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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 1996
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 1996
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 1996
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 1996
Selecting the target year
An Analysis on Education and Textbooks of Physics in North Korea
Minn, Young-Ki ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 329~339
We examined the science education system in North Korea from the elementary to the high schools. We also analyzed the physics textbooks used in North Korea and compared the results with the textbooks used in South Korea. We compared the goal and system of physics education, and the content, order of study, and volume of the textbooks. Physics education starts at the 4th year at the elementary school, and is taught through the whole school years in North Korea. The science process skills are regarded to be important and figures, tables, problem sets, experiments, and sample solutions are exclusively used in the textbooks. Electomagnetism occupies the largest portion in physics textbooks, but subjects related to the application of physics are more stressed. There are a few subjects which are included in the North Korean textbooks but not in the South Korean textbooks. We have compiled about 60 North Korean physics words which are different from the South Korean words used in the textbooks. Overall, there will be not much difficulty in integrating the physics education system and physics textbooks after the two Koreas are unified.
The Effects of Instructors' Characteristics on the Concept Change of Korean High-School Students.
Lim, Jung-Soo ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 340~350
Knowledge is composed through the interaction between the concept structure already held by students and their experience, and learning can be said to be the active process of solving the cognitive conflict caused by this interaction. Therefore, this study consists in showing the effective learning method and finding out the elements which the teacher has to own, through examining several forms of pre-conception or mis-conception of the inertia, the force-equilibrium, the action and reaction, the heat, and the electric current, and then finding out their solution and studying student's change in science concepts. For this study, the types of concept on the five above-mentioned materials which students have were examined through the concept-classifying question paper, and the classes to which the class mode for the change of concepts applied, were practised in each different classroom by each different instructor - a professor, a scientist, a teacher, and two students, respectively. And the effect of the teaching strategy based on these classes, and each different instructor' influence on the change of concept in students. were examined. The result of my study is as follows; 1. Students have various types of pre-conception which are different from science concept, and these types of pre-conception tend to last even after learning in class. 2. The thoughts on the correct science concept of the high school third-grade students who learned the physics in the traditional teaching method, and the second grade students who don't learn the physics yet, were nearly equal those of the second grade students by receiving the physics class through the cognitive conflict course were greatly changed especially that students showed the distinct change on mechanics and electric current. 3. Students didn't show the remarkable change of the science concept on the five materials in the four kinds of experimental classes by each different instructor but in the part of mechanics, there was the distinct change between the class by professor and those by the students. This was due to the difference of the authority and the attitude of the concept demonstrator. 1) The authority, the kind attitude, and the responsibility of the expert played an important role in the correct concept-formation of mechanics part - especially in the case of the mis-conception caused by the intuitive belief. 2) In the class by instructor with the democratic teaching method, the change of concept took place more easily, because in his class students could discuss the subject freely, so that they might experience the thought course to give them the confidence on the science concept.
Comparative Study on the Science Curriculum in Elementary School in Korea, Japan and China -With regard to the Earth Science-
Kwon, Chi-Soon ; Park, Buyng-Tae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 351~364
This study aimed at identifying the organization of contents, the level and scope, the time of study and experiment acivities in science text books by comparing and analizing the characteristics of the Elementary School Educational Curriculum in Korea, China and Japan. First, the objectives of science subject are focussed on understanding nature exactly, learning inquiry methods and developping scientific attitudes. This is very desirable in the lights of teaching students' characteristics. Second, three countries, Korea, China and japan treat the natural phenomena impartially in the formation of the contents of natural science. Especially, china threats scientic contents related to the real life themes importantly. Third, the number of concepts and pages of the natural science textbook are put in Korea. China and Japan in order. Time of study and the level scope of contents in natural science should be composed of desirable national situations. Forth, the time of experiment activities is put in Korea, Japan and china also in order.
Effects of Application Hypothesis Verification Learning Model in Biology Experiment Teaching
Kim, Kwang-Soo ; Chung, Wan-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 365~375
Improving of scientific inquiring ability is the major goal of current science curriculum, and the 6th science curriculum. But science educators consider that the existing textbooks and teaching manuals are insufficient to achieve this goal. For science teachers at teaching site to guide students efficiently in research work, development of teaching-learning programs is urgently demanded. Hypothesis Verification Learning Model(HVLM) was applied to classroom situation to improve ability of scientific inquiry in experiment teaching of middle school biology. The effects of the model were analyzed to suggest some approach method to reach the goal of science education in this study. The major results of this study are as following: 1. The students and teachers responded positively on this new learning model. an students were willing to participate in biology experiment and they said that to know what was unknown to them while exchanging ideas and opinions through the discussion, It was hard for teachers to instruct at the first time and it took much time for them to arrange materials ready, but it turned to be easier as time went on. 2. In science process skills, there was no significant difference statistically by new leaning model. Only the formulating a generalization or model showed significant difference statistically between the two groups. 3. For scientific attitude, experimental group did not show significant difference statistically between the two groups, but the experimental group showed statistically more significant positiveness in all areas afterwards than before. 4. In science achievement test, there was significantly higher than the control group. It is also analyzed that they remember the experiments in courses and results they planned and performed by themselves longer than these guided by teachers.
Summative Evaluation of 1993, 1994 Discussion Contest of Scientific Investigation
Kim, Eun-Sook ; Yoon, Hye-Gyoung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 376~388
The first and the second "Discussion Contest of Scientific Investigation" was evaluated in this study. This contest was a part of 'Korean Youth Science Festival' held in 1993 and 1994. The evaluation was based on the data collected from the middle school students of final teams, their teachers, a large number of middle school students and college students who were audience of the final competition. Questionnaires, interviews, reports of final teams, and video tape of final competition were used to collect data. The study focussed on three research questions. The first was about the preparation and the research process of students of final teams. The second was about the format and the proceeding of the Contest. The third was whether participating the Contest was useful experience for the students and the teachers of the final teams. The first area, the preparation and the research process of students, were investigated in three aspects. One was the level of cooperation, participation, support and the role of teachers. The second was the information search and experiment, and the third was the report writing. The students of the final teams from both years, had positive opinion about the cooperation, students' active involvement, and support from family and school. Students considered their teachers to be a guide or a counsellor, showing their level of active participation. On the other hand, the interview of 1993 participants showed that there were times that teachers took strong leading role. Therefore one can conclude that students took active roles most of the time while the room for improvement still exists. To search the information they need during the period of the preparation, student visited various places such as libraries, bookstores, universities, and research institutes. Their search was not limited to reading the books, although the books were primary source of information. Students also learned how to organize the information they found and considered leaning of organizing skill useful and fun. Variety of experiments was an important part of preparation and students had positive opinion about it. Understanding related theory was considered most difficult and important, while designing and building proper equipments was considered difficult but not important. This reflects the students' school experience where the equipments were all set in advance and students were asked to confirm the theories presented in the previous class hours. About the reports recording the research process, students recognize the importance and the necessity of the report but had difficulty in writing it. Their reports showed tendency to list everything they did without clear connection to the problem to be solved. Most of the reports did not record the references and some of them confused report writing with story telling. Therefore most of them need training in writing the reports. It is also desirable to describe the process of student learning when theory or mathematics that are beyond the level of middle school curriculum were used because it is part of their investigation. The second area of evaluation was about the format and the proceeding of the Contest, the problems given to students, and the process of student discussion. The format of the Contests, which consisted of four parts, presentation, refutation, debate and review, received good evaluation from students because it made students think more and gave more difficult time but was meaningful and helped to remember longer time according to students. On the other hand, students said the time given to each part of the contest was too short. The problems given to students were short and open ended to stimulate students' imagination and to offer various possible routes to the solution. This type of problem was very unfamiliar and gave a lot of difficulty to students. Student had positive opinion about the research process they experienced but did not recognize the fact that such a process was possible because of the oneness of the task. The level of the problems was rated as too difficult by teachers and college students but as appropriate by the middle school students in audience and participating students. This suggests that it is possible for student to convert the problems to be challengeable and intellectually satisfactory appropriate for their level of understanding even when the problems were difficult for middle school students. During the process of student discussion, a few problems were observed. Some problems were related to the technics of the discussion, such as inappropriate behavior for the role he/she was taking, mismatching answers to the questions. Some problems were related to thinking. For example, students thinking was off balanced toward deductive reasoning, and reasoning based on experimental data was weak. The last area of evaluation was the effect of the Contest. It was measured through the change of the attitude toward science and science classes, and willingness to attend the next Contest. According to the result of the questionnaire, no meaningful change in attitude was observed. However, through the interview several students were observed to have significant positive change in attitude while no student with negative change was observed. Most of the students participated in Contest said they would participate again or recommend their friend to participate. Most of the teachers agreed that the Contest should continue and they would recommend their colleagues or students to participate. As described above, the "Discussion Contest of Scientific Investigation", which was developed and tried as a new science contest, had positive response from participating students and teachers, and the audience. Two among the list of results especially demonstrated that the goal of the Contest, "active and cooperative science learning experience", was reached. One is the fact that students recognized the experience of cooperation, discussion, information search, variety of experiments to be fun and valuable. The other is the fact that the students recognized the format of the contest consisting of presentation, refutation, discussion and review, required more thinking and was challenging, but was more meaningful. Despite a few problems such as, unfamiliarity with the technics of discussion, weakness in inductive and/or experiment based reasoning, and difficulty in report writing, The Contest demonstrated the possibility of new science learning environment and science contest by offering the chance to challenge open tasks by utilizing student science knowledge and ability to inquire and to discuss rationally and critically with other students.
Comparison of Chemistry Problem Solving Behaviors In the Aspects of Cognitive Developmental Level of Student and Context of Problem
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Jean, Kyung-Moon ; Han, In-Ok ; Kim, Chang-Min ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 389~400
The purposes of this study were to analyze chemistry problem solving processes of middle school students and to compare their problem solving behaviors in the aspects of the cognitive developmental level of student, the success in problem solving, and the context of problem. Their failures in solving problems were also analyzed in the aspects of problem solving stage and prior knowledge. Forty-two students individually solved four problems regarding density and solubility using a think-aloud method. Students' responses were analyzed after intercoder agreement for analyzing problem-solving processes had been established to be 0.94. The results were as follows: 1. Most students solved chemistry problems following the stages of understanding, planning, and solving, while few exhibited the behaviors of the reviewing stage. There was also individual difference in the number of the stages repeated and their behaviors at each stage. 2. Most students were successful in understanding problems. However, unsuccessful and/or concrete-operational students had more difficulties in understanding problems than successful and/or formal-operational students, and students tended to have more difficulties in understanding problems in everyday contexts than in scientific contexts. 3. Successful and/or formal-operational students exhibited more behaviors of the planning stage than unsuccessful and/or concrete-operational students. Students showed more behaviors of the planning stage, but failed more at this stage, in everyday contexts than in scientific contexts. 4. Most students did not review their solutions. Successful and/or formal-operational students exhibited these behaviors more than unsuccessful and/or concrete-operational students. Students tended to exhibit the behaviors more in everyday contexts than in scientific contexts. 5. Many students failed to solve problems correctly due to the lack of prior knowledge and the inability to plan appropriately.
Gender Differences in Science Classroom Climate Perceived by Students in Mixed Classes
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Choi, Kyung-Moon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 401~409
In this study, the perceptions of science classroom climate were investigated for 360 elementary and middle school students in mixed classes. The instrument used was an adapted version of the Student Perception Questionnaire (SPQ), which consists of five elements-Participatory Climate, Personalized Interaction, Student Assertiveness, Positive Teacher, and Negative Teacher. The results indicated that the gender differences in the perceptions of the Participatory Climate and the Positive Teacher were not significant for middle school students. However, the differences were found to be significant in the perceptions of the Negative Teacher, the Personalized Interaction and the Student Assertiveness, which measure the climate for the individual student. On the other hand, elementary male and female students did not significantly differ in the perceptions of science classroom climate except one item on the Participatory Climate. Educational implications are discussed.
Relation among Students' Science-related Attitudes, Science Achievement, Science Process Skills, and Teachers' Attitudes
An, Gae-Won ; Chung, Young-Lan ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 410~416
The purpose of this study is to determine which variable is the best predictor of students' science-related attitudes. Three influential variables were tested : students' science achievement. students' science process skills, and teachers' attitudes toward science. This study has been made on the basis of questionnaire from 205 1st graders in 5 different middle schools in Seoul. The instruments used for measuring attitudes were TOSRA and the questionnaire developed by Sung-Jae Pak(1980). The instrument used for measuring science process skills was a standardized test developed by Youne-Woo Lee(1989). The results was analyzed by multiple-regression in the statistical packages SPSS/PC+. The major findings of this study are as follows. 1. The mean score of students' science-related attitudes was 66.8, and there was no significant difference according to gender of students and teachers(p> .05). 2. The mean score of students' science process skills was 61.1, and there was no significant difference according to gender of students and teachers(p> .05). 3. Students' science process skills was the best predictor of students' science-related attitudes among three variables(R=0.3102, p< .05). 4. The subjects were divided into 2 groups by students' science achievement. In the high score group, students' science achievement was the best predictor of students' science-related attitudes (R=0.3406, p<.05). And in the low score group, none of the variables was related to students' science-related attitudes (p> .05). 5. In students who has a male science teacher, students' science process skill was the best predictor of students' science-related attitudes (R=0.3220, p<.05). And in students who has a female science teacher, students' science achievement was the best predictor of students' science-related attitudes (R=0.3480, p<.05).
Elementary School Students' Conceptual Change on Electric Current by Drill and Practice Type CAI Program.
Kim, Young-Min ; Kim, Chan-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 417~428
The purposes of this study were to investigate what kinds of idea the children have after formal instruction in school, and to investigate what is the children's conceptual change on electric current after implementation of drill and practice type CAI program about electric circuit. The CAI program was developed by KEDI research project team the author of this article was joined. The subjects were 20 eleven yaers old(elementary fifth year) children sampled from a elementary school in Seoul, Korea. They had already learnt about electric circuits for two years before implementing this CAI program according to the formal science curriculum. The pretest were accomplished before implementing the CAI program, and posttest were accomplished a week after implementation of the CAI program. The results of this study are as follows: Even though they had studied electric circuits, only 5% of the students had scientific ideas before pretest, and even after drill and practice type CAI program only 30% of the students have changed their misconceptions into scientific conceptions.
The Effects of the ARCS Model for Learners' Achivement and Motivation in Highschool Earth Science
Park, Soo-Kyong ; Kim, Young-Han ; Kim, Sang-Dal ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 429~440
This study examined the effects of the ARCS model for science education and found a way of improving ARCS while finding any weaknesses. More specific research questions were as follows: 1) Does the ARCS model enhance the learners' achivement in highschool Earth Science significantly?; 2) Does the ARCS model enhance the learners' motivation in highschool Earth Science significantly?; 3) What are the weaknesses of the prescriptions of the ARCS model for designing a lesson, if any?; 4) How can the weaknesses of the prescriptions of the ARCS modeI be overcome? In order to fulfill the purpose of this study, the two major research methodologies were implemented: pretest-posttest control group design and formarive research. This study was conducted in two distinct phases: 1) designing a set of instructions for 4 weeks with the principles of the ARCS model (to find the weaknesses of the ARCS model) and 2) teaching the instructions and checking the effectiveness of the ARCS model by pretest and posttest with control and experimental groups(to find weaknesses of the underlying theory of the ARCS). After the experiment, each group took an achievement test and an attitude test on the given instruction and gathered data were analyzed with t-tests. Also, from each four classes 7
8 students were randomly sampled and individually interviewed about the instructional effectiveness and their preference on the instructions. The results of this study are summarized as follows: Significant differences between the control group and experimental group are seen in three components; Attention, relevance, and satisfaction. No significant differences are seen in the attitude of confidence. The weakness of the prescriptions of the ARCS model, are insufficient of strategy for 'confidence'. For overcoming the weaknesses of the prescriptions of the ARCS model, developmental type research is needed.
The Nature of 'Contexts' Involved in Science Learning and Instruction
Lee, Myeong-Je ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 441~450
Various contexts are involved in the processes of science learning and instruction. In the perspective that the results of science learning and instruction usually depend on the nature of learning task content and context, content effects or context effects have been researched up to now. But, the discrimination between them was very ambiguous. For the clarity of them, it was supposed that science content would be composed of decontextualized knowledges and contexts, which were respectively dichotomized in common and special ones among disciplines of science. Science learning and instruction was discussed in view of interactions between cognitive, learning task, and social-cultural contexts. Especially, it was emphasized that task contexts, as a bridging role among contexts should be constructed considering cognitive and social cultural contexts.
The Awareness of Secondary Teachers and Students toward Animal Dissection in Biology Class
Lee, Sun-Kyung ; Lee, Jae-Young ; Kim, In-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 451~460
The ethical issue is one of the most important themes in both science and environmental education. Especially related to the right of other species, animal dissection has been brought about two contradictory attitudes. In spring 1996, a survey was conducted to assess the status of animal dissection in secondary schools and the awareness of 94 biology teachers and 422 secondary students toward animal dissection. And the meaning of animal dissection in biology class was discussed in terms of environmental education. The findings were as follows: First, most of students(96.6%) had participated once or twice to animal dissection experiments(eg. fish, frog, shellfish, cuttlefish and chicken). And about half of teachers (57.4
64.9%) and some students(41.9%) felt ethical conflict in animal dissection. Second, many teachers(81.0%) and students(87.1%) thought that animal dissection was effective method to achieve the goal of biology education, but they needed more consideration on the respect for life in animal dissection experiment. Third, many teachers(88.3%) had students, who objected to animal dissection, participate obligatorily or passively. Fourth, teachers and students thought that audio-visual media such as video(teachers 63.5%, students 39.7%), computer simulations(teachers 31.7%, students 28.1%) and models(teachers 22.2%, students 24.1%) could be effective as alternatives. These findings suggest that animal dissection experiment, although it is needed to achieve the goal of biology education, requires careful consideration on the rights of animal and the respect for life, and alternatives for students who object to animal dissection in biology class.
Secondary Students' Attitudes toward Science-technology Related Issues in Korea
Kim, Heui-Baik ; Lee, Sun-Kyung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 461~469
The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes of secondary school students in Korea toward science-technology related issues. A questionnaire was designed in which students were confronted with personal, global, and philosophical levels of arguments, which were composed of three against and three in favor of each eight issues, i.e., use of antibiotics, family planning, transplant of organs, genetic engineering, use of microorganisms. exploitation of the sea, land reclamation from the sea, and nature reserves. Student was requested to rate each argument independently and to vote for or against each issue. It was shown that most of students voted in favor of using technologies except land reclamation from the sea, and that students having more learning experiences on each topic vote more favorably. It is thought that our science education might be effective in increasing awareness and appreciation of benifits of technology, but it is not as effective in developing ambivalence attitudes.
Analogical Reasoning and Transfer of Problem Solving Principle
Lee, Myung-Ja ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 470~476
The purpose of this study was to investigate how sample story problems should be presented to students to promote their transfer of a comprehensive solution principle to a story problem in a different domain. The variables of interest were example-problem condition, principle learning condition, and recall condition. One hundred and ninety six university students were asked to solve analogical story problems. Contrary to expectations, there were no significant differences between the one-solved-and-one -unsolved problem format and the two-solved-problem format. Also, subjects who were asked to derive a general solution principle did not received higher scores than subjects who were provided with one and subjects who were in the control group. However, the time interval between analog learning and transfer had effect on the subjects' solution of the target problem.
A Study on the Preferable Motivation Types in Science Learning of the Secondary School Students
Kim, Jung-Seok ; Kwon, Hye-Lyun ; Chang, Nam-Kee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 477~485
The purpose of this study was to identify the preferable motivation types in science-learning and to find out the relationship between these types and scientific achievement of students in the secondary school. The subjects of the study were the second grade 581 students sampled by random cluster sampling method in three middle schools and three high schools. Three motivation types in science learning were analyzed, and they were named to task-orientation, ego-orientation and work-avoidance. From our results, secondary school students preferred task-orientation and work-avoidance to ego-orientation. In the case of task-orientation, high school students, especially in male group, had much preferable tendency than that of middle school students (p<0.001). It is interpreted that, as the level of scientific content of texts or the cognitive level of students were higher, a preference for the motivation type was focused to the task-orientation, especially in male group. In the case of ego-orientation, the female group showed much preferable tendency than that of male group in middle school (p<0.05). However, the female group in high school students was not different from the other groups in this motivation type. In the case of work-avoidance, there were not only a significant difference between males and females in the middle school (p<0.001), but also difference between middle and high school students in female group (p<0.05). It showed that female group had much preferable tendency than that of male group, and this tendency was decreased to the higher grade students in secondary school. From the analysis of correlation between motivation types and scientific achievement, task-orientation and work-avoidance were correlated to the scientific achievement. Its results were interpreted that the scientific achievement could be accomplished by the external motivation stimulus as well as the scientific content of texts. The task-orientation were comparatively correlated to the intelligence quality. It means that the students having high intelligence quality showed much preferable for the task-orientation.
성년(成年)이 된 한국과학교육학회(韓國科學敎育學會)의 회고(回顧)와 전망(展望)
Park, Seung-Jae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 16, issue 4, 1996, Pages 486~490