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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 1997
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 1997
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 1997
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 1997
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Contextuality of the Science Education System
Youn, Sun-Jin ; Woo, Jong-Ok ; Kim, Beom-Ki ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 17, issue 3, 1997, Pages 229~237
Due mainly to the complexity of educational system, it is difficult to comprehend the phenomena and nature of the science education. Educators have developed various kinds of means and methods useful for easy understanding of the phenomena and nature. This study added another method supporting that the phenomena and nature of the science education should be understood in the context of educational system. System approach into thought is holistic and contextual in nature. It focuses on both the whole and its relevant parts, and is concerned with environmental context. By its definition, a system interact not only with another system but also with its environments. The purpose of this study was to answer such questions as "What is the science education?", or "What is the meaning of the science education?", "Why do we teach science?", "Why are we ought to teach science?", and "How do we know that those facts and methods are valid?" The results for the study are as follows: 1. Science education is the human behavior with the purpose to attain something through science and education. It is socio-cultural process, social and organizational activity into which the public deeply involved. The process and activity are usually undergirded upon the value of science education. 2. The science education system is analyzed in the light of the legislative institution. The system model that characterize of the system and the interrelationship among the systems is suggested in terms of the conceptions of boundary, components, variables, parameters and linkage, etc. Then, the science education system is divided into the plan-system, do-system and see-system by the use of the criterion of plan-do-see that is the general process of human activity. The study also identified that the system of science education is consisted of the aspects of science education administration, school science education, and science education evaluation. 3. As the frame of thought on the contextuality in the science education system, the contexts of meaning, organization, legislation and policy were presented, along with the main cognitive interest, the system, the orientation, and the premise of each context which were used to explain the reasons. The results of this study suggested a new approach into the comprehension of the educational phenomena in teaching science and the possibility of understanding science education as a whole.
Primary Students' Conceptions on Atmospheric Pressure
Chae, Dong-Hyun ; Baik, Eun-Mi ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 17, issue 3, 1997, Pages 239~249
Primary students' conceptions on the atmospheric pressure and its related concepts were investigated. Samples consisted of 41 5th grade and 43 6th grade primary school students. Two types of research methods were used: 1) the open-ended written questionnare;2) paper-pencil test. Naive theories on the atmospheric pressure and its related concepts were numerous. For example, 80% students thought that as we go higher into the atmosphere, the atmospheric pressure becomes greater. Also, 50% students thought that the hot air had greater the atmospheric pressure than the cold air. This study was also discussed the teaching strategies to overcome these naive theories on the atmospheric pressure and its related concepts.
The Instructional Influences of Cooperative Learning Strategies: Applying the STAD Model to High School Chemistry Course
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Cha, Jeong-Ho ; Lim, Hee-Jun ; Noh, Suk-Goo ; Kwon, Eun-Jue ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 17, issue 3, 1997, Pages 251~260
The instructional influences of cooperative learning strategies, which emphasize mutual interdependency of learners, group goal, and individual accountability, upon students' achievement, the attitude toward science instruction and the perception of learning environment were investigated. Before instruction, the prior knowledge test about atoms and molecules, the test of attitudes toward science instruction, and the perception questionnaire of learning environment were administered, and the grade in the previous mathematics course was obtained. These scores were used as covariates. Mid-term examination score was used as blocking variable. For instruction, three different strategies-traditional individual learning, small group learning, and cooperative learning-were used and teaching materials for the units of mole and stoichiometry were also prepared. After instruction, the researcher-made achievement test, the test of attitudes toward science instruction, and the perception questionnaire of learning environment were administered. The perception questionnaire of group activities was also administered to the two treatment groups. In the quantitative subtest, the scores of cooperative learning group and small group learning group were significantly higher than those of traditional individual learning group. However, the cooperative learning group's scores in the achievement test and the qualitative subtest were significantly higher than those of small group learning group and traditional individual learning group. The students in the cooperative learning group were found to have the most positive perception of learning environment but to have similar attitudes toward science instruction. No interaction between the treatment and the level of the previous achievement was found in any of the analyses. In the perception questionnaire of group activities, students in both small group learning group and cooperative learning group exhibited positive perception of group activities. However, students in the cooperative learning group tended to think that their activities were related with their group's success. Educational implications are discussed.
The Conceptions of Homeostasis, Classification of Animals and Plants, and Food Production in Plants of Students and The Teacher Factor as a Possible Source of Students' Misconception
Kim, Soo-Mi ; Chung, Young-Lan ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 17, issue 3, 1997, Pages 261~271
This study evaluates on students' understanding and misunderstanding of homeostasis, classification of animals and plants, and food production in plants, and analyzes the teacher factor as a possible source of students' misconception. A total number of 863 students and 47 biology teachers at the middle and high school were randomly selected. Students' conceptions and misconceptions were measured with concept evaluation statements (CES) which was translated into Korean by author. The CES was developed and validated by Simson and Marek (1988). Teacher's misconceptions were investigated the way in which teachers marked students' work. The supposed answer given to the teachers to mark was based on misconceptions held by students tested in concept evaluation statements. The results of this study are as follows : 1. 0% of 7th Grade students, 4.5% of 9th Grade students and 5.4% of 11th Grade students understood homeostasis. There was a significant difference at the level of students' understanding of homeostasis according to schools and gender(P<0.05). Many students had a tendency of understanding the conception of the homeostasis by experiences and unscientific use of everyday language rather than a scientific concept. 2. 0.4% of 7th Grade students, 3.1% of 9th Grade students and 2.9% of 11th Grade students understood classification of animals and plants. There was a significant difference at the level of students' understanding of classification of animals and plants according to schools and gender(P<0.05). Students classified animals and plants through personal experiences and observations instead of trying to classify through microscopic analysis of animals and plants cell. 3. 1.2% of 7th Grade students, 10.3% of 9th Grade students and 19.4% of 11th Grade students understood food production in plants. There was a significant difference at the level of students' understanding of food production in plants according to schools and gender(P<0.05). Students had a misconception that food production in plants was done by an absorption of nutrients from soil not by photosynthesis. 4. A large proportion of teachers surveyed in this study appear to have misconceptions about homeostasis (38.1%), classification of animals and plants (34.1%), food production in plants (40.4%). The male teachers had. more misconceptions than female teachers(P<0.05). However, they didn't show any significant differences according to schools and teaching experience(P<0.05). 5. According to the investigation of teachers' perception, 29.8% of the teachers acknowledged that they might be a cause for students' misconceptions. This study shows that 38.3% of teachers did not understand the analyzed biological concepts precisely. By comparing the data of students and teachers, it turned out that teachers participate in the students' misconceptions. And teachers themselves acknowledged that students' misconceptions could be caused by them. Therefore. teachers' right understanding of fundamental biological concepts should precede to students' biology education. New training programs for biology teachers seem to be urgent.
Review and Analysis of the Studies on Contexts in Science Education
Song, Jin-Woong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 17, issue 3, 1997, Pages 273~288
The purpose of this study was to review the studies related to the problem of context in science education. Firstly, studies on context and context effects in science education (and also those related in cognitive psychology) were summarized according to the topics concerning science learning, such as deductive reasoning and probabilistic judgement, controlling variables, scientific inquiry skills, memory and consistency of misconceptions, selecting cognitive strategies and problem solving, achievement and momentum effect, and interest, religion and culture. Secondly, the common problems appeared from the analysis of the studies were discussed, such as (1) how to define contexts?, (2) how to classify contexts?, (3) how to characterize the effects of contexts? and (4) how to explain the context effects? Finally, the implications of the analysis of the studies on the problem of context were discussed in terms of recent development of science education, such as misconception studies, STS science education and the application of the history of science to science teaching.
A Case Study on the Process of Practicum of Student Teachers Majoring in Physics Education
Yoon, Hye-Gyoung ; Shim, Jae-Gyu ; Pak, Sung-Jae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 17, issue 3, 1997, Pages 289~299
This study has been undertaken in the light of constructivist view of teacher education. Participant observation, unstructured interview and questionnaire were used to explore the process and the role of practicum in science teacher education. The subjects were 19 student teachers majoring in physics education; 8 had participated at boys junior high school, 11 at senior high school. The student teachers had very critical and negative perception on their school days' science lessons. They had expected to do 'better' in their practicum but there were only 3 to 5 opportunities of teaching under the umbrella of textbook. Explanation in the classroom and solving exercise problem were the main features of student teachers' lessons. Much of the lessons were similar when it is to same topic and the main reference for their lesson preparation was the textbook. The student teachers felt the design of teaching approach as the most difficult thing during their lesson preparation. They realized that teaching is harder than they thought and they should consider students' level and responses. Though they had become to have more positive perception on teaching job through their field experiences, their decision on job preference did not change. More than half did not want to be a teacher. The student teachers recognised the courses related with science education as the most useful to their teaching in practice among the program of college of education which they had taken. The experience of writing one lesson plan or teaching in front of their peers, designing a new demonstration equipment were recognised as valuable and helpful element of the courses. They proposed to reduce the amount of general education courses and to emphasize the courses relevant with science education and practicum. The limited opportunity of teaching in practicum was pointed out as problematic. Though the practicum was recognized as a 'good' experience to student teachers, it was confined by textbook and limited teaching opportunity. In conclusion, the practicum was not organized and implemented as a meaningful experience of science teaching and learning. There should be more structured studies on what kind of perceptions and experiences the student teachers had brought to the science teacher education program, how they interact with the elements of the program and how they affect to their science teaching. The structure and content of practicum also should be studied and developed so as to make practicum as a meaningful experience of science teaching and learning.
Construction of a Structural Equation Model on Attitudes to Science Using LISREL
Lee, Kyung-Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 17, issue 3, 1997, Pages 301~311
The purpose of this study is to construct a structural equation model and to analyze causal relationships among variables related to attitudes to science using structural equation modeling(SEM) with LISREL VII. The sample consisted of 483 10th grade boys from a general high school in Pusan, Korea. The questionnaires (ABC-attitude scale: affection, behavioral intention, cognition scale of attitude towards science) were developed by the researcher through a pilot study. And other instruments have modified previous ones. Five instruments were used in this study: GALT(group assessment of logical thinking), MTSlS(modified test of science inquiry skill), ABC-attitude scale, MSAS(modified scientific attitude scale), CSAT(common science achievement test). Structural equation modeling with LISREL VII(
1993) was employed to estimate the causal inferences about hypothesized relationships among observed data sets. Three competing models consisted of five latent variable(scientific thinking ability, science inquiry skill, attitude towards science, scientific attitude, science achievement) - lP(inquiry preceding) model, AP(attitude preceding) model and AM(attitude mediating) model - were developed. Among these competing models, IP model satisfied the observed data sets. The causal relationships among "attitudes to science" and other latent variables were reliably identified. According to the results of the present study, science inquiry skill was the most significant variable that can predict science achievement. But scientific thinking ability has not directly influenced science achievement. This study suggests that inquiry based teaching-learning processes should be offered to students for improvement of science achievement. At the same time, it seems to be important to develop positive attitude towards science. Understanding of relationships among variables related to attitudes to science will be helpful to the development of science curriculum and to the design of science teaching and learning process. LISREL has been recognized as a useful approach in testing a SEM. However, in this study, LISREL approach was estimated as much more useful method for research design.
The Instructional Effect of a Four-stage Problem Solving Approach Visually Emphasizing the Molecular Level of Matter upon Students' Conceptions and Problem Solving Ability
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Moon, Kyung-Moon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 17, issue 3, 1997, Pages 313~321
The purpose of this study was to investigate the instructional effect of a four-stage problem solving approach visually emphasizing the molecular level of matter upon students' conceptions and problem solving ability. On the basis of the research results regarding molecular representation in learning chemistry, problem-solving instruction, and the effect of visual materials, the instructional strategy was developed while considering Korean educational situations. The treatment and control groups (2 classes) were selected from a girls' high school in Seoul and taught about stoichiometry, gas, liquid, solid, and solution for 13 weeks. For the treatment group, 52 charts were supplied in order to emphasize the molecular level of matter and/or 4 stage problem solving strategy-understanding, planning, solving, and reviewing. For the control group, traditional instruction was used. Before the instructions, the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking and the Spatial Ability Test were administered, and their scores were used as covariate and blocking variable, respectively. After the instructions, students' conceptions and problem solving ability were measured by the Chemistry Conceptions Test (CCT) and the Chemistry Problem Solving Ability Test (CPSAT), respectively. The results indicated that the CCT scores of the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group. The students in the treatment group also exhibited less misconceptions than those in the control group. However, there was not significant difference for the CPSAT scores. No interaction with students' spatial ability was found for both students' conceptions and problem solving ability. Educational implications are discussed.
The Effect of an Instruction Using Analog Systematically in Middle School Science Class
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Kwon, Hyeok-Soon ; Lee, Seon-Uk ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 17, issue 3, 1997, Pages 323~332
In order to use analog more systematically in science class, an instructional model was designed on the basis of analogical reasoning processes (encoding, inference, mapping, application, and response) in the Sternberg's component process theory. The model has five phases (introducing target context, cue retrieval of analog context, mapping similarity and drawing target concept, application, and elaboration), and the instructional effects of using the model upon students' comprehension of science concepts and motivation level of learning were investigated. The treatment and control groups (1 class each) were selected from 8th-grade classes and taught about chemical change and chemical reaction for the period of 10 class hours. The treatment group was taught with the materials based on the model, while the control group was taught in traditional instruction without using analog. Before the instructions, modified versions of the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey and the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking were administered, and their scores were used as covariates for students' conceptions and motivational level of learning, respectively. Analogical reasoning ability test was also administered, and its score was used as a blocking variable. After the instructions, students' conceptions were measured by a researcher-made science conception test, and their motivational level of learning was measured by a modified version of the Instructional Materials Motivation Scale. The results indicated that the adjusted mean score of the conception test for the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group at .01 level of significance. No significant interaction between the instruction and the analogical reasoning ability was found. Although the motivational level of learning for the treatment group was higher than that for the control group, the difference was found to be statistically insignificant. Educational implications are discussed.
A Study of Science Teaching Models for Management Biological Misconceptions on High School Students
Chung, Wan-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 17, issue 3, 1997, Pages 333~343
The purpose of the present study was to investigate an appropriate instructional model in order to remedy students' misconception. As hypotheses of this study, three instructional models, cognitive conflicting, hypothesis testing, and learning cycle models, on biological 'osmosis' concept were tested in 176 high school students. Results of the present study are as follows: 1. All groups used one of three instructional models showed a statistically significant improvement in conceptual change on the 'osmosis' concept between before and after the instruction. In addition, the three hypothesized instructional models were more effective in conceptual change than a traditional expository instruction. 2. There was a statistically significant difference among three experimental groups. Cognitive conflicting model and hypothesis testing model was more effective than learning cycle models. 3. An interviewing after instruction showed that students who had scientific concept on the 'osmosis' through the instruction could effectively apply the concept to other context more than students who had no scientific concept through instruction. The present study indicated that instructional model play an important role on students' conceptual change in science classroom. According to the result of this study, the instruction emphasizing students' active participation in class and scientific reasoning process is more appropriate to remedy misconception that the instruction using students' passive participation in class and expository teaching procedure. This study also indicated that students' concept acquired through instruction is one of important factors to apply it to other context.