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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Dec 2002
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
A Study on Influences of Learning Environment Variables in Elementary School Student's Science Process Skills
Kim, Young-Shin ; Cho, Eun-Suk ; Chung, Wan-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 1~11
This study was analyzing what studying factors are affecting on the development of science process skills of the 5th graders in the elementary school. For this research, 2 hundreds of elementary students were chosen and questioned on 3 factors like teacher, school environment, and learning strategy which are supposed to affect the development of science process skills. According to the result, there were differences in the categories according to the region. Especially, science process skills were significantly different in level of school category(p<.05)). Science process skills were significantly correlated with teachers and school category, and learning environment in 5th grade. Based on these results, it is expected to perform analysis about the influences that studying variables have on science achievement and attitude as well as scientific reasoning ability. Also, further study is needed about the influence that these small difference have on middle and high school students, though studying variables are not statistically significant on this research.
Students' Levels of Cognitive Conflict by Provided Quantitative Demonstration and Qualitative Demonstration
Kim, Ji-Na ; Choi, Hyuk-Joon ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 12~21
The purpose of this study is to understand middle school students' levels of cognitive conflict for the students provided quantitative demonstration and qualitative demonstration after the pre-test. 297 middle school students were selected from one school in Pusan. Action-reaction problem of mechanics and electric bulbs in parallel problem of electricity were used in the demonstration and the pre-test. Students' cognitive conflict levels were investigated using the developed items by Kwon(1999) et al. We compared cognitive conflict levels between quantitative demonstration group and qualitative demonstration group. In addition to, we compared cognitive conflict levels between students who changed their preconceptions and the students who adhered to their preconceptions. We investigated correlation between levels of faith with preconceptions and cognitive conflict levels. The study generated the following results. First, students who selected incorrect choice in pre-test showed the higher levels of cognitive conflict in quantitative demonstration group than qualitative demonstration group and students who selected correct choice in pre-test showed higher levels of cognitive conflict in qualitative demonstration group than quantitative demonstration group. Second, students who changed their preconceptions were higher levels of cognitive conflict than students who adhered their preconceptions. Third, students who selected incorrect choice in pre-test showed positive correlation between levels of faith with preconceptions and levels of cognitive conflict, and students who selected incorrect choice in pre-test showed negative correlation between levels of faith with preconceptions and levels of cognitive conflict.
Effects of Reading Materials about Scientists on the Attitude Toward Science and Images of Scientists - Focusing on Gender Differences
Jeon, Hwa-Young ; Yeo, Sang-Ihn ; Woo, Kyu-Whan ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 22~31
This research was designed to verify the effects of reading materials about scientists on the attitude toward science and images of scientists. The studies have been conducted for students in the tenth grade science class. In experimental group, students were instructed to read the reading material regarding the role models of five female scientists in class, while a control group were furnished with those of male scientists. Before and after instruction, the pre- and post-test about attitudes toward science and images of scientists were administered. In general, it was found that they successfully cast away the stereotyped images of scientists with the aid of the reading materials. There were significant differences between two groups in gender of a scientist (p = .000). Namely, more students in the experimental group had drawn the pictures of female scientists than those in the control group. In addition, test score in attitude toward science have shown significant differences between pre- and post-test (p < .001). And, the experimental group score is higher than control group (p < .05). Accordingly, this research has verified that the reading materials about scientists, especially of female scientists, can have favorable influence on the attitudes and images of scientists.
Validity of the Criteria for Assessing the Degree of Preference of Science Learning Programs for Gifted Elementary Pupils
Oh, Won-Kun ; Park, Jong-Seok ; Park, Jong-Wook ; Chung, Byung-Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 32~39
Three conjectures as the criteria for developing differentiated science learning program for gifted elementary students were derived from the previous research report: 1) The students' reasons why certain educational programs were thought to be interesting or profitable could be classified into the 3 criteria; novelty, curiosity, participation. 2) Students used to think that the programs were interesting if at least anyone of the above 3 criteria is fulfilled. 3) They think, especially, that the programs were profitable if the curiosity criterion is satisfied. To check these conjectures, 47 students were investigated with a Likert type questionnair asking how much the given program is interesting and profitable to themselves after they finished a set of programs for gifted students.
Gender Differences in Achievement of Earth and Environmental Area in PISA 2000
Shin, Dong-Hee ; Park, Chung ; Ro, Koog-Hyang ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 40~53
This study was based on the analysis of earth and environmental science items in PISA 2000 data. The purpose of this study was to identify i) gender differences in scientific literacy, ii) item characteristics that favored either female or male, and iii) misconceptions that 15-years-old Korean students have in the field of earth and environmental science. The results revealed significant gender differences. Overall, male students demonstrated higher level of achievement than female students. On the other hand, amongst high ability students, female students outperformed male students in open-constructed items. Female students tended to score higher on items that required long answers or items related to scientific processes, whereas male students outperformed female students in science knowledge or items that required data interpretation. The study also revealed that a majority of Korean students had misconceptions in fundamental earth and environmental science knowledge, such as the direction of earth's axis and equator, and the causes of Greenhouse Effect.
The Effects of Decision-Making Activities about Bioethical Issues on Students' Rational Decision-Making Ability in High School Biology
Park, Yun-Bok ; Kim, Young-Shin ; Chung, Wan-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 54~63
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of decision-making activities in lesson on improving decision-making ability to meet bioethical issues in everyday situation. Worksheet for decision-making was consisted of six steps: Identification of problem, searching relevant information, generation of alternatives, identification of values for selection criteria, evaluation of alternatives, review of consequence. The results of this study showed that the scores of decision-making were increased by the activities of worksheets. The scores of identification of problem, generation of alternatives, and evaluation of alternatives were increased meaningfully. However, the scores of searching relevant information, identification of values for selection criteria, and review of consequence were not increased. It seems that all steps of decision-making ability could not improve by short-term learning. Low level performance was appeared on the step of searching relevant information and evaluation of alternatives. This result indicated that students could not apply the biological knowledge to decision-making in the face of bioethical issues. In conclusion, the learning experience of decision-making is essential to foster rational decision-making ability. The activity of decision-making should be included in science class and curriculum.
A Comparative Study of the Trends of Current Science Education and the System Thinking Paradigm
Kim, Man-Hee ; Kim, Beom-Ki ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 64~75
The purposes of this study are to understand the trends of current science education compared with thinking paradigm and to find the direction of reform in holistic view. It is divided into three parts. Firstly, significant trends of science education during the late 20th century were examined. Secondly, the current society was discussed, particularly focused on the thinking paradigm. Thirdly, the science education trends and thinking paradigms were compared. The results are 1) A major goal of contemporary science education is the scientific literacy, for which the constructivist and STS class are introduced, 2) Thinking paradigm is changing from analytics to systemics, and 3) Compared the current science education and system thinking paradigm, they seem consistent in respect of looking for the whole-part relationship.
Korean Students' Achievement in Scientific Literacy
Shin, Dong-Hee ; Ro, Koog-Hyang ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 76~92
OECD/PISA(Programme for International Student Assessment) is significant in that it is the first international comparative study assessing 15-year-old students' scientific literacy. Based on Korean students' results of percent correct in 35 science items, several characteristics such as followings were revealed. First, from the perspectives of science application area, Korean students showed the highest achievement in the area of 'science in technology' followed by in the areas of 'science in life and health' and 'science in earth and environment'. Male students achieved significantly better than female counterparts in all three areas. Second, the achievement in items of science knowledge was significantly higher than in items of scientific processes. Whereas the achievement difference between science knowledge- and scientific process items was larger for male students. Third, from the perspectives of application contexts, Korean students showed the highest achievement in the historical context and the lowest achievement in the personal context. Fourth, from the perspectives of item format, Korean students performed significantly better in open-constructed items rather than in multiple-choice items. Fifth, Korean students showed low performance in items of biotechnology and environment-related issue, which was more prominent for female students. Sixth, whereas male students performed significantly better than female students in most aspects, it is noteworthy that there was no significant gender differences in items of scientific processes and females performed significantly better than male students in open-constructed items which require long sentence.
The Effect of Cooperative Small Group Discussion in Science Concept Learning
Kang, Suk-Jin ; Han, Su-Jin ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 93~101
This study investigated the effect of small group discussion for science concept learning in cooperative learning environments that encourage verbal interaction with peers upon students' understanding of the concepts at the particulate level, application abilities, perceptions of students' negotiation, and communication apprehension. Two classes of 7th grade at a coed middle school were assigned to the control and the treatment groups. They were taught about change of states and motion of molecules for 7 class periods. Two-way ANCOVA results revealed that the scores of a conceptions test for the treatment group were significantly higher than those for the control group, and that the low-achievers in the treatment group performed better than those in the control group. However, the scores of two groups did not differ significantly in an application test. The perceptions of students' negotiation for the treatment group were more positive, but the scores of the communication apprehension for two groups were not significantly different.
Effects of Instructional Method Using Think-Aloud Paired Problem Solving and Mole-Map
Noh, Tah-Hee ; Jeong, Yeong-Seon ; Kang, Suk-Jin ; Yu, Ji-Yeon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 102~109
This study investigated the effects of an instructional method which consists of think-aloud paired problem solving (TAPPS) and mole-map. Three classes (100 students) of a high school were assigned to the control, the TAPPS, and the TAPPS with mole-map (M-TAPPS) groups. Prior to the instructions, students' perceptions of learning environment were examined. Tests of mole conception, problem solving ability, and perception of learning environment were administered after the instructions. Two-way ANCOVA results indicated that the high-level students in the TAPPS group performed better in the conception test than those in the control and the M-TAPPS groups. However, there was no significant difference among the three groups in problem solving ability. The scores of involvement for the TAPPS group were significantly higher than those for the control group.
A Study on Classroom Interactions by Student's Cognitive Level in the Performance of Controlling Variable Tasks
Nam, Jeong-Hee ; Kim, Sung-Hee ; Kang, Soon-hee ; Park, Jong-Yoon ; Choi, Byung-Soon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 110~121
In this study, the verbal interactions occurred during the CASE(Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education) activities in the middle school science class has been analyzed regarding with students cognitive level. The subjects were 24 students of 6 groups in a middle school in Korea. Verbal interactions within group discussions during CASE activities were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed. Also, classroom observation and interview with students were carried out. The results showed that the student with higher cognitive level tended to be a group leader. They had strong influences on the group discussions in each step of problem solving. Also, the higher cognitive level students were more active in metacognitive discussion and more often used scientific terms. When their group met difficulties in each stage of problem solving, such as perception of problem and designing experiment, the higher cognitive level students suggested some ideas to help their peers and gave them an explanation of how they worked. Low cognitive level students had difficulties in perception and solving the problem as compared with high cognitive students. It was common during activities for the low cognitive level students to fail to identify variables and to distinguish between dependent variables and independent variables. They failed to hold a number of variables at once. However, the metacognitive questions from their peers or teacher were helpful for them to construct the concept of controlling variables. If there is no student who has a high level of thinking in a group, it was necessary to intervene for teacher. A well judged questions from teacher created the cognitive conflict which causes the students to reconstruct their strategy for problem solving and reinforce the control of variables reasoning pattern. From the above results, it is concluded that students' cognitive levels are much related to the verbal interaction patterns. This suggests that teacher should consider individual student's cognitive level in organizing groups and intervene to facilitate the environment for metacognitive interaction.
A Relative Effectiveness of Item Types for Estimating Science Ability in TIMSS-R
Park, Chung ; Hong, Mi-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 122~131
Recently, performance assessment that makes growing use of free response items in a large scale assessment has been emphasized. This study is an empirical examination of the effectiveness of free response items in comparison with multiple choice items. Using the information function in Item Response Theory (IRT) framework, item information of free response items and multiple-choice items from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study-Repeat (TlMSS-R) were obtained. Test information of the whole science area as well as each area of science contents was computed. On average, free response items yielded more information than multiple choice items, especially in earth science, physics, chemistry, and life science. This study also showed that free response items were appropriate for students in high science ability. Also, free response items estimated students' science ability more accurately than multiple choice items with smaller number of free response items.
The Influence of Cognitive Style and Cognitive Level of High School Students on Chemistry Problem Solving
Kwon, So-Hyeon ; Choi, Byung-Soon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 132~140
The purpose of this study was to find the influence of students' cognitive styles and cognitive levels on chemistry problem solving. 322 11th grade students were administered Group Embedded Figures Test(GEFT), Group Assesment of Logical Thinking(GALT), and chemistry problem solving task about mole and stoichiometry. Chemistry task was made of ten items, 5 items of them include misleading factor(irrelevant information). The students who are field-independent and in formal operational stage got higher scores than those who are field-dependent and in transitional stage. In 5 items which have no misleading factor GALT had significantly contributed to the regression equation, while in 5 items which have misleading factor GEFT was significant contribution to the regression equation. In two items of misleading items, students who used the irrelevant information were significantly more field dependent than those who did not use this information.
Teacher's Teaching-Learning Strategies and Young Children's Concepts Related to Mathematics and Science through Analysis of Teacher-Children Interaction in Applied Process of Integrated Mathematics and Science Education Activities
Kim, Suk-Ja ; Kwak, Sang-Sin ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 141~157
The purpose of this study was to analyze teacher's teaching-learning strategies and young children's concepts related to mathematics and science in integrated mathematics and science education activities. To achieve this purpose, actual class episodes were analyzed. The episodes were derived from 7 sessions of interaction between teacher and 4 kindergartners in integrated mathematics and science education activities. As a result of the study, children's concepts related to mathematics and science in integrated mathematics and science education activities occurred three factors: the relationship between weight, shape and movement, the relationship between weight and size, and the concept of measurement. In teacher's teaching-learning strategies, three factors were revealed: teacher's questioning, use of teaching materials, and children grouping.
What are the Differences Between Scientifically Gifted and Normal Students in the Aspects of Creativity?
Shin, Ji-Eun ; Han, Ki-Soon ; Jung, Hyun-Chul ; Park, Byung-Gun ; Choe, Seung-Urn ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 158~175
In the present study we have compared and analyzed three different measures of creativity in 135 gifted and 161 normal students to understand the nature of creativity and to propose the guideline for measuring creativity. The instruments used to measure creativity in this study are the Torrance Test of Creativity Thinking (TTCT), the Test of Creative Problem solving and Finding in Science (CPFS), and the Creative Behavior Checklist in Science (CBCS). The TTCT is the most widely used divergent thinking test and measures creativity in the aspect of domain-generality. The CPFS and the CBCS were developed for the purpose of this study and measure domain-specific creativity in the area of Science. The findings of this study revealed that gifted students are significantly more creative compared to normal students in all measures of creativity used in the study. The biggest difference between the gifted and normal students was found in the aspect of CPFS. This study implies that creativity, which is considered less useful to identify gifted students compared to achievement or IQ scores, is the important factor to consider for judging giftedness. The low correlations revealed among the TTCT, CPFS, and CBCS imply that the three measures of creativity address relatively different aspects of creativity. The results also suggest that it is essential to consider multiple criteria of creativity not to overlook potential creative students in the area of science. Implications of the study in connection with the identification and educational practices for gifted education program is discussed.
Developing Scoring Rubric and the Reliability of Elementary Science Portfolio Assessment
Kim, Chan-Jong ; Choi, Mi-Aee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 176~189
The purpose of the study is to develop major types of scoring rubrics of portfolio system, and estimate the reliability of the rubrics developed. The portfolio system was developed by Science Education Laboratory, Chongju National University of Education in summer, 2000. The portfolio is based on the Unit 2, The Layer and Fossil, and Unit 4, Heat and Change of Objects at fourth-grade level. Four types of scoring rubrics, holistic-general, holistic-specific, analytical-general, and analytical-specific, were developed. Students' portfolios were scored and inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were calculated. To estimate inter-rater reliability, 3 elementary teachers per each rubric(total 12) scored 12 students' portfolios. Teachers who used analytical-specific rubric scored only six portfolios because it took much more time than other rubrics. To estimate intra-rater reliability, second scoring was administered by two raters per rubric in two and half month. The results show that holistic-general rubric has high inter-rater and moderate intra-rater reliability. Holistic-specific rubric shows moderate inter- and intra-rater reliability. Analytical-general rubric has high inter-rater and moderate intra-rater reliability. Analytical-specific rubric shows high inter- and intra-rater reliability. The raters feel that general rubrics seems to be practical but not clear. Specific rubrics provide more clear guidelines for scoring but require more time and effort to develop the rubrics. Analytical-specific rubric requires more than two times of time to score each portfolio and is proved to be highly reliable but less practical.
Content Validity of and Information from Elementary Students' Science Portfolio Assessment
Kim, Chan-Jong ; Yoon, Sun-Ah ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 190~203
The purpose of this study is to test content validity of a portfolio assessment and to analyse the information which can be obtained from student portfolios. The content validity of the portfolio was tested against the objectives of each lesson and the emphasis of curriculum. The information was identified from the analysis of student portfolios. Students' portfolios from a fourth grade class in Pyeungteak, Kyeungki-do were used for analysis. The portfolios included students' evidence of learning on (I) Strata, Unit 2 'Strata and Fossil,' and (3) Change of Object by Heat, Unit 4 'Heat and Change of Object'. Fourth-grade science textbooks were also analyzed to understand the base level information for portfolio analysis. Two science education specialists and ten elementary teachers majored in science education took part in this analysis. The results of the analysis showed
of agreement between the objectives of lesson and portfolio forms. Over 90% of agreement is reached between portfolio forms and the emphasis of the curriculum. Student portfolios revealed much information on comprehension, observation, will to study, and process of learning. They also revealed some information on drawing conclusion, communication. self-direction, progress of learning, self-concept, interaction, and process of learning. As a whole, the information in students' portfolios is similar with that dealt in science textbooks. However, students' portfolios have more information on anticipation, will to study, self-direction, and interaction. On the contrary, science textbook deals more with information on observation, planning inquiry, than students' portfolios. The portfolio assessment examined has very sound content validity. The results also show that much more and various information which can not be obtained from pencil and paper test could be obtained from student portfolios. The use of information, obtained from student portfolios will make it possible understand students' learning. their strength and weakness, hence improve student' science learning.
Analysis of Students' Responses on the Items of Chemistry II in the College Scholastics Ability Test
Hong, Mi-Young ; Jeon, Kyung-Moon ; Yi, Bum-Hong ; Lee, Yang-Rak ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 1, 2002, Pages 204~213
In this study, the students' responses on the items of chemistry II in the College Scholastics Ability Test (CSAT) implemented for the past 3 years since 1999 was investigated. The number of applicants and mean score of chemistry II, average percent correct by contents and inquiry process, and the items with high and/or low percent correct are analysed and discussed. The percentage of applicants for natural science track is reduced each year. However, more than 25% of natural science track applied to chemistry II, which ranked second to biology II. The mean score of chemistry II was increased in 2001 along with those of other subjects. There is no difference in average percent correct either by contents or inquiry process. Students performed generally poor at solving test items relating to 'colligative properties of solution' such as 'boiling point elevation' or 'osmotic pressure', and very well at solving test items relating to 'reaction rates'. Educational implications are discussed.