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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
Selecting the target year
The Role of Deductive Reasoning in Scientific Activities
Park, Jong-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1~17
What does mean the statement that scientific reasoning is logical? In this study, we clarify the logical structure of the scientific explanation, prediction and the process of hypothesis testing. To simplify and identify the structure of scientific explanations and prediction more clearly, we used syllogism and presented various concrete examples. Especially, we showed that the logical structure of scientific explanation was well reflected in dynamics. Based on this analysis, it can be said that the deficit of students' understanding of dynamics is because that many scientific activities are focused on prediction rather than explanation. To explain the process of hypothesis testing, we reinterpreted the Wason's selection task as two stages: the process of prediction of experimental phenomena based on the presented hypothesis, and the process of the hypothesis testing based on the predicted experimental phenomena. And we suggested the reason of the logical fallacy of 'affirming the consequent' in science was because that many scientific relationships between the variables is one-to-one relationship, and compared this suggestion with the Lawon's multiple hypothesis theory. To check out the effect of content on the deductive reasoning, we reviewed some researches about psychology and psychology of science. And to understand the role of deductive reasoning in student's scientific activities, we reviewed researches about the analysis of students' responses in the task of conceptual change or evaluation of evidence and so on.
International Comparison of Junior High School Science Textbooks
Park, Yune-Bae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 19~34
This study compared junior high school science textbooks(for grade
) of the USA, Australia, Japan, and Korea. Specifically, the amount and pattern of knowledge, process skills, activities, contexts, nature of science, and integration topics were compared in terms of country, grade, and content. The results of analysis are as follow: 1) Physics, chemistry, biology, and earth science were equally distributed in textbooks of Korea and Japan. In Korean textbooks, "law" was more emphasized compared with other countries' textbooks. 2) The most popular process skills were proportion and controlling variables in Korea's textbooks. Correlation, cause/effect, and proportion in Japan's textbooks. Controlling variables and data transformation in textbooks of USA and Australia. 3) Experiment and observation were the most popular activities in textbooks of Korea, Japan, and Australia. In textbooks of the USA, observation, experiment, survey, practice, and measurement activities were used evenly. 4) In textbooks of Korea and Japan, pure science and natural environment contexts were the most popular. 5) There was no chapter dealing with nature of science in textbooks of Korea and Japan. 6) Integration topics between science and technology were the most popular. Based on these findings, several implications on Korean science textbooks were discussed.
The Problems Which Appeared in 13 Year Old Pupils' Performing Experiment of Textbook: Pupils' Suggested Aims, Their Identifying Relevant Variables, and the Relations between the Suggested Aims and the Drawn Conclusions
Kim, Jae-Woo ; Oh, Won-Kun ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 35~42
To investigate 13 year old pupils' suggested aims, recognition of relevant variable, and the relationship between the suggested aim and the conclusion which is drawn by pupils, we classified experiments in textdbook into three cases: (1) Case involving dependent variable and independent variable in the title of experiment, (2) Case involving dependent variable only, where pupils can know independent variable from the content of textbook, (3) Case involving dependent variable only, where pupils hardly can know independent variable from the content of textbook. In respect of the aims which pupils suggested, the suggested aims were reduced to the title of experiment in case(1). However, the suggested aims were divided into several forms which is not relevant to the content of experiment in case (2), (3). This shows that pupils are affected by the title of experiment according to how the variable is involved in the title of experiment. This is supported by the fact that when the variable is described in the title, the suggested aim is reduced to the title of experiment. On the other hand, there was a relationship between the suggested aim and the drawn conclusion in case (1). But there was few relationships in case (2) and (3). Surprisingly, the drawn conclusion in case(1) was not consistent with the expected one because of the inappropriate experimental setting. We need to be more careful in experimental setting, pupils' cognitive ability, and openness of experiment to help pupils perform experiment successfully.
A Comparative Study on Elementary School Science Curriculum and Textbooks between South and North Korea
Choi, Don-Hyung ; Lee, Yang-Rak ; Kim, Jae-Young ; Noh, Suk-Goo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 43~60
The purpose of this study is to compare and analyse the elementary school science curriculum and textbooks of South and North Korea, then gather the fundamental sources for the establishment of elementary school science curriculum after Unification of Korea by clarifying the difference and the likeness in educational objectives, contents, teaching methods of both Korean elementary school sciences. Based on this comparison and analysis, this study tried to give the concrete suggestions for the elementary school science curriculum and textbook development after Unification. For this, analyses were carried out for the curriculum managing systems, subject organization, education goal, emphasis on each field, teaching-learning and evaluation method. Besides, this study compared and analysed the elementary school science textbook development and distribution system, apparent format, content organization, ratio of content categories, content scope and level and the related terms appeared in both Korean elementary school science textbooks. The result of this study showed a lot of differences in the educational objectives, contents, and educational method of the elementary school science between South and North Korea. The grasping of these differences and the exact understanding about what causes these differences and how the differences are made must be the necessary work for the science curriculum establishment, especially for elementary school science curriculum and textbook development, after Unification.
The Effects of Grouping in Cooperative Learning Strategy
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Park, Soo-Youn ; Lim, Hee-Jun ; Cha, Jeong-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 61~70
This study investigated the effects of grouping (group composition) in cooperative learning strategy upon students' achievement, the attitude toward science instruction, the perception of learning environment, and the self-esteem. Three different groups were used in this study. For the two treatment groups with cooperative learning strategies, High-Medium-Low ability grouping (HML) and High-Low I Medium-Medium ability grouping (HL/MM) were used. For the control group, traditional instruction was used. Before the instructions, the short-version Group Assessment of Logical Thinking, the test of attitudes toward science instruction, the perception questionnaire of learning environment, and the questionnaire of self-esteem were administered, and their scores were used as covariates. Mid-term examination score was used as a blocking variable. After the instructions, a researcher-made achievement test consisting of three subtests (knowledge, understanding, and application), the test of attitude toward science instruction, the perception questionnaire of learning environment, and the questionnaire of self-esteem were administered. The ANCOVA results revealed that there were significant interactions between the instruction and the level of prior achievement although there were no significant differences in all subtest scores of the achievement test. The high-level students in the HL/MM cooperative group performed better than those in the control group and the HML cooperative group. The low-level students in the HL/MM cooperative group also performed better in the subtest of knowledge than those in the other groups. However, the medium-level students in the HML cooperative group scored better than those in the control group and the HL/MM cooperative group. Significant main effect was also found in the perception of learning environment but not in the attitude toward science instruction and self-esteem. The cooperative groups, regardless of grouping, exhibited more positive perception than the control group.
The International Trend of Science Education Reform Program 'Science-Technology-Society'-The Case of Iowa Chautauqua Program-
Cho, Jung-Il ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 71~82
The main purpose of Iowa Chautauqua Program(ICP) and Iowa-Scope, Sequence. and Coordination (Iowa-SS&C) was to educate K-12 science teachers so that they could teach science in a human context using the constructivist strategies. The major task for the participating teachers to perform was to develop modules with the emphasis on STS and constructivist approach. which were supposed to be taught in the respective classrooms. Teachers worked together for two weeks for the development of modules during the summer, and attempted the modules with their students. The participating teachers met regularly during the autumn semester to share and reflect their experiences and obtain additional information on science education reform and its implications. During the winter break. the teachers improved and extended the STS modules. The Iowa Chautauqua Program and Iowa-SS&C had two important implications for Korean science education. First, they made the most of the resources they had in order to provide the practicing teachers with recent research findings on the nature of science. science learning and teaching, that is. the constructivist approach. Second, they emphasized both cooperation of teachers and long-term training to realize the reform in school science education.
The Effect of Systematicity and Presentation Type of Analog on Concept Recall and Application
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Choi, Yong-Nam ; Kwon, Hyeok-Soon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 83~92
This study investigated the effect of systematicity and presentation type of an analog upon students' concept recall and application regarding stoichiometry that included limiting reagent. Systematicity was manipulated by varing the degree of explicit causal structure, and presentation type was in either verbal format or verbal/figurative format. The four types of the analog developed were studied by randomly assigned junior high school students (N=137). Prior to the treatment, the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking was administered and its score was used as a covariate. After the treatment, a research-made conception test was administered immediately and four weeks later. The ANCOVA results indicated that systematicity had a positive effect on immediate application regardless of presentation type. In the application problem of retention test, however, systematicity had no main effect but interaction with presentation type. These suggested that the systematic analog in verbal/figurative format most positively influence concept application. Educational implications are discussed.
A Study of School Science Textbooks which was used from 1906 to 1915 in Korea
Park, Jong-Seok ; Chung, Byung-Hoon ; Pak, Sung-Jae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 93~108
This study investigated science textbooks used from 1906 to 1915 in Korea, which is often neglected in previous researches. By doing so, more practical and specific understanding of the science education during that period can be made. It was based on the historical achieves "School Textbook List"(Vol.
) which was published by the Ministry of Education and the Government General of Chosen and other sources. The results and conclusions of the research are as follow; (1) The science textbooks which have been used from 1906 to 1915 in Korea can be categorized into three different tapes of books, either written in Chinese, or in Japanese, or in Korean. The names of science textbooks were Nature Study, Physics, Chemistry, Natural History, Hygienics, Physiology, Zoology, Botany, Astronomy, Physiography, Mineralogy, Geology. These names were much broader than those in curriculum settled by the government and rather correspond to the names of science textbooks in curriculum which settled by private schools. Therefore those science textbooks had been mainly used in private schools. Moreover almost all of the science textbooks published in Korea have started to appear after 1906. Since then many schools were newly opened and the number of students increased. It is possible to say that substantial science education in Korea established after 1906. (2) Science textbooks from 1906 to 1915 printed in Korea were controlled in their use by the Ministry of Education and the Government General of Chosen. They were the main means of government regulations, supported by Private School Ordinance, Regulations for Official Examination of textbooks in 1908 and Law of Publication in 1909. According to the result of official examination, as the time went by under the Japanese ruling of Korea, the increasing number of science textbooks were getting banned. While the science textbooks had enjoyed more freedom than the other textbooks from the control by inspection of the Government General of Chosen, the situation has been significantly changed as Japan started to intensity the control of all kinds of textbooks in Korea. Although there were a lot of copied science textbooks, 62 science textbooks printed in Korea, 72 Japanese science textbooks were used in Korea, and 40 Korean were to be engaged in science education compiling and copying science textbooks. There developments in science textbooks alone suggest that there were enormous amount of potentials in Korean science education at that time. However, all of these effects and progresses were destroyed when the sovereign authority of Korea was lost to Japan in 1910.
The Effects of Teachers' Philosophical Perspectives of Science on Their Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science
Soh, Won-Ju ; Kim, Beom-Ki ; Woo, Jong-Ok ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 1, 1998, Pages 109~121
Scientific literacy implies an adequate understanding of the nature of science. However, little is known about factors that can influence students' conceptions of the nature of science. The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the prevalent assumption that teachers' philosophical perspectives of science directly influence their students' conceptions of the nature of science. A comparison between science teachers' and students' perspectives of science did not support the assumption that a science teachers' perspectives of science is significantly related to students' conceptions of science. The data clearly indicated that there was no relationship between teachers' philosophical perspectives and those of their students. The results convincingly indicated that the nature of science was not being considered or taught to students as a consequence of students' needs and curriculum guide objectives. It is believed that the results of this investigation will help to redirect the focus of future efforts to promote more adequate conceptions of the nature of science in our secondary schools.