Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 1999
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 1999
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 1999
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 1999
Selecting the target year
The Development of Performance Scoring Rubrics for the Inquiry-Based General Chemistry Experiments
Kang, Soon-Hee ; Kim, Yang-Hyun ; Park, Jong-Yoon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 507~515
This study is to develope the performance scoring rubrics for the inquiry-based experiments of general chemistry course in the college of education. Two types of analytic scoring rubrics have been developed for nine different experiments. The first one is to assess scientific process skills from the written experimental reports. These analytic scoring rubrics include seven process skills selected from the Lawson's 'creative and critical thinking skills' and other known process skills. The second one is to assess the individual manipulative skills and experimental attitudes through direct observations by the teacher. The content validity of all scoring rubrics was testified by six science educators. Also the inter-scorer reliability of analytic scoring rubrics administered on the students' experimental reports was examined. The correlation coefficient between the scores obtained from the experiments and those of the written test for theoretical knowledges was found to be r=.663(p <.01). From the variance(
=.440), we would say indirectly that the 56% of this experimental assessment does not overlap with the theoretical knowledges test and assesses students' science process skills, manipulative skills, and attitudes.
Students' Responses Confronted with Discrepant Situation Patterns about Inertia Concept
Lee, Gyoung-Ho ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 516~527
The purpose of this study was to find out the responses of students confronted with discrepant situation about inertia concept. We had developed two discrepant situation patterns according to conceptual change model(Kwon, 1989). And we examined the students' responses to the discrepant situations of the 3 inertia problems by interview method. In the result of this study. many students in discrepant situation 1 failed to explain the situation Some students gave up their preconception and showed new conception that was different from preconception. But most of their new conceptions were not scientific conception. In discrepant situation 2. the major characteristics of students responses were the assimilation strategies. Many students modified their preconception in some part but didn't change it. After discrepant situation. students' conceptions were changed more diverse conceptions than preconceptions.
The Analysis of Inquiry Scopes in High School General Science Textbook Based on the 6th Curriculum - Emphasizing the Analysis of Inquiry Experiment -
Park, Won-Hyuck ; Kim, Eun-A ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 528~541
In order to obtain data for developing an ideal science curriculum. four kinds of General Science textbooks based on the 6th curriculum were analyzed. Particularly inquiry activities were analyzed by Scientific Inquiry Evaluation Inventory(SIEI). The results are as follows: 1) The average number of inquiry activities in four kinds of textbooks is 115.5. And the number in each textbook is very diverse: textbook A contains 94 inquiry activities, textbook B 147. textbook C 100 and textbook D 121. 2) As for the number of inquiry activity scopes in four kinds of textbook. observation comes to 22, experiment 117, interpreting data 196, investigation 64, discussion 51, classification 4 and prediction 8. And then the conceptional inquiry activity is about 2.3 times as many as the inquiry experiment. 3) According to the analysis of each inquiry task by SIEI. textbook A has 268, textbook B 328, textbook C 207 and textbook D 304. 4) In the analysis of the structure of inquiry activity, the evaluation of the competition and cooperation scale shows more emphasis on common tasks. no pooled results(87.1 %). The discussion scale mostly consists of activities without discussion required among students(83.5%). The evaluation of openness scale shows more emphasis on activities with problems, procedures and answers presented(58.3%). In the evaluation of inquiry scope scale, the inquiry scope scale mostly has the activities to demonstrate or verify the contents of the text(66.9%). 5) As for the analysis of inquiry activities as a whole. The inquiry pyramid in four kinds of General Science textbooks shows the type I that emphasizes the inquiry activities in low level such as gathering and organizing data. The inquiry index in four kinds of textbooks is average 47.8, shows very high level (above 35).
Development of Elementary School Science Instructional Program for Nurturing Creativity - 1. Survey of the Status in Creativity Education -
Kang, Ho-Kam ; Noh, Suk-Goo ; Lee, Heui-Soon ; Hong, Seok-In ; Choi, Sun-Young ; Won, Wyong-Jun ; Ha, Jung-Won ; Kim, Ji-Sun ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 542~559
The purpose of this study was to develop the teaching-learning materials for students' creativity in elementary school science class. For this, we asked some questions to both teachers and students: 25-item- questionnaires were given to 122 teachers in charge of 5th graders and 6th graders in elementary schools located in Seoul, Inchon and Kyonggi province, and 20-item-questionnaires to 825 students of 5th grade and 6th grade in the same schools. The results of this study are as follows: most of teachers admitted the need of creativity education, but they taught class mostly with textbook only. The lack of students' divergent thinking and creative scientific activities in science class made it difficult to develop students' creativity. Besides, teaching-learning materials for whole brain learning were not enough. In case that the students did not make experiment in class, they liked VCR tapes or TP materials Students thought that the most effective materials for class are VCR tapes and next were worksheets. Not a few students answer they do hard only interesting experiments. Most of students wanted worksheets including various interesting activities like games, quiz, experiments, drawing, etc.
A Study on Students' Questioning Activity in Science Classes (II) - Analysis of the Patterns of Students' Questions -
Kim, Sung-Geun ; Yeo, Sang-Ihn ; Woo, Kyu-Whan ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 560~569
This study was conducted with two science classes of the 8th grade students in Seoul during 4 weeks. The numbers of students in the classes were 37 and 38, and they were taught for 12 class hours. Questions obtained for 12 class hours from 75 students were analyzed and grouped into patterns. All together 1.108 questions from the students were classified into six categories: 'No Connection' (7%). 'Contradiction' (3%), 'Recall' (23%), 'Reframe' (40%), 'Application' (18%), and 'Extension' (9%). Irrelevant questions to learning and questions of false proposition were classified into 'No Connection' and 'Contradiction', respectively. Questions repeating what were already explained were grouped into 'Recall'. Those requiring other examples and/or additional explanations were grouped into 'Reframe'. Those requiring practical applications and/or explanations for other concrete facts were grouped into 'Application'. Finally. Questions for higher and/or other concepts were grouped into 'Extension'. We also discussed educational implications of the above categorized questions in this study.
Analysis and suggestions for elementary textbooks based on the elementary students' understanding of electric circuits
Kim, Eun-Sook ; Shim, Jae-Gyu ; Jung, Yong-Jae ; Chang, Byung-Gi ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 570~584
The units about electricity in 5th and 6th science curriculum for elementary school was analyzed and the elementary students' understanding of related concepts was investigated. This study was to make connection between the research about alternative concepts and writing textbooks. It was found that students' response had following characteristics. They had strong belief that the + and - ends of battery should be connected. However this belief was not complete because students did not understand that the other circuit elements had to be connected properly. When the circuit involve more than one bulbs or batteries, they counted the number of batteries or bulbs only and paid little attention to the connection of them. In explaining circuits and the brightness of the bulbs in the circuits. students tried to explains the circuit using scientific terms but failed to used them properly. Although the concept of resistance was not dealt explicitly. student had reasonable qualitative understanding about resistance. According to response of students, several suggestions might be made for the curriculum. The structure and the circuit elements and the proper connection needs to be taught. Also more emphasis is necessary to pay attention to the connection in addition to the numbers of bulbs or batteries. Finally, it needs to be investigated carefully if it is better to introduce some qualitative model to explain the amount of current through bulb depending on the connection and the number of bulbs. It might also be better to introduce some terms, such as current and resistance with the model.
The analysis of students' ideas about the greenhouse effect
Je, Kwi-Youn ; An, Hui-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 585~594
The purpose of this study is to examine the concept of Greenhouse Effect as understood by middle school high school university students using a closed-form questionnaire. Based on results of the questionnaire which was administered to 619, the extent to which alternative concepts were held was quantified and compared the difference of various group based on grade level. gender, text and major. Also, subjects were divided into two groups, one is middle school students and the other is high school university students and common themes within conceptual framework of each group were identified by factor analysis. The result showed that students confused Greenhouse Effect with ozone layer depletion in stratosphere and linked familiar contamination around everyday life. acid rain. radioactive contamination, nuclear arsenal to Greenhouse Effect. These trends were more appreciable in female than male, biology major than any other major and text did not make any significant difference. In addition, the result of factor analysis showed that two groups linked familiar contamination around everyday life to Greenhouse Effect and high school university students understand the consequences of an increase in the Greenhouse Effect more systematically than middle school student, perceived the relation between the origin of an increase in the Greenhouse Effect and human activity but confused Greenhouse Effect with ozone layer depletion in stratosphere.
Development of Computer Assisted Instruction Program in Multimedia Environment and its Effects on Science Achievement and Attitude towards Science Learning
Lim, Hye-Young ; An, Hui-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 595~603
The purpose of this study was to develop the computer assisted instruction program in multimedia environment, to examine the relative effects of two types of multimedia learning on science achievement and attitude towards science learning and to investigate the effects of treatment and students' learning ability. The results of this study were summarized as follows: 1. On science achievement; The multimedia learnings were more effective than the traditional one. Difference between multimedia learning I (through individualistic learning) and multimedia learning II(through peer interaction) was not significant. There was not interaction effect of treatment and students' learning ability. 2. On attitude towards science learning; The multimedia learnings were more effective than the traditional one. The multimedia learning I (through individualistic learning) was more effective than the multimedia learning II (through peer interaction). There was no interaction of treatment and students' learning ability. 3. On students' perceptions on multimedia learning; The students in the multimedia classes showed the multimedia learning were good in causing interest. making students absorbed in studies, and giving many learning materials, but not good in a couple of points such as making students bored and not explaining in detail.
Analyses of the Test Problems for Admission at the Science Education Center for Gifted Youth
Lee, Sang-Bub ; Lee, Kwang-Pill ; Choi, Sang-Don ; Hwang, Suk-Geun ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 604~621
We analyze the admission test problems used in 1998 at the Science Education Center for Gifted Youth at Kyungpook National University (SECGY, KNU). The test consists of two parts, an evaluation of the scientific thinking skills and an evaluation of the achievement for Mathematics and Sciences, the former of which includes evaluations of scientific process skills and logical thinking skills. The problems for the test of scientific thinking skills were developed and standardized by the Korea Education Development Center, while those of the achievement for Mathematics and Sciences were made at SECGY. We calculate the indices of the difficulty and discrimination for each problem to determine whether or not the test is appropriate to apply for selecting number of gifted students among the recommended students from 389 middle schools in Taegu-city and Kyungsang-pook-do Province. We find that both indices of most problems for the test of scientific thinking skills were out range of the appropriate level and. moreover, even those problems which fall into the appropriate range showed very low efficiencies for distractors. We, thus, conclude that the problems of the test of scientific thinking skills are inappropriate to use as a test for admission to SECGY. On the other hand, the problems of the achievement test showed extreme results; the Mathematics problems appeared to be too difficult, whereas the Physics problems appeared too easy. However, overall scores showed a normal distribution, indicating that those problems played crucial role in selecting gifted students. We finally propose several suggestions in developing the test problems and in selecting students at the SECGY.
A Study on the 6th Middle School Science Curriculum and Its Implementation
Choe, Seung-Urn ; Han, In-Ok ; Oh, Phil-Seok ; Pak, Sung-Jae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 622~634
We have investigated the 6th middle school science curriculum and its implementation based upon the results of middle school science teachers' and professors' ratings and self-reportings. The national-wide survey was administrated to obtain the data from 213 teachers of 112 middle schools and 43 professors of colleges of education. The survey items correspond to four stages of science curriculum. In the stage of the planned science curriculum, 'goals', 'framework of contents' and 'contents' are relevant to the basic guideline for curriculum revision, 'the more emphasis on inquiry activities'. However, the amount of contents is not appropriate, and 'methods' are difficult to attain. In the stage of the written science curriculum, 'goals', 'framework of contents', 'contents', 'methods' and 'evaluations' are not useful for teachers to teach science. In the stage of the implemented science curriculum, a small number of teachers use the issues of local community, organize the different group activities, develop assessment tools cooperatively, and conduct a lesson and a program considering students' diversities. This is partially because of the large amount of learning contents, the lack of materials and the weakness of supporting system. Finally, in the stage of the attained science curriculum, the students' achievements under the 6th curriculum is not higher than those under the other curricula.
Instructional Effect of Cooperative Learning in Problem Solving Strategy
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Yeo, Kyeong-Hee ; Jeon, Kyung-Moon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 635~644
The effect of cooperative learning in a heuristic approach (four stage-problem solving strategy) that also emphasized molecular level representation was studied. Three high school classes (N=130) were randomly assigned to St group (using strategy individually), St-Co group (using strategy in cooperative group), and control group. After instruction, students' multiple-choice problem solving ability, strategy performing ability, and the perception of involvement were compared. Students' preferred instruction type was also examined. Although multiple-choice problem solving ability were not different significantly, a significant interaction between the treatment and the previous achievement level was found in strategy performing ability. Analysis of simple effects indicated that the medium-level students in the St group performed better than those in the St-Co group. In the perception questionnaire of involvement. however, the scores of the St group were significantly lower than those of the control group. The instruction type that students most preferred was also St-Co.
The Effects of Number, Source, and Sequence of Analogs on Middle School Students' Concept Recall and Application
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Kim, Chang-Min ; Kwon, Hyeok-Soon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 645~652
The effects of number, source, and sequence of analogs on middle school students' concept recall and application were investigated. Based on the number (one/two) and source(everyday/science) of analogs, four types of learning materials were developed and pilot-tested. Prior to the treatment the field dependence/independence (FD/l) test was administered and the scores were used as a blocking variable. The learning materials were read by randomly assigned middle school students (N=88), and the concept recall and application test was administered immediately and four weeks later. In the immediate and retention tests, there were no significant main effects of number, source, and sequence of analogs. In the application problems of retention test. however, there were some significant interaction effects with students' FD/I. Field-independent students who learned with two analogs scored significantly higher than those who learned with one analog. In the case of using two analogs, field-dependent students who learned with everyday-analog first scored significantly higher than those who learned with science-analog first.
A development and evaluation of new training program for science teacher - focused on computer simulation inquiry experiments in physics -
Park, Jong-Won ; Oh, Hee-Gyun ; Kim, Doo-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 653~664
This study was designed to develope an in-service training programme using Interactive
simulation for science teachers and to evaluate the effect of programme. The purposes of training programme are the improvement of scientific inquiry teaching ability as well as enhancement of the understanding of scientific concepts, inquiry skills, and the computer manipulation skills. The developed programme was implemented four times with 15 hours for each courses. The questionnaire for evaluating the programme after the last course showed that many teachers (1) voluntarily participated in this programme with internal motivation, (2) were satisfied with the level of programme difficulty, professionality of lecturer, and classroom environment, (3) gave positive responses about the achievement of the purposes of this programme, (4) showed strong intention for applying simulation to their school teaching. And future studies were proposed.
A Study on Science Teachers' Practices and Perceptions of Using Analogies
Kwon, Hyeok-Soon ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 665~673
We examined how science teachers in middle schools practiced and perceived using analogies. A survey was administered to obtain 131 teachers' responses from 22 middle schools in Seoul. Most science teachers used analogies frequently in their instructions, and had positive attitudes toward the effect of analogies. They agreed that relevant figures should be presented with analogies, analogy itself should be explained to their students, and something to mislead the students' idea should be mentioned. They also responded that they practiced so in their instructions. However, it was revealed that they neither explained a concept with several analogies nor helped students to make self-generated analogies. Their idea was that proper analogy sources and instructional models were needed for using analogy effectively in science instruction. The teachers with above masters degree explained the analogy itself, and they perceived the needs for supplements and strategies in using analogy more affirmatively. The teachers possessing modern perceptions to science instructions and students' activities rather than classical ones used analogies more frequently and effectively.
Grade 7th Pupils' Ideas about Identification and Control of Variables in Inquiry Problems
Kim, Jae-Woo ; Oh, Won-Kun ; Pak, Sung-Jae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 674~683
The purpose of this study was to compare the ideas of pupils with that of the scientists about controlling and identifying of variables, in the two cases: open or guided inquiry. The subjects were the 7th grade boys and girls in a school, in Seoul, Korea. For the guided inquiry, the problems were given by the experiments of pupils' text. Pupils were asked to identify the variables in the experiments. For the open inquiry, pupils set their own inquiry problem. The pupils whose marks are within upper one-third of three classes were chosen. Pupils' ideas on variables were investigated in the design of experiment for their problems. In that, questionnaire developed by researchers was used. In the former, many of the pupils identify just only one variable despite of the fact there were two independent or dependent variables in the experiments. In the latter, the number of independent variables increased two or three. However, pupils do not control independent variables: they vary two independent variables simultaneously in the design of experiment. From these, we compared the pupils' ideas on variables with the scientists'
The Change of Middle School Students' Cognitive Engagement in the Extended Science Investigations
Yoon, Hye-Gyoung ; Pak, Sung-Jae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 19, issue 4, 1999, Pages 684~695
In this study, the 'extended science investigation' was conceptualized as a comprehensive science investigation contrasted with exercise of process and skill component and cookbook style experiment. The extended investigation tasks can be characterized with practical context. openness and continuity. The purpose of this study is to describe the change of students' cognitive engagement while they perform the extended science investigations and to explore how the characteristics of the extended investigation tasks affect the students' cognitive engagement. 128 7th graders attending coeducational school in Seoul were participated in this study. The questionnaire was implemented repeatedly to monitor students' cognitive engagement. And ten students were interviewed to explore the cause of the change of cognitive engagement. The result showed that there was no difference between directive traditional investigations in textbook and developed extended investigations in understanding of the content and whole process of investigations but participants' commitment was increased significantly in the extended science investigations. Especially the extent of students' understanding and commitment became higher in the second half than in the first half of the extended science investigations. The openness of the extended investigation tasks contributed on the increase of commitment. And the continuity of the tasks contributed on the increase of students' understanding in the second half of the extended science investigations.