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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
Selecting the target year
Development of an Instrument to Assess Secondary School Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science
Soh, Won-Ju ; Kim, Beom-Ki ; Woo, Jong-Ok ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 2, 1998, Pages 127~136
The purpose of this study was to develop, field test an instrument to assess secondary school students' conceptions of the nature of science. The instrument named Philosophical Perspectives Probe(PPP) is a pool of 24 multiple-choice items that address a wide range of philosophical topics of science. The statements and the choices of this instrument were derived from an analysis of various philosophical positions. The main philosophical systems of the instrument are inductivism, falsificationism, and relativism, respectively. Major distinctions depend on the issues of the criteria of demarcation, patterns of scienctific change, epistemological status of scientific knowledge, and the scientific methods. The researchers also offer teachers a new way of assessing and interpreting their students' conceptions on a wide variety of topics related to the nature of science.
The Characteristics of Science Teachers Participating in the Student Science Inquiry Olympic
Myeong, Jeon-Ok ; Soh, Jong-Ah ; Pak, Sung-Jae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 2, 1998, Pages 137~148
This study compared the innovative characteristics of science teachers who participated in the First Student Science Inquiry Olympic and those of science teachers who did not participate in the event. The subjects were science teachers in three groups: (1) the active participants in the Inquiry Olympic who supervised the students contestants, (2) the observers of the Inquiry Olympic who came to see the event, and (3) the ordinary teachers who did not come to the Inquiry Olympic and were sampled through stratified cluster sampling. The study instrument was a questionnaire; all the subjects received the survey questionnaire by mail. The return rate was 45%. In general, the Inquiry Olympic participants(both the student supervisors and the observers) demonstrated different characteristics from the nonparticipants in four categories. Firstly, the Inquiry Olympic participants showed higher level of self actualization, for example, interest in science education, higher inner motivation, stronger desire to innovate than did the nonparticipants. Secondly, the participants demonstrated more involvement in professional activities and greater degree of upward social mobility than the nonparticipants. Thirdly, the participants had communication behaviors different from nonparticipants, e. g.. greater leadership of public opinions, more experience of contact with the change agent, greater tendency to regard their school society as modern. Lastly, the participants had higher social status than the nonparticipants. Implications and suggestions are made for the utilization of the innovation-oriented science teachers to implement of innovations in the future.
A Study for the Middle School Science Curriculum to Enhance Creative Problem Solving Abilities-Focusing on the 6th National Curriculum and Classroom Observations-
Choi, Kyung-Hee ; Cho, Yon-Soon ; Choi, Duk-Joo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 2, 1998, Pages 149~160
The purpose of this study was to analyze the 6th national secondary science curriculum and classroom practices to collect the basic data for developing secondary science program focusing on creative problem-solving ability. The creative problem-solving ability was conceptualized as an active process of producing new solutions to problems and consisted of five components: general knowledge, domain-specific knowledge, motivation, divergent thinking and critical thinking. The research questions were generated as follows: (1) Whether creative problem-solving elements-domain specific knowledge(declarative knowledge and inquiry methods) were included or not in the 6th secondary science curriculum, textbooks and teacher's guide? If so, how are they represented? (2) Whether the teachers tried to enhance divergent and critical thinking of their students. Through content analyses, observations and interviews, these research questions were answered as follows: (1) Inquiry methods, which are important to develop creative problem-solving abilities in science, were underestimated in comparison with declarative knowledge. In other words. inquiry methods were regarded only as tools to understand the scientific concepts and principles. (2) It was hard to find the situations which teachers provided opportunities for divergent and critical thinking to their students. Based on these results, the followings were recommended: (1) Inquiry methods should be regarded as a goal not as a tool and be used to acquire inquiry methods themselves. (2) Teachers should not stick to the prescribed inquiry methods prescribed in the textbook, but to give opportunities for thinking various kinds of inquiry methods to improve divergent and critical thinking.
The Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction Using Molecular-Level Animation in Middle School Science Class
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Cha, Jeong-Ho ; Kim, Chang-Min ; Choi, Yong-Nam ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 2, 1998, Pages 161~171
The effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAl) using molecular-level animation upon students' conceptions, attitudes toward science instruction, and learning motivation were investigated. Treatment and control groups (2 classes) were selected from a girls middle school in Seoul, and taught about the motion of molecule for 5 class hours. Before instruction, the short-version Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) and the Patterns of Adaptive Survey were administered, and the grade for the previous science course was obtained. The GALT score was used as a blocking variable, and the others as covariates. After the instructions, the researcher-made conceptions test, the test of attitudes toward science instruction, and the motivation questionnaire were administered. The perception questionnaire of CAl was also administered to the treatment group. Although more students in the CAl group had sound understanding about the motion of molecule, the scores of the conceptions test for the two groups were not significantly different at .05 level of significance. The students in the CAl group, however, were found to have more positive attitudes toward science instruction and learning motivation. In the perception questionnaire of CAl, most students in the treatment group exhibited positive attitudes toward the CAl. However, some students mentioned that they were disturbed by noisy environments, and that they could not understand some content presented. Educational implications are discussed.
The Instructional Influences of Metacognitive Learning Strategies in Elementary School Science Course
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Jang, Shin-Ho ; Lim, Hee-Jun ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 2, 1998, Pages 173~182
This study investigated the influences of metacognitive learning strategies upon 6th-graders' achievement, science process skill, use of cognitive strategies, use of metacognitive strategies, self-efficacy, intrinsic value, attitude toward science class, and scientific attitude. The metacognitive learning strategies were developed on the basis of previous results and modified in a pilot study. Before the instructions, a pretest of motivation was administered, and used as a blocking variable. The score of previous achievement test was used as covariates for achievement and science process skill. Tests of use of cognitive strategies, use of metacognitive strategies, self-efficacy, intrinsic value, attitude toward science class, and scientific attitude were also administered, and their scores were used as covariates. After the instructions, a researcher-made achievement test, the Middle Grades Integrated Science Process Skills Test, and post-tests of above variables were administrated. Two-way ANCOVA results revealed that the scores of the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group for all tests except for science process skill. No interactions between the treatment and the level of the previous motivation were found. Educational implications are discussed.
The Theoretical Backgrounds and Their Implications for Science Education
Cho, Hee-Hyung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 2, 1998, Pages 183~200
Widespread recognition of the various aspects of science education has been prompted by post-positivist philosophers' discussions of the nature of science and intense debates among constructivist psychologists about learning in science. Their discussions and debates, in turn, have raised the problems associated with teaching/learning of science in the schools. The purpose of this article, basically based on the reviews and analyses of the literature related to philosophy of science and psychology, was to describe the implications of post-positivism and constructivism for current science education in the schools. In this paper, the author defines science education as education of/about science, and education through/by science. He also stresses that scientific literacy and decision-making should be emphasized as the goals of science education, that the ethical dimensions of science and technology must be included in science curriculum, that group discussion and/or cooperative learning are effective teaching strategy for science as interpreted by post-positivists and constructivists, and that the assessment should be focused on the degree to which cognitive structure has been changed through instruction in the school classrooms.
The Instructional Effects of Student-Centered Cooperative Learning Strategies in Elementary School Science Course
Lim, Hee-Jun ; Park, Soo-Youn ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 2, 1998, Pages 201~208
Although cooperative learning strategies in many subject areas have been found to be effective, the effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement in science laboratory setting is not clear. Reported results on the effects of the strategies for higher achieving students are not also consistent. In this study, the cooperative learning strategies emphasizing student-centered learning which included higher order thinking activities were used in a elementary school science course. The cooperative and traditional learning groups were selected from fifth-grade classes, and taught about dissolution and solution for 16 class periods. The effects of the cooperative learning strategies upon students' academic achievement, science process skill, the attitude toward science instruction, and the perceptions of classroom environment were investigated. Two-way ANCOVA results revealed that the test scores of academic achievement and science process skill for the cooperative learning group were significantly higher than those of the traditional learning group. No interaction between the instruction and the level of previous achievement was found. The perceptions of confliction were higher in cooperative learning group. In the attitude toward science instruction and the perceptions of participation, however, no significant difference between the two groups was found. Educational implications are discussed.
A Study of High School Students' and Science Teachers' Understanding of Ideal Conditions involved in the Theoretical Explanation and Experiment in Physics: Part I- Focused on the Meaning and the Characteristics of Idealization -
Park, Jong-Won ; Chung, Byung-Hoon ; Kwon, Sung-Gi ; Song, Jin-Woon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 2, 1998, Pages 209~219
This study is the first part of the investigation of the students' and teachers' understanding of ideal conditions in physics. To do this, here, we provided the theoretical basis for the above study by discussing the meaning and characteristics of idealization. Idealization, introduced and elaborated by Galileo therefore characterized the nature of modem science, can be generated by four procedures: neglecting the minor variables, giving without any description about the minor variables, assuming the limit case, assuming constancy or uniformity. Idealization generated by these procedures can produce models and laws from the sensory informations about real world. And physics world is constructed by formalization or mathematization of these models and laws obtained through idealization about real world. Therefore, it can be said that idealization have a major role in the context of discovery. By this aspects, physics world can be viewed as the approximation of the real world, and this view, again, give rise the philosophical debate about the reality in nature. Idealization take an important role in the process of application of physics world and the understanding the real world. That is, physicists accept the discrepancies between real world, and physics world and make a great effort to explain, moreover, reduce these discrepancies by modifying or eliminating idealization involved in physics world. Continued from this study, we will proceed to obtain the implications of idealization on the physics learning and investigate the students' and teachers' understanding of the ideal condition involved in the theoretical explanation and the experiment in physics.
Middle School Science Teachers' Philosophical Perspectives of Science
Soh, Won-Ju ; Kim, Beom-Ki ; Woo, Jong-Ok ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 2, 1998, Pages 221~231
Middle school science teachers performed activities to identify their philosophical perspectives of science through a series of "card game" planned for this research. The subjects of the research were 156 middle school science teachers participated in the 1997 in-service science teachers' training course of the Gyeong Sang Nam Do province. The teachers performed the activities for this research for three hours during their workshops. We found that the subjects in the research were turned out predominant in the inductivistic views regardless of their major. gender, and career. In addition, in the process of collective consensus making, views of (a) the criteria of demarcation and (b) the patterns of scientific change were shifted to the extreme inductivism, (c) the epistemological status of scientific knowledge to the relativism, and (d) the scientific methods to the falsificationism, respectively.
The Components of Portfolio Assessment for Korean Elementary Science Classroom
Kim, Chan-Jong ; Kim, Hye-Jeong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 2, 1998, Pages 233~243
Many science educators concern about the problems of assessment using paper & pencil test. Performance assessment is believed to be a very promising alternatives to traditional assessment. Portfolio assessment, a kind of performance assessment, has many desirable characteristics to foster students' creativity and increase students' responsibility for their own learning. However few research study has been dealt with this assessment method and few teacher adopts this method in science class. The characteristics and structures of portfolio assessment were explored by reviewing related literatures. The appropriate portfolio assessment was designed based on the results of exploration. For our primary science class, general and specific objectives are needed, depending on the nature of the instructional topics. The children's evidences for portfolio may be limited in their forms because of insufficient learning materials and reproducing facilities in classrooms. Large portions of children's evidence should be collected during class hours to reduce burdens of children. The evaluation criteria may be holistic rather than analytical because of large class size. Portfolio assessment will bring about many changes in primary science classes. Students' have more responsibility in science learning. Teachers will focus major instructional objectives, and concern more about students' meaningful learning. Although portfolio assessment requires more work to teachers and children it could be applicable to our science classroom.
A Study of High School Students' and Science Teachers' Understanding of Ideal Conditions involved in the Theoretical Explanation and Experiment in Physics: Part II- Focused on the Implications to the Physics Learning -
Park, Jong-Won ; Chung, Byung-Hoon ; Kwon, Sung-Gi ; Song, Jin-Woon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 2, 1998, Pages 245~256
In this study, we discussed about the implications of the idealization, which take an important role in physics, to the physics education. First, understanding of the idealization help the physics learning itself. This is because that various types of idealizations are included in the physics terms and concepts, derivation processes of physics laws and formulas, and explanation of natural phenomena and problem solving activities. Second, understanding of the idealization can help the application of the physics world to the real world. That is, by understanding the extent and the limit of idealization used in physics world, physics students can understand the discrepancies between the real world and the physics world. And also, by modifying or eliminating the idealization, students can extend the extent of understanding about how predictions based on the idealization used in the physics world will change. To do this, we suggested the application of computer simulation program in physics laboratories. Third, idealization take an important role in the inquiry learning for students' originality. The activities of identifying or controlling the variables, as one of the principal factors of scientific inquiry, need the appropriate establishment of the ideal conditions. And to analyze the limiting case or practice the thought experiments for understanding the impossible situation in the real world, ideal conditions also are needed. This study discussed above three aspects with various concrete examples and, with Park et al.'s study (Park et al., 1998), present the theoretical basis for the study of students' and teachers' understanding the idealization.