science teaching materials include textbook, workbook, worksheet, OHP materials, posters, computer softwares, experimental equipments, slides, video tapes, and other audio-vidual materials. This comparing research is based on the contemporary teaching materials used in elementary schools of the United States and Korea in 1990s. The results of this study are : 1. The United States has more elementary science teaching materials such as posters, worksheets, computer softwares, OHP materials than Korea. Both countries developed elementary science textbooks, activity books, video tapes, science reading materials, and experimental equipments. 2. The frequancy of using these science teaching materials in Korea is bigger than that in the United States. In Korean elementary science classes, most of instructions are progressed by experimental activities. Korean elementary science textbooks are mostly consisted of science activities, but those of the United States includes science information, science related jobs, STS articles and some portion of science activities. 3. Experimental equipments of the United States are stronger than those of Korea. Various and excellent elementary science teaching materials such as computer softwares, posters, audio-vidual materials, and experimental equipments should be developed and used in elementary science classes for better elementary science education.
A Study on the Systems Model of the Science Education
Youn, Sun-Jin ; Woo, Jong-Ok ; Kim, Beom-Ki ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 1, 1996, Pages 41~50
The purpose of this study is to examine closely the flow process of science education phenomena for the political direction and improvement of science education. Therefore the science education system is analyzed in a view of the legislative system. The results are as follows: 1. The science education system is divided into the plan system, do system and see system by the criteria of plan do see that is the general process of human activity and the area is established as the field of science education administration, school science education, and science education evaluation. 2. The system model that the system characteristics and interrelationship between the systems are conceivable is suggested as the conceptions of boundary, components, variables, parameters, linkage and mishap, gatekeeper etc.
The Development and Analysis of a Test for Assessment of Physics Inquiry Experiment.
Kim, Mi-Kyung ; Oh, Hee-Gyun ; Park, Jong-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 1, 1996, Pages 51~60
The purpose of this study is to develope and analyze a test for the assessment of physics inquiry experiment. To do this, three experiments about 'analysis of motion', 'the relation of force and acceleration', and 'free fall motion' in high school physics textbooks were chosen, and 5 scientific inquiry domains and 16 science process skills have been specified. For each experiments, test sheet of
questions for assessing students' ability about physics inquiry experiment were developed on the basis of the scientific inquiry processes developed earlier. After instruction about 3 experiments mentioned above, a test was administered to the students who took experiment. After the adminstration of a test, the ratio of correct answers, discrimination index, and reliability were analyzed. Using the ratio of correct answers, we can determine item difficulty. Through the D.I(discrimination index), we can find which items can discriminate the students who took experiment well from those who took experiment badly, and we can also find the stability of a test result by the reliability analysis. The test developed in this study were also administered to the students who did not take experiments, and the results were compared with the those of the students who took experiments. With the comparison by chi-square method, we could find which items can discriminate the students who took experiments from those who did not take experiments.
High School Students' Understanding of Astronomical Concepts Using the Role-playing and Discussion in Small Groups
Jung, Nam-Sik ; Woo, Jong-Ok ; Jeong, Jin-Woo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 1, 1996, Pages 61~76
The purpose of this study was to apply the instructional strategies for conceptual change prescribed by Posner et al(1982) to the astronomic content domain taught in the elementary and middle school and to analyze the characteristics of students' knowledge revealed in the test before, during and after the instruction. Also, it was to investigate the intercorrelation of cognitive levels, spatial ability and science achievement. The major findings of this study are as follows: 1. Students had a great variety of misconceptions related to the motion of the moon before the instruction, that is, the phases, the names of phases and the cause of changing phases by the moon's orbit about the earth, the moon's appearance and location at the given time, the relative positions of earth, moon and sun during a lunar eclipse, the cause that a full moon is not at the line of node once a month. In the analysis of students' responses concerning the cause of changing phases of the moon and a lunar eclipse, the results indicate that the great majority of students had rote learning rather than meaningful learning in the middle school. 2. Students' reponses during the instruction concerning the changing phases of the moon and the predictive knowledge about the motions of the earth and the moon were analyzed. 1) According to the results of the test given before and after experiment, after discussion, achievement score of the whole of subjects and groups in both preformal and formal cognitive levels appeared to increase linearly. 2) There was no statistically significant differences of achievement scores before and after experiment, after discussion between preformal group and formal group in cognitive levels. 3. Distribution of achievement scores according to the whole of subjects and groups in preformal and formal cognitive levels shows that there was a statistically significant difference between pretest and posttest. 4. Types of conceptual changes concerning the cause of changing phases of the moon that occurred from pretest to posttest were classified as accommodation, incomplete accommodation, assimilation, no change and no model. Six of the seven students starting instruction with alternative frameworks didn't sustain those alternative models throughout instruction. Five of these six students accommodated completely and the last one partially. Seventy-nine percentage of students taking instruction with fragmental models assimilated correct propositions at the end of the instruction. These results suggest that conceptual change model prescribed by Posner et al(1982) has promised the meaningful learning to students taking with fragmental models, especially in cases where students with misconception enter instruction. 5. High correlation between achievement score of simple-recall items and that of written items in pretest and posttest indicates that the higher students got the score in simple-recall items the better they also performed in written items. However, there was no statistically significant differences among cognitive levels, spatial ability and science achievement in the whole of subjects and groups according to the cognitive levels.
An Analysis of the Studies on Scienctific Concepts and Instructional Models
Cho, Hee-Hyung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 1, 1996, Pages 77~86
The purpose of this study was to review the studies related to concept learning forcusing on the meanings, kinds, and characteristics of concepts. Then the characteristics of the concepts were analyzed in the three positions: metaphysics, epistemology, and psychology. It was identified that the word 'concept' were confused with the other words such as conception, construct, idea, notion, identity. It was also found that researchers defined the concepts by the use of various meanings. The instructional strategies for scientific concepts were also analyzed in this study. The study found that the instructional strategies for concept learning were developed according to the views about the nature of concepts. Described on the paper are three types of instructional models for science concepts suggested by constructivists as follows: concept formation, concept differentiation, and exchange. They developed the models based on the current research on the misconceptions of major scientific concepts.
An Analysis of Secondary School Students' Responses to the Deductive Reasoning Task for Change of Their Conceptions about Force and Motion
Suh, Jung-Ah ; Pak, Sung-Jae ; Park, Jong-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 1, 1996, Pages 87~96
In this study, students' performances on the reasoning tasks dealing with physical situations were analyzed. Through these analysis, the influences of students' preconceptions and logical abilities in reasoning process were described. For this study, 97 high school students were randomly selected. Among them, the number of the students who changed their misconceptions is 62% for the first task(force acting on the upward moving body), and 25% for the second task(force acting on the body when it is on the top of its motion). The students who show the premise-based response changed their conceptions in both of the tasks are more than those who responded in the idea based responses. The index of the influence of prior knowledge,
is 33% for the first task, and 67% for the second task, and
is 41% for the first task, and 17% for the second task. When students performed the reasoning tasks about force and motion, the misconcepts frequently influenced their performances. But for the first task, the precentage of students who changed their concepts is about 62%. It shows the possibility that if the task is simple and appropriate, students can change their concepts.
Effects of Affective Participation and Feedback in Environmental Unit Achievement
Park, Jin-Hee ; Chang, Nam-Kee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 1, 1996, Pages 97~102
Attitude is considered one of the most important influences on behavior and is defined as an enduring positive or negative feeling about some person, object or issues. The teaching strategies for affective domain are needed to develop the positive attiudes about environments. One of them is to faciliate the involvement of emotional feedback. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of emotional feedback. Cognitional feedback was carried to control group but cognitional and emotional feedback were carried concurrently to experimental group. By the results, post test scores of experimental group were significantly higher than those of control group about four goals of Environmental Education, respectively. Therefore this strategy is effective to achieve goals of affective domain. Also, emotional feedback is important factor to raise the achievement of cognitive domain, too.
The Ways to Improve the Training, Employment and Retraining of Science Teachers
Lee, Hac-Dong ; Son, Yeon-A ; No, Kyung-Im ; Song, Jin-Woong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 1, 1996, Pages 103~120
In this study, the ways to improve the processes of training, employing and retraining secondary science teachers were investigated by a survey method. Particularly, the following five aspects of the processes were questioned to three major groups of people relevant to school science. A total of 384 responses (from 156 university teachers, 168 secondary science teachers and 64 student teachers) were analyzed through the frequency-analysis and crosstab-analysis of SPSS/
programme. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: (1) middle-school science teachers and high-school science teachers are needed to be trained separately in different systems, (2) the proportions of the faculty members majoring science education and science studies in the departments for science education are needed to be increased, (3) the proportions of the courses related to science education and general sciences in university curriculum are need to be increased, (4) the period of teaching practice in schools during university time should be increased up to five or six weeks, (5) the proportions of science education and general sciences in the examination for science teachers' employment should be increased and the examination should have more subjective type questions, and (6) the programmes for retraining science teachers should have more contents on science education which are directly relevant to school science.