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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 1999
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 1999
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 1999
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 1999
Selecting the target year
The Survey of High School Students' Concern Levels on Decision-making Problems based on Biology
Hong, Jung-Lim ; Chang, Nam-Kee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 1, 1999, Pages 1~7
The purpose of this study was to survey the high school students' concern levels on decision-making problems based on biology, This study is a exploratory research to develop teaching strategies and curriculum of the common science for the enhancement of the students' decision-making ability in problems involved biological knowledges. The survey subjects were 101 first graders of the high school in Seoul area. The survey instrument developed was 5-point scale of Likert type consisted of 24 question items. The survey results showed that the concern level on selection of method for learning was the highest. The concern levels on selection of method for sports or diet which are the individual faced problems were high, and concern levels on the problems social issued such as decisions about standard for noise, pros and cons of approval for brain death or artificial abortion were high, too. The students' concern levels on problems individual context were significantly higher than concern levels on problems social context (p<0.01). The males' concern levels were higher than females' on 'AIDS', 'incinerator for rubbish', 'atomic power plant', 'protection policy for decreasing species', 'standard for noise' (p<0.05), And the males' concern levels were higher than females' on domain of 'ecosystem and environment pollution'. But the females had higher concern levels than males on 'diet' and 'surrogate mother' (p<0.05). The analyzed results were discussed in respects of implication for teaching strategies and curriculum.
The Effects of Constrnctivism-Based Courseware on Middle School Students' Conceptual Change about Force and Motion
Jung, Kyung-Mi ; Kim, Young-Min ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 1, 1999, Pages 8~18
The purpose of this study is to investigate middle school student's conceptual change about Force and Motion by the courseware based on constructivism. It is well known to science educators that misconcrptions about physics concepts are hardly changed into scientific ones. So as to change student's misconceptions about force and motion, the courseware was developed through the analysis of students' conceptions. 20 students were tested before and after learning through the courseware. One of the questions was about the direction of force acting on the ball thrown in the air when it is rising, at the top, and falling. The other was about the magnitudes and directions of forces acting on a car when it is accelerating, in uniform velocity, and decelerating. The results are as follows: In case of vertical motion, all students had misconceptions before learning, but after learning 5 students(25%) have changed their ideas into scientific ones. In case of horizontal motion, 9(45%) out of 20 students who had misconceptions about force and motion have changed their ideas into scientific ones.
The Effects of Portfolio Assessment on Elementary School Students' Science Knowledge, Inquiry Ability and Science Attitudes
Kim, Hye-Jeong ; Kim, Chan-Jong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 1, 1999, Pages 19~28
The major purposes of this study are to examine the effects of portfolio assessment on elementary school student's science knowledge, inquiry ability, science attitudes and to investigate students' perceptions on portfolio assessment. Control group consists of 45 fourth-graders at M-Elementary school located at Miwon, Chongwon-gun, Chung-buk and experimental group 36 fourth-graders of G-Elementary school located in Daejeon-si. The inventories of scientific knowledge I, inquiry ability, and science attitudes were administered to both groups as a pre-test. The experimental group was given portfolio assessment instruction and control group traditional instruction for about six weeks. Inventories about scientific knowledge 2, inquiry ability, and science attitudes were administered to both groups as a post-test. A questionnaire on the perception on portfolio assessment was given to experimental group after the treatment. The results were statistically analyzed with SPSS. Control group showed higher score on scientific knowledge than that of experimental group (p<0.5). No statistically meaningful difference was identified in inquiry ability and scientific attitude. More in-depth analysis revealed that scientific attitudes were improved statistically meaningfully by portfolio assessment. The students' perceptions on portfolio assessment is very positive. Students have positive responses on interests in portfolio assessment, feelings of involvement in learning, self-regulated learning, higher levels of thinking, intentions of participation in portfolio assessment.
Why Do Most Science Educators Encourage to Teach School Science through Lab-Based Instruction?: A Neurological Explanation
Kwon, Yong-Ju ; Lawson, Anton E. ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 1, 1999, Pages 29~40
The purpose of the present study was to test hypothesis that, because it uses tri-dimensional sensory pathway which have been showed a higher rate of neural activities than uni- or bi-dimensional's, lab-activity-based instruction is more effective teaching strategy in learning science than verbal-based instruction. In the present study, manipulative teaching strategy that uses visual, somatosensory and auditory information pathway was regarded as a mode of tri-dimensional sensory inputs. In addition, verbal teaching strategy that uses mainly auditory and a little visual information pathway was used as a mode of bi-dimensional sensory inputs. Fifty-six students who failed to successfully solve two proportional reasoning tasks (i.e., pouring water tasks) were sampled for this research from a junior high school. The subjects were randomly divided into a manipulative or a verbal teaching group, and given manipulative or verbal tutoring on the use of proportional reasoning strategies and a test of proportional reasoning during instruction. The results showed that manipulative group's performance on the test of proportional reasoning during instruction showed significantly higher performance than verbal group's (t=2.45, p<0.02). The present study also discussed some educational implications of the results.
A Theoretical Study to Formulate the Direction of Integrated Science Education
Son, Yeon-A ; Lee, Hack-Dong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 1, 1999, Pages 41~61
In this study I defined the direction Integrated Science Education(ISE) should take. So that I groped for the direction ISE should take in the inherent nature of science and education, analyzing their respective validity from philosophical and psychological angles. Based upon these researches, I formulated the three directions for ISE to take; knowledge-centered, social problem-centered, and individual interest-centered. The results of this thesis may be summed up as follows: 1. The knowledge-centered ISE that thinks the inherent nature of science is in the scientific knowledge is based upon Hirst's integrated logic which is built on discipline-centered educational viewpoint. Now, the focus of interdisciplinary integration consists in clarifying the meanings of knowledge and the logical relations between one knowledge and another according to the respective form of exploration. The knowledge-centered ISE, therefore, was analyzed to find its justification in the educational philosophy of idealism, realism, neo-scholasticism; in the educational theories of essentialism, behaviorism, perennial ism; in the scientific philosophy of empiricism. positivism; in the educational psychology of developmental psychology and constructivism. 2. The social problem-centered ISE that thinks the inherent nature of science is the process of social concord is based upon Dewey's integrated logic which is built on experience-centered educational viewpoint. Now, the focus of interdisciplinary integration consists in the methodological aspect facilitating the process of experience. The social problem-centered ISE, therefore, was analyzed to find its theoretical justification in the educational philosophy of pragmatism; in the educational theory of progressivism; in the scientific philosophy of relativism and rationalism; and in the educational psychology of developmental psychology and constructivism. 3. The individual interest-centered ISE is based upon Patterson's integrated logic which is built on human-centered educational viewpoint. The focus of education here is self-realization. Therefore, rather than provide in learning conditions from outside, one is made to choose them oneself and the process of satisfying one's motive is emphasized. The individual interest-centered ISE, therefore, was analyzed to find its theoretical justification in the educational philosophy of existentialism; in the educational theory of humanism; in the scientific philosophy of relativism; and in Gestalt psychology.
A Study of High School Students' and Science Teachers' Understanding of Ideal Conditions involved in the Theoretical Explanations and Experiments in Physics: Part III- Focused on the Ideal Conditions involved in the Theoretical Explanations -
Park, Jong-Won ; Chung, Byung-Hoon ; Kwon, Sung-Gi ; Song, Jin-Woong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 1, 1999, Pages 62~77
Idealization has an important role in the process of learning as well as in physics research. The purpose of this study was to survey students' and science teachers' recognition of the ideal conditions involved in the process of problem solving and of explaining the natural phenomena. The instrument for probing the understanding of the ideal conditions in the domains of force, electricity and heat was administered to general high and science high school students and science teachers. The framework of responses composed of three categories. The first category is "idealized conditions relevant to problem", the second "not relevant idealized conditions", which has more delicate subcategories of general/ irrelevant conditions, simple statement of formula/ law, repeating problems, uncorrect explaining/ describing conditions, and the last "no responses". The results of analysis showed that the majority of the subjects well understood the various ideal conditions, especially for science high school students. But some of them could not differentiate the ideal condition from the general conditions, or they simply repeat the problem situation or the formula. The understanding of idealization is different by the domains of physics. We discovered that the misconceptions about the ideal conditions in various physical phenomena and revealed some interconnection of researches in the fields of misconception and the ideal condition.
A Study of High School Students' and Science Teachers' Understanding of Ideal Conditions Involved in the Theoretical Explanation and Experiment in Physics: Part IV- Focused on the Ideal Condition Involved in the Experiment -
Park, Jong-Won ; Chung, Byung-Hoon ; Kwon, Sung-Gi ; Song, Jin-Woong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 1, 1999, Pages 78~90
This study investigated the high school students' and science teachers' understanding of idealization involved in the physics experiment. Major research questions are as follows: (1) what kind of ideal conditions do subjects identify from the presented experimental context? (2) do subjects think how well ideal conditions are satisfied with the experiment? (3) how well do subjects expect the effect of idealization on the experimental result? (3) what kind of view point do science teachers have about the ideal condition involved in the experiment? A total of 85 subjects were given 6 questions related with the research questions I. 2. and 3. with simple experiment about the brightness of the bulbs connected with parallel to the battery. And another 4 questions for the forth research question were given to 42 science teachers. Subjects' responses were summarized and used to draw the implications for the teaching of physics experiment.
Effects of Students' Learning Motivations on Concept Change
Paik, Seoung-Hey ; Kim, Hyeg-Kyong ; Chae, Woo-Ki ; Kwon, Kyoon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 1, 1999, Pages 91~99
The researches related to students' preconceptions and conceptual change model have been reported that students' learning motivation is one of the key variable for the conceptual change. The effects of students learning motivations on conceptual changes were evaluated. Subjects of this study were 8th grade students. and they were divided into 2 groups. One group was taught by traditional teaching method, and the other group by concept change teaching model. After the intervention, learning motivations of the students were testified. The students of high motivation who were taught by concept change teaching model showed higher scores in the concept of chemical change than the students by traditional teaching method. But there was no difference in both groups of students who have low learning motivations. The learning motivations before the intervention. the motivations stimulated by classes. and the degree of concept understanding showed high correlation. The motivations stimulated by classes explain 23.3 % of the degree of concept understanding. The results seems to mean that students learning motivations contribute to the understanding of concepts. Especially confidence of learning as a subcategory of the learning motivation contributes significantly to the understanding of new concepts. In contrast, the traditional teaching methods and the teaching methods of concept change learning theory were not effective for the stimulation of students learning motivations.
High School Science Teachers' Perceptions about Inservice Program for STS(Science-Technology-Society) Education
Choi, Kyung-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 1, 1999, Pages 100~106
The purpose of this study was to incorporate STS education into science education field by investigating high school science teachers' perceptions about inservice STS education program and suggesting the methods of improvement for it. The subjects consisted of 227 high school science teachers who attended at inservice program on general science and were shortly taught about STS education. Results from trachers' data indicated that high school science teachers perceived of the importance of STS education and showed willingness to attend at the inservice STS education program when it was opened. Above all. they wanted to get the materials and information related STS at the program.
The Effect of Clarified Mapping Strategy and Placement of Analog on Middle School Students' Conceptual Understanding in Science
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Kim, Chang-Min ; Kwon, Hyeok-Soon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 1, 1999, Pages 107~116
The effects of clarified mapping strategy and placement of analog on middle school students' conceptual understanding were investigated. According to the usage of clarified mapping strategy and the sequence in presenting analogy, four types of learning materials were developed and pilot tested. Prior to the treatment, the field dependence-independence test was administered and a previous achievement test scores were obtained. The scores were used as blocking variables. The learning materials were read by randomly assigned middle school students (N=111), and the conceptions test was administered immediately and four weeks later. In the recall problems of immediate and retention test, there were no significant differences. In the application problems of immediate and retention test, however, the students learned with clarified mapping strategy scored significantly higher than those with analog-only. Field-independent students learned with clarified mapping strategy scored significantly higher in the immediate application than those with analog-only, and higher-level students learned with clarified mapping strategy scored significantly higher in the retention application than those with analog-only. In the immediate application, higher-level students learned analog first with clarified mapping strategy scored significantly higher in the immediate application than those learned target concept first with clarified mapping strategy. However, lower-level students learned target concept first with clarified mapping strategy scored significantly higher than those learned analog first with clarified mapping strategy.
A Comparative Study on Scientific Reasoning Skills in Korean and the US College Students
Jeon, Woo-Soo ; Kwon, Yong-Ju ; Lawson, Anton E. ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 1, 1999, Pages 117~127
The present study investigated Korean and the US college students' scientific reasoning skills involving hypothesis-testing skills and tested the hypothesis that hypothesis-testing skills are more advanced ones than other scientific reasoning skills investigated in this study. Seven hundred and seventy-four(774) Korean and five hundred and sixty-eight(568) the US students were sampled in university level. The Test of Scientific Reasoning was used as a scientific reasoning test. The test is consisted of two conservational reasoning, two proportional reasoning, one pendulum, two probability reasoning, two controlling variable, one correlational reasoning, and two hypothesis-testing reasoning tasks. Korean students showed a significant higher score in proportional and probability reasoning tasks than the US students. However, the Korean showed a significant lower score in conservation and correlation reasoning tasks than their American counterparts. Further, Korean and the US college students showed a notably poor performance in hypothesis-testing skills comparing with other scientific reasoning skills, which supported the hypothesis that hypothesis-testing skills are more advanced ones than other scientific reasoning skills. In addition, the Korean showed a severe deficiency in candle-burning task which required the skill that students have to design a scientific test-procedure to test theoretical hypotheses. This study also discussed on the educational implications of the results of the present study.
The Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction Using Molecular-Level Animation and Worksheet in High School Chemistry Class
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Cha, Jeong-Ho ; Kim, Chang-Min ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 1, 1999, Pages 128~136
The effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAl) using molecular-level animation and worksheet upon students' achievement, conceptual understanding, and learning motivation were investigated. Treatment and control groups (2 classes) were selected from a girls' high school in Seoul, and taught about dissolution for 3 class hours. Before the instructions, the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (PALS) was administered, and the grade for a previous science course was obtained. The PALS score was used as a covariate, and the other as a blocking variable. After the instructions, the achievement test, the conceptions test, and the Instructional Materials Motivation Scale (lMMS) were administered. Two-way ANCOVA results revealed that the scores of the CAl group in the achievement and the conceptions tests were significantly higher than those of the control group. The CAl group also performed better in all subtests of the IMMS except the subtest of relevance.
The Effects of Cooperative and Individualistic Learning Strategies by the Level of Achievement
Lim, Hee-Jun ; Choi, Kyoung-Sook ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 1, 1999, Pages 137~145
This study investigated the influences of the cooperative and the individualistic learning strategies on the academic achievement and the attitudes toward science instruction and science by the level of achievement. These two learning strategies endowed students with the responsibility of learning and emphasized student-centered learning which included higher order thinking activities. Cooperative learning group students studied the tasks through small group discussion, and individualistic learning group students solved the same ones individually. In the traditional group. teacher-centered expository lesson was used. The subjects of this study were 7th graders of coed middle school, and were taught about separation of mixture for 10 class periods. Two-way ANCOVA results revealed that the test scores of academic achievement for cooperative learning group were significantly higher than those of individualistic and traditional learning groups. The attitudes toward science instruction and science were also more positive in cooperative learning group than the others. No interactions between the treatment and the level of previous achievement indicated that the cooperative learning strategy was effective regardless of the level of achievement.
A Difference of Identifying Variable Skills Assessment between Performance and Multiple Choice Items
Lee, Hang-Ro ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 1, 1999, Pages 146~158
Since 1960' s. aims of science education have changed from attainment of scientific concepts. principles and laws to improvement of science process(or inquiry) skills. According to the science education philosophy like this. our nation has adopted improvement and evaluation of science process(or inquiry) skills in science education. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of high school students on 4 types of multiple choice items used to access students ability to identify independent and dependent variables. Stimulus materials were either a question focusing on the relationship between two variables. a hypothesis. a description of an experiment. or a description of results of an experiment. Student performance on these item types was compared to this performance on a standard Piagetian interview task of variable identification. The results of the study included: (1) the "hypothesis" type was the most difficult, while the "question" type appeared to be the easiest; (2) the "procedure" item type had a higher correlation with the total interview than any other item type. Among conclusions reached in this study was that although all four item types operated similarly. they did not correlate very highly with the performance assessment by interview.
Development of National Curriculum-Based Assessment Standards and Instruments for High School Common Science
Lee, Yang-Rak ; Lee, Sun-Kyung ; Hong, Mi-Young ; Hong, Jae-Sig ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 1, 1999, Pages 159~172
This is the second year study of ''The Development of Model of National Criterion- Referenced Assessment Standards" that had started in 1997. In the study, national assessment standards for high school common science were developed based on national curriculum. In the whole process of developing the standards, high school teachers, university professors and administrators of the Ministry of Education have participated as the "developing group" or "consulting group". Through various activities such as conference, workshop, intensive work, examination by science education experts, the standards and instruments were developed and modified. The research contents can be itemized as follows: - modifying the achievement standards developed in the first year research based on the opinions of various experts(science teachers, professors of science education, philosophers) - developing assessment standards based on the specially designed system. The standards divide students' achievements into three levels(upper/middle/low) and state each level so that it can guide evaluation of achievement. - developing various types of test instruments to probe students' achievement levels for each assessment standard.