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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 1999
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 1999
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 1999
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 1999
Selecting the target year
Inquiry Problem Solving Characteristics among Categories with Science Process Skills and Concepts by High School Student's Protocol Analysis
Lee, Hang-Ro ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 3, 1999, Pages 355~366
In this study, the characteristics of science inquiry problem solving were analyzed in the interactions between science process skills and science concepts by each related its category. Nine types of problem solving, which were based on two elements and the thinking aloud were found largely by protocol analysis, but six types when integrated similar thinking processes. There were quite differences in the representative types between students who succeeded and failed when science inquiry items were solved in the abilities of recognizing problems and generating hypotheses or those of drawing conclusions and evaluating. But there were not complete differences in those types between students who succeeded and failed when they were solved in the abilities of designing and performing experiments or those of interpreting and analyzing data. The data were divided into independent variables:
and dependant variables;
. The former consisted of the content-free science process skill achievement levels by each category of science inquiry skill and the science concept achievement levels, the latter the science inquiry problem achievement levels by each category of science inquiry skill. The regression equations were acquired within the 0.05 significant level by regression analysis:
(E : the achievement of science problems, D : the achievement of science process skills, C : the achievement of science concepts).
The Relationships between Verbal Behaviors and Academic Achievement in Cooperative Learning
Lim, Hee-Jun ; Park, Soo-Youn ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 3, 1999, Pages 367~376
When 37 7th-graders learned science in cooperative learning environments, their small-group processes were audio/video taped. The verbal behaviors that appeared in cooperative learning processes were categorized, and the relationships between verbal behaviors and academic achievement were investigated. Students' verbal behaviors were classified into learning behaviors and management behaviors. Learning behaviors were further coded into giving help. reading problem, and asking help. Giving help was the most frequent behavior among the categories. In studying zero-order correlation between verbal behaviors and academic achievement, giving help and reading problem were found to have positive relationships with academic achievement. Giving specific content, which is a subcategory of giving help. showed the closest correlation with academic achievement. In studying partial correlation between verbal behaviors and the improvement of academic achievement, only application subtest score. which demands higher-order thinking, was positively related with some verbal behaviors including giving specific content.
A Study( I ) on Students' Questioning Activity in Science Class-The Effect of the Teaching Enhancing Students' Questioning-
Kim, Sung-Geun ; Yeo, Sang-Ihn ; Woo, Kyu-Whan ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 3, 1999, Pages 377~388
In this study, a learning-teaching model enhancing the students to ask questions was developed and the influence of its application to the lesson of 'Chemical Change and Elements' of the 8th grade was investigated. This learning-teaching model was constructed initially by completing the work-sheet to activate student's question-asking, then by writing down their questions or uncertainties in the class, and finally with the feedback of student's question to the individual and to the class. Treatment and control groups (2 classes each) were selected from a girls' middle school in Seoul. and taught for 12 class hours during 4 weeks for this study. Before instruction, the test of attitudes toward science lessons and the test of adoption of scientific attitudes were administered, and the science scores of the previous course were obtained for the covariate. After instruction, the conception test. the achievement test, the test of attitudes toward science lessons, and the test of adoption of scientific attitudes were administered. The TOSRA (Test of Science-Related Attitudes) was used both for the test of attitudes toward science lessons and for the test of adoption of scientific attitudes. The study revealed that the treatment group showed significant differences from the control group in the scores of the conception test (p<.01) and of the achievement test (p<.05). But in attitudes toward science lessons and adoption of scientific attitudes. there were not significant differences between the two groups, even though the scores of the treatment group were a little higher than those of the control group. Educational implications of the effect of science teaching on the questioning activity of students are also discussed.
Children's Mental Models of the Free-fall of Objects
Lee, Myung-Ja ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 3, 1999, Pages 389~399
The purpose of this study was to identify children's mental models of the free-fall objects. This study examined children's prediction and observation about the free-fall of objects. The experimental procedure involved conducting interviews with first-, third-, fifth-, and seventh grade students. The interview had three phases: Prediction, explanation, and observation. During the prediction phase, the object pairs which varied on the dimensions of size, weight, shape, color were presented to students. The students were asked to predict what would happen if the objects were dropped simultaneously. During the explanation phase, the students were asked to explain how they arrived at their answers. During the observation phase, the students observed the free-fall of the object pairs and were asked to describe what they saw. The results showed as follows. (1) Fifth-and seventh grade students made more correct predictions than first- and third grade students. (2) The conflict problems, object pairs involving the dimensions of size and weight, were the most difficult for students to accurately predict. (3) With regard to observations, there was a non-significant effect of grade, indicating equivalence in the number of correct observations made by first-, third-, fifth-, and seventh graders. (4) The conflict problems were the most difficult for students to correctly observe. (5) First- and third grade students showed a significant difference between prediction and observation about the free-fall of objects. However. no difference was found in the fifth- and seventh grade students.
The Effect of Grouping Method in Cooperative Learning Strategy Applied to Concept Learning
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Cha, Jeong-Ho ; Jeon, Kyung-Moon ; Jeong, Tae-Ho ; Han, Jae-Young ; Choi, Yong-Nam ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 3, 1999, Pages 400~408
This study investigated the effect of the grouping method in cooperative learning applied to chemistry concept learning. Two grouping methods used were the HML (High-Medium-Low) and the HL/MM (High-Low/Medium-Medium) ability grouping. Three classes (N = 136) at a high school in Seoul were randomly assigned to the control and the treatment groups. Before instruction. the test of attitude toward science instruction, the perception questionnaire of learning environment consisting of three subtests (participation, conflict, and competition), and the questionnaire of self-esteem were administered, and a mid-term examination score was obtained. These scores were used as covariates. After instruction, the three tests administered before instruction and the conceptions test were administered. Two-way ANCOVA results revealed that there was a significant interaction between the treatment and the level of previous achievement. The low-level students in the HL/MM cooperative group performed better than those in the other groups. The cooperative groups, regardless of the grouping methods, exhibited more positive perception than the control group at participation subtest of the perception questionnaire of learning environment.
The Process of the Quickening and Development of Science-Technology- Society Education in the United Kingdom (I) - Between the Beginning of the 19th Century and the Middle of the 20th Century -
Song, Jin-Woong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 3, 1999, Pages 409~427
The aim of this study was to illustrate how STS-related ideas in science education have been developed historically in the context of British education, particularly focused on the period of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. It has been hardly considered that the basic ideas of the STS education, one of the two paradigms of current science education together with constructivism, can be traced back to the beginning of the school science education itself. far beyond some of the programs which are largely regarded as the first-developed STS programs in Britain, such as Science in Society and SISCON. The movement of Mechanics' Institute during the first half of the 19th century would be the first systematic attempt to bridge the gap between the knowledge of pure science and its practical applications, although the main target was working-class adults rather than school pupils. At the end of the first half of the 19th century, this application-focused approach of science teaching was echoed in the elementary schools by Richard Dawes, one of the early experimenters of school science. The second half of the century was in large the period of the establishment of science as one of the core elements of school curriculum, mainly by emphasizing the aspect of pure science as a means for mental training. During this period, the elements of STS education-related appeared in the subject called 'Object Lesson' in elementary schools which was practically a separate subject from those of science. After the turn of the century, triggered by the experience of World War I, the growing appreciation of the impacts of science upon society and of the necessity of the teaching of science for wider audience gave a great impact towards two new main movements, i.e. for General Science and Citizen Science. The later illustrates a typical example of the STS movement in school science during the first half of the 20th century, particularly driven by the socialistic ideas towards the relation between science and society.
Development of Overhead Projector Films, CD-ROM, and Bio-Cosmos Home Page as Teaching Resources for High School Biology
Song, Bang-Ho ; Sin, Youn-Uk ; Choi, Mie-Sook ; Park, Chang-Bo ; Ahn, Na-Young ; Kang, Jae-Seuk ; Kim, Jeung-Hyun ; Seo, Hae-Ae ; Kwon, Duck-Kee ; Sohn, Jong-Kyung ; Chung, Hwa-Sook ; Yang, Hong-Jun ; Park, Sung-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 3, 1999, Pages 428~440
The colorful overhead projector films, named as Bio-cosmos II, including photographs, pictures, concept maps, and diagrams, were developed and manufactured as audio-visual teaching aids and teaching resources for students' biology learning in high school, and the CD-ROM and web sites for their application to the school were also constructed. The content of the films was organized based upon the analysis of seven different biology textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education. The films were designated based on various instructional strategies and manufactured using multimedia with various educational softwares. The CD-ROM was composed of the scenes as logo, initial main, chapters list, contents, and quit. Initial main scene indicated various chapters according to the texts of biology areas in General Science, Biology I, and II. Each chapters linked with the scenes for detailed concept maps, the downstream real subjects, and contents. The subject screens were composed of various types of summarized diagrams including lesson contents, figures, pictures, photographs, and their explanation, experimental procedures and results, tables for summarized contents, and additional animation with video captures, explanations, glossary, etc. Most files were manufactured in software Adobe Photoshop by scanning the pictures, figures and photographs, and then the explanation, modification, storing with PICT or PSD files, and transformation with JPG files, were processed in the aspect of high quality in terms of instructional strategies and graphic skills on gracefulness, clearness, colorfulness, brightness, and distinctness. A 14 films for biology areas in General Science, 80 for Biology I, and 142 for Biology II were manufactured and loaded to the CD-ROM and web site, and the files had been attempted to opened with an internet home-page of http://gic.kyungpook.ac.kr/biocosmos.
A Study on the Science Process Skills according to Mental Capacity and Cognitive Style of Elementary Students
Lim, Cheong-Hwan ; Nam, Jin-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 3, 1999, Pages 441~447
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship among science process skills. mental capacity and cognitive styles of elementary students. For the study 264 fifth-grade students were sampled. The Test of Science Process Skills(TSPS) was used as a measure of science process skills. Figural Intersection Test(FIT) was used as a measure of mental capacity. Group Embedded Figure Test(GEFT) was also used as a measure of cognitive styles. The results of this study showed that the science processskills increases progressively as the mental capacity increases. The field independent students showed significantly higher(p<.05) science process skills than the field dependent ones. There was no significant interaction between mental capacity and cognitive styles on science process skills. The findings indicated that there may be evidence to argue that mental capacity and cognitive styles play a important role in development of science process skills. The present study provided a possibility of Neo-Piagetian approach in science education research, and also showed an importance of cognitive development in the performance of science inquiry task.
A model of Worksheets with Various Levels Considering Contexts and Inquiry of the Learning Tasks for Elementary Science Classes
Lee, Myeong-Je ; Lee, Je-Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 3, 1999, Pages 448~460
Worksheets with various levels are major instructional material in open classroom, but sometimes they have been arbitrarily developed in elementaryschools. Especially, pedagogical elements of science course seem to have been neglected in developing science learning papers. To solve these problems, a model of worksheets was developed considering the contextual nature of science knowledge and educational constructivism. The frame of this model is composed of inquiry skill and context, which are two dimensions of each learning task. The level of each worksheet was determined by the level of inquiry skills and the familiarity of contexts.
Teachers' Perception about 'Science Field Trip to Korean Historical Sites'
Oh, Kyoung-Jin ; Jo, Kwang-Hee ; Park, Sang-Woo ; Pak, Sung-Jae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 3, 1999, Pages 461~470
The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' perception about 'Science Field Trip(SFT) to Korean historical sites'. Ninety-seven teachers were asked to reply the questionnaire about SFT to Korean historical sites. This questionnaire was divided into three parts: educational value, teaching method, and difficulty of management. Firstly, teachers indicated that SFT to Korean historical sites had much educational value in that it could give students chances to understand Korean culture, to acquire investigative process skills, to experience divergent investigation and cooperative learning, to raise integrated thinking skill concerning science and other subjects, and to learn contents related with science curriculum. It also had advantages of caring for students out of school and giving the information for future occupation. Secondly, teachers suggested the desirable teaching method: teachers' explanation about SFT to Korean historical sites with worksheets before it, students' group work during it, and the presentation and discussion after it. Finally, the most frequent answer in the difficulty of management was the lack of teaching materialsfor SFT to Korean historical sites.
The Relationships among Learners' Cognitive Variables, Motivational Variables, and Conceptual Understandings in Learning with Analogy
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Lim, Hee-Yeon ; Kim, Chang-Min ; Kang, Suk-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 3, 1999, Pages 471~478
In this study, the relationships among learners' cognitive variables, motivational variables, and conceptual understandings in learning with analogy were investigated. The instruments regarding analogical reasoning ability, field dependence-independence, mental capacity, and logical thinking ability were administered. Some subtests (self-efficacy, expectancy, self-concept of ability, and value) of the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey were administered. After students learned with a worksheet that included analogy, a conception test regarding 'stoichiometry that included limiting reagent' was also administered. It was found that learners' conceptual understandings were significantly correlated with the logical thinking ability and the field dependence-independence among the cognitive variables, and the self-efficacy and the self-concept of ability among the motivational variables. The multiple regression analysis of the cognitive variables on conceptual understandings revealed that the logical thinking ability was the most significant predictor. The field dependence-independence also had predictive power. In the analysis of the motivational variables, the self concept of ability was the only significant predictor.
A Study on Effects of the Concept Mapping for Biology Learning
Song, Whan-Sung ; Kim, Jin-Tae ; Hur, Chin-Hyu ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 3, 1999, Pages 479~486
This study was to inquire the effectiveness of concept mapping on the learning of biology concept. In this study the achivement acquired by the students in the classes of individual concept mapping and cooperative concept mapping were compared with those of traditional lecture on "photosynthesis and plant respiration". The concept mapping teaching methods, by individuals and groups. were more effective than traditional one. The results of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that these difference were statistically significant; individual concept mapping was more effective than traditional class result(p<.008). Also the cooperative concept mapping was effective than traditional class result(p<.0001). And the cooperative concept mapping was more effective than the individual one(p<.04). So that cooperative concept mapping is the most effective method in biology class.
The Meaning of Scientific Observation and an Analysis of Students' Observational Activity
Park, Jong-Won ; Kim, Ik-Gyun ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 3, 1999, Pages 487~500
Observation is one of the important aspects in science and science education. However. observation has so many varieties that the purpose and the meaning of scientific observations used in science education are different in persons, contexts, and subjects. In this study, we tried to understand the natures of scientific observation and investigated students' observational activities using four observation tasks: candle, double pendulum, iron filings around bar magnet, two electric bulbs connected in series. We required the subjects to observe the given tasks and described what did they observe. Based on students' observational descriptions, students' observational activities could be classified in four categories: primitive, interpretive, operational, and interfered observation. Also, we could find that some of the descriptions were non-observational activities such as predicting and questioning and so on. Finally, implications for the teaching of observation in science education are suggested.
A comparison of Science Framework in International Comparative Studies
Shin, Dong-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 3, 1999, Pages 501~506