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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
Selecting the target year
Understanding Biotechnology: An Analysis of High School Students' Concepts
Chung, Young-Lan ; Kye, Bo-Ah ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 463~472
Biotechnology is the process of using biological system for the production of materials. Genetic engineering, a subset of biotechnology, is the process of altering biological systems by the purposeful manipulation of DNA It is a new field in biology and no topic in biology is more likely to impact our personal lives and is therefore more worthy of our attention and understanding. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' understanding of the concepts of biotechnology, and a test tool which is made up of 20 basic questions was developed for the study. The subject of this study was high school students and the sample size was 486. In order to find out the source of students' misunderstanding, we also analysed high school textbooks and teachers were given the same tool applied to students. Two-way ANOVA was used for the analysis. Major findings of this study are as following; 1. Mean score of students was 41, and there was a significant difference between the scores of boys and girls(p<0.05). Female students scored higher than male students. The variables "region" and "major" had no significant influence. 2. Students' the most misunderstood concepts were "monoclonal antibody" and "gene cloning". Many students thought that a plamid DNA originally has a useful DNA in it, which is apparently wrong. 3. Mean score of teachers was 82, and the variabes of gender and career did not have statistically significant influence on the result(p>0.05). 4. Teachers got the lowest scores on the concepts of "gene therapy", "the accomplishment of biotechnology in agriculture and medicine", and "plasmid DNA". The results of item analysis implied that teachers' misunderstanding might be a part of the sources of students' misunderstaning. 5. Out of 18 basic concepts selected in the study, only 10 concepts were explained well enough in most textbooks. The results of item analysis indicated that textbooks also could be a part of the source of students' misunderstanding.
The Effects of Conflict Situation Types on Inducing Students' Cognitive Conflicts in Newton's Laws
Lim, Lee-Suk ; Lee, Yung-Jick ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 473~483
A learner's cognitive conflict with his /her existing conception is regarded to be one of the most important factors for a conceptual change. In this study, the effects of the conflict situation types on inducing students' cognitive conflicts in Newton's law were examined. The thirty-four students of 10th grade were selected from a rural high school based on the result of pre-test. The two different types of conflict situations among many possible types were used in this study. One type was using logical conflict situation and the other was demonstrating real conflict situation. The levels of cognitive conflict were measured by 4-point Likert scale by three interviewers. As the results, the demonstration method was more effective than the logical argument method. In case of the logical argument method, rather than showing scientific conceptions, suggesting another misconception was more effective to the students who have misconception. However, logical argument method was not effective to those who have scientfic conceptions. To the students who have unscientific conceptions, the demonstration method was very effective for inducing cognitive conflict. From the results of this study, demonstration method of teaching seems to be very effective for inducing students' cognitive conflict and overcoming their misconceptions on scientific concept.
International Comparison of Korean Biology Gifted-Students
Shim, Kew-Cheol ; Lee, Hyun-Uk ; So, Keum-Hyun ; Chang, Nam-Kee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 485~491
In this study, the achievement of Korean biology gifted-students was compared with that of International Biology Olympiad(IBO) participants to explore international achievement level of biology and to suggest the need of teaching program for biology gifted-students. Korean thirty gifted-students were selected through test by Korean Biology Olympiad Committee. They examined theoretical test two times in January and March. 1998. Theoretical part consisted of eight domains as follows; cell biology. anatomy and physiology of plants, anatomy and physiology of animals, ethology. genetics and evolution, ecology, systematics, and microbiology. As a result, Korean biology gifted-students had lower achievement than IBO participants in eight domains. and especially much lower achievement in ethology and systematics. Though thirty Korean gifted-students were found to had much lower achievement than lBO participants, four higher rankers of them are in prospect of winning bronze medals. Thus, it is necessary to develope an appropriate teaching program for biology gifted-students with theoretical lectures and inquiry activities.
Science Curricula from the Time of Establishment of Educational System(1895) to 1910 and People in Charge of Science Education at Public Schools
Song, Min-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 493~502
Science curricula of public and government institution schools from 1895 to 1910 in Korea were studied And through tracing people in charge of science education actual status was researched. The result of the study showed that 'physics, chemistry, nature' in the regular course for normal schools and 'department of science' in the short course were used for in the curriculum. Subject of nature were educated by SaitoKinji. 'Science' was educated by MatsumotoSoji in Department of Japanese Language at Foreign Language School and 'science of nature' by Hase in Department of German Language. 'Nature' and 'physics and chemistry' were taught by ShideharaTahira at Hansung Middle School which was established in 1899. MoriTamejo was in charge of subject of nature at Hansung High School which was a new name since 1906. It was also revealed that'physics and chemistry'were taught at Industrial Professional Institute. In short during the era of Taihan (Korea) Empire science education at public and government institution schools were entirely performed by Japanese. Furthermore the first time when professionals majored in natural science began to assume responsibility for science education was during late part of Taihan Empire and before that time tradition of science education was maintained by'non-professionals'like ShideharaTahira.
A Study on Learner's Neuro-Cognitive Variables and An Analysis of Program Effects for Developing Proportional Reasoning Ability
Chung, Wan-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 503~516
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate some variables, such as learner's cognitive characteristics and a training-program emphasized proportional logic, in proportional reasoning development. Seven hundred and ninety students in junior high schools were enrolled as subjects for the study which investigated learner's cognitive characteristics in proportional reasoning development and asked to perform tests of logical thinking, card sorting, planning, mental capacity, cognitive style, brain lateralization, information processing pattern and scientific reasoning. In addition, one hundred and thirty-three students who failed to solve proportional thinking items were administered a training program which has been applied to improve the subjects' proportional reasoning skills. The results showed a significant higher correlation between subjects' performance score on proportional thinking test, and their age and scores on scientific reasoning test, mental capacity, information processing test and perseveration errors on card sorting test. Also, the training program applied in this study showed an effective result in developing subjects' proportional reasoning skills. Further, this study may serve as a suggestion in the efforts to investigate factors of proportional thinking development and a contribution for the future research in other logical thinking development.
A Perspective of the Decreased Science Lessons in the Seventh Curriculum
Lee, Myeong-Je ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 517~523
It has been an important task that the decreased quantities of science lessons must blend with the 7th science curriculum. This study analysed the 6th and 7th science curriculum contents, and found the perspective and the problems in relation to the decreased lessons in the 7th science curriculum. The results found in the analysis of the science content system in the curriculum are as follows: first, the new science themes in the 7th content system were those appeared in the sub-themes in the 6th curriculum, so substantially scientific concepts didn't increase in the 7th. Second, the number of the terms which restricts the conceptual and contextual region of the major science themes considerably increased in the 7th curriculum. Third, Surface Lesson Quantities(SLQ), which were defined as the counted lesson number considering the quantities of science themes and the lesson decreasing rate 30% of the whole school curriculum, were inferred as 38.5% of the 6th lesson quantities. And the results found in the analysis of the sub-themes inferred from the sentences describing the science themes in each grade are as follows: Essential Lesson Quantities (ELQ), which were defined based on the sub-themes, were more than SLQ in almost themes. But, in case of the themes, 'weather' and 'ground', SLQ were much more than ELQ. The results of this study shows that it will not easy to solve the task, the decreasing lessons and phenomena-centered approach in constructing the science teaching content according to the 7th science curriculum.
Development of the Elementary Science Curriculum to Enhance Creative Problem-Solving Abilities: Theme Based Construction of Contents
Cho, Youn-Soon ; Choi, Kyung-Hee ; Suh, Ye-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 527~537
This article is a part of a research on the elementary science curriculum development to enhance creative problem-solving abilities. The components of the curriculum have been identified as 'scientific knowledge', 'process skills' & 'divergent/critical thinking'. Among these components, construction of the scientific knowledge that enables creative problem-solving abilities has been selected as an intensive research topic for the purpose of the present research. To avoid or to prevent the knowledge learned from separate facts and concepts, five themes have been selected so as to incorporate with all three areas of the elementary science curriculum, i.e., physical science, earth science and life science. The five themes are, 'structure', 'change', 'interaction', 'energy' and 'stability'. The contents of elementary science, which have been selected from the 3rd, 6th and 7th National Elementary Science curriculum, were reconstructed based on the five themes given above. The results of reconstruction are presented in the form of matrix, such that the vertical axis represents how the concepts are related within each domain of science, while the horizontal axis shows how the concepts are interconnected between domains of science. Therefore, based upon the five themes, individual or separate knowledge can be put into more unified knowledge so that contribution of knowledge transfer to new ones can be expected for leaners who will be creative in problem-solving. The process and products of the curriculum development as well as the background of the present research are described and discussed in detail.
Analysis of Learning Objectives on Elementary School Biology
Shim, Kew-Cheol ; Lee, Hyun-Uk ; Chang, Nam-Kee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 539~544
The consistency and balance of objectives by objective domains in units, sub-units and instructional units were investigated. The 6th elementary biology curricular teaching guidebooks were analysed. Domains of objectives are cognitive, inquiry process, instrumental skill, creative, affective and STS. Cognitive objectives were most dominant in all units, sub-units and instructional units. But no objective for creative domain were suggested. In unit and sub-unit, proportions of objectives were cognitive, inquiry process, affective, instrumental skill and STS domains in order. Objectives for cognitive and inquiry process domains were more than others in instructional units, Except cognitive and inquiry process domains, objectives for the others were not consistent in all units, sub-units and instructional units. Especially, the percentages of objectives for affective domain decreased in units, sub-units and instructional units orderly. These resulted from teaching objective domains categorized formally, Thus, it is necessary to develope curriculum and textbook to be consistent and balanced with objective domains and reflect upon the characteristics of them.
The Development of an Instrument for the Measurement of Science Process Skills Using Line Graphs
Moon, Choong-Sik ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 545~555
The improvement of process skills has been one of the most important goals in secondary science education. To achieve this goal, it is essential to develop an instrument for evaluating inquiry skills in addition to improving science curricula, inquiry teaching methods, and other educational environment. There are a lot of instruments in testing science process skills in Korea as well as America and Europe. However, it has been difficult to find the instruments that have a characteristic in content and form. The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for evaluating science process skills using line graph. This study examined the whole body of scientific process and identified 6 component skills. Three or four items for each component process skills were developed and revised by pilot test and field test. The instrument is considered valid and reliable, for the content validity is 78% and the reliability(KR-20) is 0.82. The discrimination index is 0.57 and difficulty index is 0.47, which also suffice the criteria of good test.
The Necessities and Current States of Educating Ethical Characteristics of Science
Cho, Hee-Hyung ; Choi, Kyung-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 559~570
This paper is based on a literature review in the areas of philosophy of science. sociology. psychology, scientific research and development in technology, and new ethics established in recent years. The study was performed in order to achieve two-fold goals: to identify any necessity of teaching ethical aspects of science, and to investigate the current instructional states of the ethical aspects of science. The results of the literature review showed that teaching ethical aspects of science was necessary in all school levels. and the analyses of the actual states of the ethical education revealed that the majority of science educators considered the ethical characteristics of science as major goals and contents of science curriculum.
Analysis of the Conceptions of Science Achievement in Major Reform Documents in the United States and Korea
Paik, Seoung-Hey ; Lee, Ok-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 571~587
This paper reviews and analyzes the conceptions of science achievement in the United States and Korean reform documents, including those on science content standards(NSES, Porject 2061, and Korean 7th science curriculum), performance standards(New Standards, and Survey of Ecucational Achievement in Korean Elementary and Secondary Schools), and large-scale assessment framworks(1996 NAEP, TIMSS, The National Assessment of Science Inqury Abilities, The National Assessment of Science Knowledge, and The National Assessment of Affective Characteristics related to Science). The analysis of these documents indicates that there is an overall agreement on the conceptions of science achievement. The documents consistently emphasize high achievement in terms of knowledge and abilities in scientific, technological, social, and environmental perspectives. In addition, these documents define science achievement at different developmental levels and at certain depths of knowledge and abilities for all students. Despite the overall agreement, there are also noticeable variations among the documents because of different contexts and purposes. There is a difference in the balance of representations or emphases among content and process standards in the documents. The conceptions of science achievement in the Korean documents are not as comprehensive or inclusive as those in the United States documents. There is no representation of the mathematical world, the nature of science, historical perspectives, unifying concepts, or scientific communication. From these results, two conclusions are drawn. First, more coherent conceptions of science achievement are needed for common understanding among educators and the public. Second, efforts are needed for developing more comprehensive and inclusive conceptions of science achievement in Korea.
A Plateau and Spurt Pattern of Neurological Maturation, Scientific Reasoning Development and Conceptual Change in Korean Secondary School Students
Kwon, Yong-Ju ; Lawson, Anton E. ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 589~600
The present study tested the hypothesis that adolescent's prefrontal lobe growth plateau and spurt exists and that this plateau and spurt influence students' ability to reason scientifically and to learn theoretical science concepts. In theory, maturation of the prefrontal lobes during early adolescence allows for improvements in students' abilities to inhibit task-irrelevant information and coordinate task-relevant information, which along with both physical and social experience, influences scientific reasoning ability and the ability to reject scientific misconceptions and accept scientific conceptions. Two hundred six students ages 13 to 16 years enrolled in four Korean secondary schools were administered tests of prefrontal lobe functions, scientific reasoning, and theoretical concepts derived from kinetic-molecular theory. A series of 14 lessons designed to teach the concepts were then taught. The concepts test was then re-administered following instruction. As predicted among the 14-year-olds, performance on the measures of prefrontal lobe functions, scientific reasoning, and conceptual change remained similar or regressed. Performance then improved considerably among the 15 and 16-year-olds. Because so few of the present students were able to undergo this apparently necessary conceptual change, the value of introducing theoretical concepts to early adolescent is questioned.
Developing National Science Assessment System:Scientific Knowledge Domain
Kwon, Jae-Sool ; Choi, Byung-Soon ; Kim, Chan-Jong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 601~615
Establishing and evaluating science education policies and revising and monitoring the effectiveness of science curriculum should be based upon the results of systematic and scientific research studies. Advanced nations have already been administering and developing national level science assessments for these purposes. The science assessments administered in Korea have been reported having many limitations and problems, and not succeeded in providing data for science education policy making and curriculum reform. The major purpose of the study is developing national level science knowledge assessment system in order to identify longitudinal trends of elementary and secondary school students science knowledge achievements. The research team consisted of science education experts and teachers from various school levels, decided the directions and major elements of national level science knowledge assessment with the consultation of educational evaluation experts. Item developing ability of the researchers was improved by seminars? and workshops on national assessment in advanced nations and developing skills of writing science items. Nearly 500 items were developed and revised. Pilot test was administered with 958 students at various school levels. 380 items were selected and tested with 8766 students, and the characteristics were analyzed in terms of item response theory. The target populations for national level science knowledge assessment are 5th-grade of elementary school, 2nd-grade of middle school, 1st and 2nd-grade of high school students. The proper period for the assessment is February every year. Multi-stage clustered sampling method is desirable and rotated forms are recommendable for the test format. Bridge items should be introduced to compare the results of multiple tests, and various grades. Anchor items should also be used for longitudinal interpretations of the results. The items for elementary school require low to medium abilities, for middle school and first grade of high school require medium to high abilities and for 2nd-grade of high school high abilities. The discrimination ability of the items developed is high.
Development of National Assessment System:Scientific Inquiry Domain
Woo, Jong-Ok ; Kim, Beom-Ki ; Hann, Ann-Chin ; Hur, Myung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 617~626
Inquiry approach in teaching science has been widespread in Korea since the Third National Curriculum in 1970's. But the effect of the approach has never been evaluated systematically in Korea, so the science educators do not know if the inquiry approach really works and if any critical problems inhibit the effect of the approach. In this context, the NAEP of the Unied States and the APU of the United Kingdom were model programs for assessing the effect of the inquiry approach in teaching science. The purpose of this study is to develop an assessment system for evaluating the effect of inquiry teaching in elementary and secandary schools. For this purpose, an assessment framework and 240 test items were developed and tried with a sample of 8,906 students. The results say that the developed tests are reliable. The average Cronbach
reliability coefficient of the tests was 0.69. The discrimination index(point-biserial correlation coefficient) ranged from 0.39 to 0.54 with a mean of 0.49, which indiate they are excellent in discriminating students in terms of their inquiry achievement. The test items were also analyzed by "item response theory." The results also say that the items are successfully developed.
Comparison between Training and Participating Achievements of Delegetes of Korean Students I - Theoretical Part -
Shim, Kew-Cheol ; Lee, Hyun-Uk ; So, Keum-Hyun ; Chang, Nam-Kee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 627~633
Achievements of Korean delegate students who attend on the 9th International Biology Olympiad(IBO) were compared with those of IBO participants for the 4th, 5th and 7th theoretical tests. It was predicted that four Korean delegates won medals in the 9th IBO on the basis of the average percentages of correct answer and the shifting patterns of achievement. And achievemens of four delegates during delegates training period were compared with that in the 9th IBO. Mean perecntages of theoretical part of them were 78.15%, 77.16%, 80.97% and 76.99% respectively, and total mean percentage was 78.32%. Their achievement was level for silver medalist. It was 86.56% on the average that they had achieved in the 9th IBO. This result was more than achievement in delegates training. Their percentages of achievement order were 90.84%, 97.71%, 82.44% and 70.99% respectively. One of them won gold medal and the others won silver medals. It was needed to develop effective teaching program for biology gifted-students and training preparing for IBO.
An Study on Plant Classification System as Described in the Science Textbook of Elementary and Secondary School
Yeau, Sung-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 635~641
The purpose of this study was to suggest a new direction of learning method in botany based on the analysis of a classification system and concepts in Science(Biology) textbooks of elementary and secondary school. Elementary and secondary school textbooks of Biology have been analyzed for plant classification system and concepts. Findings are summarized as belows. 1. In textbook of elementary school, the organization of life is grouped into Plantae and Animalia. Learning contents of plant are divided by the size and habitat. However, this system of classification might cause false concepts. Therefore, learning contents should be organized as whether they are flowering plants or not. 2. In a textbook of middle school, the organization of life is grouped into Plantae and Animalia. For a textbook of high school, it is grouped into three kingdoms; Plantae, Animalia and Prorista. With the idea of new age of Life Science, we should change the standards to 5 kingdoms; Plantae, Animalia, Proristae, Fungi and Monera. Moreover, it would be desirable if the concept of plant classification could be explained with a general outline, not by an individual interpretation focusing on characters of species only. In addition to the above indications, a learning course should provide present a standard classification according to a cognitive developemental level. It also has to teach students how to classify plant, in secondary school. Learning materials focusing on algae of the present system, but should be organized based on Seed plants.
Development of the Three-tier Test Items for the Thinking Skills of the Scientific Inquiry
Lee, Moo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 643~650
In order to assess students' higher mental abilities, such as scientific inquiry thinking skills, the essay type items would be more adequate than the multiple choice itmes. However, due to the present condition in which a huge number of students take the examination at the same time, it is inevitable to use the multiple choice type. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a new type of multiple choice items which can reduce the disadvantages of the traditional multiple choice type and can achieve a similar level of validity as subjective type assessment. The three-tier multiple choice test items which can be used for a large sample of students and especially for scientific inquiry thinking abilities, are proposed and examined. The three-tier multiple choice test items asked firstly conclusion or the results of calculation or experimental apparatus, secondly the processes of calculation or of developing conclusion, thirdly asking relevant scientific concepts. For the item analysis, 1 point was given to the correct answer, while 0 point was given to the wrong one. The data were processed through the computer program developed in Turbo C 2.0 language with an IBM compatable personal computer. The average score in the sub-items asking for scientific concepts was lower than that in the sub-items asking for results or processes. The score of guessing by chance in the three-tier multiple choice items was only 0.13%, so that the probability of making correct answers by just guessing would be extremely low. The three-tier multiple choice items, even if they are objective items, are thought to assess thinking skills of the scientific inquiry meaningfully excluding the possibility of guessing by chance.
OECD 주관 '학생 성취도 국제 비교 연구'-'과학' 영역을 중심으로-
Sin, Dong-Hui ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 18, issue 4, 1998, Pages 651~656