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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2000
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2000
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2000
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2000
Selecting the target year
An Analysis of Elementary
Textbooks : From a Perspective of Gender Fairness
Shin, Dong-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 20, issue 2, 2000, Pages 193~199
The textbook is a predominant feature of most classrooms. Because the textbook is an important aspect of educational experience, it is essential that the content of the texts be carefully scrutinized. The purpose of this study was to examine the visual portrayal of gender groups in elementary
textbooks developed by the 6th National Science Curriculum. An instrument was developed to analyze the nature and type of activity engaged in by these groups as well as how often members of these groups were portrayed. Data were collected from 8 elementary
textbooks. The results show the following two different features. While the elementary
textbooks do not show gender-biases in representing science learning activities such as observing, experimenting, measuring, they show distinct gender-stereotyped roles and activities. It is expected that the results of this study are considered in developing the new elementary "Science" textbooks which show gender-fairness.
The state of the Art of Common Science Teaching in High School
Kim, Young-Sung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 20, issue 2, 2000, Pages 200~213
This study is to examine how common science, which was selected as a required subject in high schools with the reorganization of the 6th national science curriculum by the Ministry of Education, is taught in high schools these days. The results show that only one teacher is teaching common science in 3.2% of schools or the teachers divide and teach units according to their majors. In this situation, there are many problems because there are too many integrated contents in each unit and they are too short to solve the study subject during the unit time of 50 minutes. Another problem is that there is no special laboratory for common science. For the knowledge part of common science, lecture-learning is used as a method of teaching and for the inquiry part, inquiry-learning is used. Evaluation is conducted using subjective or objective paper-tests for the knowledge part, and reports are used for evaluation in the inquiry part. Therefore, this study shows that students' response to common science is below the general level and this subject missed the original intent introduced to raise students' interests about science.
Chemistry Problem-Solving Ability and Self-Efficacy
Jeon, Kyung-Moon ; Seo, In-Ho ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 20, issue 2, 2000, Pages 214~220
The difference (bias) between self-efficacy and chemistry problem-solving ability was investigated for 96 (male: 48, female: 48) high school students. A self-efficacy instrument was administered, which asked the confidence in solving algorithmic and conceptual problems successfully. Their chemistry problem-solving ability was then assessed with 10 algorithmic and 10 conceptual problems as same in the self-efficacy instrument. Although students had higher scores in the algorithmic problems, no significant difference was found in the self-efficacy to solve the two different forms of problems. Therefore, the bias scores in the conceptual problems were higher than those in the algorithmic problems. Two-way ANOVA results for the bias in the algorithmic problems revealed a significant interaction between gender and the previous achievement level. Analysis of simple effects indicated that the bias scores of high-achieving boys were significantly higher than those of high-achieving girls. While most high-achieving boys were in the overconfident category, high-achieving girls were more likely to be in the underconfident category.
The Patterns of Students' Conceptual Changes on Force by Age
Kim, Yeoun-Soo ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 20, issue 2, 2000, Pages 221~233
Many investigators have reported difficulties in changing the high school students' misconceptions on mechanics. By one possible solution to this problem, some researchers suggested that the students should be taught mechanics at a younger age to make conceptual changes possible. because as they get older they become less willing to change their ideas. The purpose of this study was to compare the patterns of students' conceptual changes on force by age, to find out whether older students were less ready to change their conceptions than younger students. Individual interviews were carried out with 35 students (average ages 13) in middle school class and 50 students (average ages 17) in high school class near by the middle school. Those students who held the misconcetpion that "motion-implies-force (Impetus conception)" were asked to read a student-centered refutational text (anomalous data). In the immediate and delayed posttest, the types of responses of the students were analyzed to find out the patterns of student's conceptual changes on force by age. In result, first, most of students had impetus conception. Some of the students aged 13 understood the force as terminologies related with everyday experiences, while the students aged 17 understood the force as scientific terminologies. Second, there was no evidence to suggest that conceptual change is more difficult for the students aged 17 than aged 13. Third, the students aged 13 showed diverse responses (plain acceptance, critical acceptance, plain rejection, critical rejection) to the refutational text, while the students aged 17 showed restricted responses (critical acceptance, critical rejection). A month later those students who showed the plain acceptance retrogressed unscientific conceptions, while those students who showed critical acceptance maintained scientific conceptions. We did not find out any evidence to suggest that conceptual change is more difficult for older students. These results need deeper investigation on the nature of the loss of plasticity in comparison with other important variables.
The Relationships Between Verbal Behaviors and Chemistry Problem Solving Ability in Cooperative Learning
Jeon, Kyung-Moon ; Yeo, Kyeong-Hee ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 20, issue 2, 2000, Pages 234~243
This study investigated the relationships between verbal behaviors and chemistry problem solving ability in cooperative learning. Based on the previous chemistry achievement. 11th-graders were assigned heterogeneously into three-membered groups. Small cooperative group problem solving processes in using 4 stage-problem solving strategy were audio/video taped. Students' chemistry problem solving ability was then measured by a problem solving strategy performance test. Their verbal behaviors were classified into giving information, receiving information, asking questions, and disagreeing. These were further coded into 16 subcategories. Providing, a subcategory of giving information, was the most frequent behavior. In studying partial correlation between verbal behaviors and problem solving ability, 7 categories were found to have significantly positive relationships. Providing showed the highest correlation with the problem solving ability as reported previously. Moreover, this study also revealed significant correlations in the categories of clarifying provided, correcting, justifying, and clarifying. In the case of low-ability students, the verbal behaviors of giving or receiving information were strongly correlated with problem solving ability. However, these verbal behaviors did not enhance the problem solving ability of high- and medium-ability students.
Secondary Science Teachers' Views on Science and Learning
Park, Yun-Bae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 20, issue 2, 2000, Pages 244~249
Using a sample of 83 secondary school science teachers, this study investigated the views on science and learning which they have. Questionnaires used in this study were the same that Kwon & Pak(1995) administered. Both 'Questionnaire for Perception of Nature of Science' and 'Questionnaire for Constructivistic Views of Learning' were 11-point scales. Data analyses were done by using t-test and ANOVA. The secondary science teachers showed a relativistic, deductivistic, instrumental, and process-oriented views on science. The younger age of the teachers, the more emphasis on process rather than content. Female teachers had more relativistic, instrumental, and process-oriented views than male teachers had. The teachers sampled in this study showed a constructivistic view on learning. Finally, the teachers' views of science and learning were closely related each other.
Effect of Concept Learning Strategy Emphasizing Social Consensus during Discussion
Kang, Suk-Jin ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 20, issue 2, 2000, Pages 250~261
In this study, a concept learning strategy emphasizing social consensus during discussion (SCS) was developed. The instructional effects of this strategy were compared with those of cognitive conflict strategy (CCS) and traditional instruction in the aspects of students' achievement, conceptions, communication apprehension, perceptions of science learning environment, and perceptions of small group discussion. There were no significant differences in the scores of an achievement test. For the students of low communication competency, however, the scores of the CCS group were significantly higher than those of the traditional group. The adjusted mean of the SCS group was higher than those of the other groups in a conceptions test. The social consensus strategy was also found to be more effective in learning concept for those who were more competent in communicating. No significant differences were found in the communication apprehension. The scores of three groups did not differ significantly in the subcategories of 'personal relevance' and 'students' negotiation' of the test of the perceptions of science learning environment. However, the students in the SCS group scored higher in 'participation'. The students in the SCS group perceived small group discussions more positively.
Development of a Tool for K-12 Science Curriculum Articulation
Paik, Seoung-Hey ; Kim, Hyo-Nam ; Cho, Boo-kyung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 20, issue 2, 2000, Pages 262~273
The purpose of this study was to develop a tool for K-12 science curriculum articulation analysis, especially the concept map of 'properties of matter' and the table of the key concepts of 'properties of matter' by grade. We have 5 steps for the purpose; to extract common subject of K-12 science curriculums, to analyze the contents of K-12 science curriculum related to the common subject, to develop and analyze concept maps of K-12 science curriculums, to develop common concept map and the table of key concepts by grade of K-12 science curriculum, and to modify and clear up the concept map and the table. First two steps are related to the develop of 'water' concept map, and the others are related to the 'properties of matter' concept map.
An Analysis of Inquiry Activities of the High School Common Science Textbook(Materials Part) By Using 3-Dimensional Analysis Framework
Kim, Yun-Hi ; Moon, Seong-Bae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 20, issue 2, 2000, Pages 274~287
This study was performed the analysis of four kinds of common science textbooks based on the 6th curriculum. Particularly, inquiry activity part was analyzed by the three dimension framework which consists of inquiry content dimension, inquiry process dimension and inquiry context dimension. In the analysis of the inquiry content dimension of inquiry activities, the contents revised by 6th curriculum of common science textbook was accomplished through various inquiry activities. The number of inquiry activity in four textbooks was similar as about 16. The For the analysis of inquiry process dimension, 'interpreting data and formulating generalizations' category (39.1%) was most emphasized and the categories of 'observation and measuring'(30.8%), and 'building, testing and revising the theoretical model' (16.5 %), 'seeing a problem and seeking ways to solve it' (13.5%) follow in order. As for the analysis of the inquiry context dimension, the proportion of STS related contents in inquiry activities was only 18%. So, we propose that STS related contents would increase the proportion for the following textbook.
Types of Students' Responses to Anomalous Data
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Lim, Hee-Yeon ; Kang, Suk-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 20, issue 2, 2000, Pages 288~296
In this study, the types and the characteristics of students' responses to anomalous data were investigated. The criteria for classifying students' responses were 'acceptance of validity of anomalous data', 'acceptance of inconsistency between anomalous data and initial theory', and 'change of belief in initial theory'. Seven types of responses were identified as follows: Rejection, reinterpretation, exclusion, uncertainty, peripheral theory change, partial belief change, and theory change. Absolute belief in the intial theory and doubts about methodological accuracy were found to be the major reasons for rejecting anomalous data. The students did not accept the inconsistency between anomalous data and initial theory because they ignored the experimental procedures and focused on the similarity of the experimental results.
Relationships among Students' Understanding of Genetics Topics, Meaningful Learning Orientation, and Reasoning Ability
Chung, Young-Lan ; Lee, Eun-Jung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 20, issue 2, 2000, Pages 297~306
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among an achievement, a meaningful learning orientation and a reasoning ability. 149 third grade middle school students were tested. The achievement test was designed to measure students' interrelated understanding of genetics. A modified LPQ(Learning Process Questionnaires) was used to measure students' meaningful learning orientation. Students' reasoning ability were identified by the short version GALT(Group Assessment of Logical Thinking). Correlations between different variables were examined. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the predictive influence of meaningful learning orientation and reasoning ability on the achievement of students. And ANCOVA was used to identify the interaction of these variables on students' achievement. Students did not understand well enough the concepts of genetics. Meaningful learning orientation indicated a significant gender difference. Girls tend to do more meaningful learning than boys(p<.05). Many students(48.76%) were at the transitional cognitive level. Results of correlations indicated that students' attainment of meaningful understanding was significantly and positively related with a meaningful learning orientation and a reasoning ability. But there was no significant correlation between students' meaningful learning orientation and reasoning ability. Regression analyses indicated that learning orientation and reasoning ability were able to predict the achievement of students. They predicted better on solving genetics problem than understanding genetics problem. Results of ANCOVA showed that the test scores of genetics were significantly different according to not only learning orientation levels but also cognitive levels. But, there was no interaction between learning orientation and cognitive levels. Within the transitional and formal cognitive level, the meaningful learners performed significantly better than the rote learners on the test of genetics.
Development and Application of Elementary Science Curriculum to Enhance Creative Problem Solving Abilities
Cho, Youn-Soon ; Seong, Jin-Sook ; Chae, Je-Sook ; Koo, Seong-Hye ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 20, issue 2, 2000, Pages 307~328
The purpose of this study is to develop and implement an alternative elementary science curriculum to enhance creative problem solving abilities. The curriculum consisting of three main elements was developed. The three elements are content knowledge, process knowledge and creative thinking skills. The curriculum was validated by more than 10 science educators, scientists, and curriculum specialists. In order to implement the curriculum, three lessons for 5th grade were developed and taught by a problem-based-learning(PBL) method in an experimental group during the second semester. For the comparison group the ordinary lesson based on the 6th national science curriculum was taught by the same science teacher during the same period. Performance assessment was developed and used for the pre and post test. Two-way ANOVA, and T-test were used to check whether there are any significant differences between the gains of scores(pre-post test) of the two groups. The results of the test showed that the experimental group increased significantly in the total creative thinking problem solving skills, but the comparision group did not.
Development of the Middle School Science Curriculum to Enhance Creative Problem-Solving Abilities
Cho, Youn-Soon ; Choi, Kyung-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 20, issue 2, 2000, Pages 329~343
The purpose of this study is to develop the middle school science curriculum to enhance creative problem-solving abilities. The reconstructed curriculum consisted of three big components, that is, scientific knowledge, process skills, and creative thinking skills. Five themes have been selected to incorporate with four areas of the middle school science curriculum, namely, physics, chemistry, biology, earth science. The five themes are structure, change, interaction, energy, and stability. Based upon these five themes, the individual or separated scientific knowledges of learners can be put into the unified knowledges. The process skills were observing, measuring, classifying, communicating, inferring, predicting, variable differentiating controling, data gathering analysis, establishing hypotheses, experiment design, and experimenting. Creative thinking skills include divergent and critical thinking. The finally developed curriculum is presented in the form of matrix.
An Investigation on High School Students' Chemistry-Related Environmental Conceptions and Environmental Attitudes
Han, Jae-Young ; Kang, Suk-Jin ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 20, issue 2, 2000, Pages 344~352
In this study, high school students' environmental conceptions and attitudes, and their relationships with affective variables (self-esteem, enjoyment of science lesson, and leisure interest in science) were investigated. Students' environmental conceptions were found to be low, and male students' environmental conceptions were higher than female students. However, the environmental attitudes of female students were more positive than those of male students. There were no differences between male and female students in the ecocentric attitudes, but male students had more egocentric attitudes than female students. Students of higher prior science achievement level possessed higher level of environmental conceptions than their counterparts. Among the affective variables studied, leisure interest in science was significantly correlated with environmental attitudes.