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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Dec 2002
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
Analysis of K-12 Science Textbooks Related to 'States of Water', 'State Change of Water', and 'Conditions of State Change'
Paik, Seong-Hey ; Park, Jae-Won ; Park, Jin-Ok ; Im, Myoung-Hyuk ; Ko, Young-Mi ; Cho, Boo-Kyung ; Kim, Hyo-Nam ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 215~229
This study is to analyze the contents related to 'state of water', 'state change of water', and 'conditions of state change' in K-12 science textbooks. For this, we analyzed textbooks based on the 5th kindergarten curriculum, the 6th elementary school science curriculum and the 6th middle school science curriculum. Findings show that some of the contents are designed well by topical sequencing or by spiral sequencing. But others have some problems based on topical sequencing and spiral sequencing. Generally, the contents are represented in the order of Perception of phenomena with senses level, Macroscopic understanding level, Understanding of scientific term level, Microscopic understanding level by grade. But the state change contents related to solidification and melting, and conditions of state change contents related to heat, temperature, wind, and humidity are not represented in the level of Microscopic understanding. The contents of state change and conditions related to heat and wind are not represented in the level of scientific term also.
A Study on Secondary Students' Perceptions and Self-Efficacy of the Performance Assessments in the Science Subject
Hong, Jung-Lim ; Choi, Eun-Kyung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 230~239
This study was performed to analyze the secondary students' perceptions and self-efficacy of performance assessments in the science subject. The data was obtained from 236 middle school students and 222 high school students in seoul. The students had generally proper understanding about characteristics of performance assessment which include purposes of assessment and differences from other conventional achievement assessments. They responded that the performance assessments were not useful in their science learning and developing their potential abilities. They were not satisfied with reliability and validity of the performance assessments. The middle school students more positively responded than high school students regarding the reliability of the scoring system and the originality of the evaluating materials. The female students more positively thought than males about the reliability of assessment and the usefulness for learning science. The students' self-efficacy level of performance assessment were not low in comparison with another existing assessments. They had high level of self-efficacy in understanding of experimental procedures, and utilizing of experimental apparatuses, but had low level of self-efficacy in understanding purposes of experiments or issues of discussions, processing of experimental results, answering of problems in experimental discussions. The female students' self-efficacy of performance assessment were higher than male students'. There was statistically correlated with females' scores and their level of self-efficacy of performance assessment.
Analysis of Differences of Explanation on Gas Pressure and Atmospheric Pressure in Science Textbooks
Paik, Seoung-Hey ; Song, Ju-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 240~251
In this study, we analyzed differences of explanation on gas pressure and atmospheric pressure in elementary and secondary school science textbooks and general chemistry and general earth science textbooks based on three types of explanation criteria: first, explanation of mass; second, explanation of air pressure on unit area; third. explanation of molecular motion. The results were as follows. Elementary science textbook belonged to the first type. All of the secondary school chemistry textbooks belonged to the third type. But most of the general chemistry textbooks belonged to the first and second type. Most of the earth science textbooks for secondary school and most of the general earth science textbooks belonged to the first type. Therefore, the differences of explanation could disturb students' understanding on gas pressure and atmospheric pressure.
A Study on Elementary School Students' Responses to Anomalous Data
Kang, Suk-Jin ; Shin, Sook-Hee ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 252~260
The types and the characteristics of students' responses to anomalous data in studying 'boiling point' were investigated, and the degree of cognitive conflict and conceptual change were compared by students' cognitive variables. Tests regarding field dependence-independence and logical thinking ability, a preconception test, and a test of responses to anomalous data were administered to 137 sixth graders. Among them, 90 students whose preconceptions were consistent with the presented initial theory were selected. After learning the scientific concept, students' conceptual change was examined. Six types of responses identified were as follows: Rejection, reinterpretation, exclusion, uncertainty, belief decrease, and theory change. The main responses were rejection (33%) and theory change (39%). The results of Mann-Whitney U test indicated students who were field independent and had higher logical thinking abilities felt more cognitive conflict and exhibited more conceptual change.
High Rank 7th Graders' Ideas on the Appropriate Inquiry Problems
Kim, Jae-Woo ; Oh, Won-Kun ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 261~266
To investigate the pupils' ideas about appropriate scientific inquiry problem, we have chosen the 105 boys and girls of 7th grade in a middle school in Seoul, Korea. Their marks in science are within the highest one-third of their classes. The pupils have made their own scientific inquiry questions, which is to be investigated by themselves in summer vacation. The 105 inquiry questions were gathered and evaluated by the pupils with 5-point Likert scale. From these, we have found that the questions inquiring novel phenomena, questioning causality, or containing scientific terms were evaluated as appropriate. Some questions were changed during performance. The pupils have changed their inquiry problems if they feel any difficulties in performing the inquiry.
A Case Study on the 7th Grade Students' Process of Revising Their Own Inquiry Problems in the Course of Group Discussion and Self Reflection
Kim, Jae-Woo ; Oh, Won-Kun ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 267~275
The subject of this study were 7th grade three students in a school in Seoul, Korea. They discussed the inquiry problem to be investigated during summer vacation. We analysed the process of how the inquiry problem is revised and improved to more investigative one in the discussion. Student always discussed the method in the light of problem and the existence of the method of a problem affect the endurance of problem. The main subject of a problems are in everyday context, which is the object of critics in discussion. Student respond to the critics in many ways. Main types of reaction to the critics are two kinds. One is a person who change their views to the critics, the other is a person who kept their ideas.
An Analysis of Science Learning Concepts in the 7th Grade Science Textbooks of the 7th Curriculum - on Energy and Earth Field -
Park, Sang-Tae ; Shin, Young-Suk ; Lee, Hee-Bok ; Yuk, Keun-Chul ; Kim, Hee-Soo ; Kim, Yeo-Sang ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 276~285
In this study the concepts for science learning of physics and earth science presented in the seventh grade science textbooks for the seventh national curriculum of Korea approved by the ministry of education were analyzed in terms of the concrete and formal concept level. The parts of textbook analyzed for science learning consist of three sections in physics such as light, force, and waves, and three sections in earth science such as the structure of the earth, the substance of crust, and the movement and composition of the ocean. The analyzed results showed that the number of scientific concepts were differed from 54 to 74 in physics and from 86 to 120 in earth science depending upon publishers. In general, the concepts for science learning in the physics were found to be more in the formal level than the concrete level. However, the concepts for science learning in earth science were found to be more in the concrete level than the formal level. The analyzed results suggest that the concepts of science learning should be considered the learner's cognitive level and the sections should be disposed depending on the degree of difficulty for writing the science textbook. Therefore, it seems to be important to review carefully whether the textbook meets the object of the seventh curriculum of Korea during the process of the investigation for the science textbook.
A Study of Kindergarden, Elementary, and Middle School Students' Conception Types and Trend of Grade Related to Evaporation and Conditions of Evaporation Activities
Cho, Boo-Kyung ; Ko, Young-Mi ; Kim, Hyo-Nam ; Paik, Seong-Hey ; Park, Jae-Won ; Park, Jin-Ok ; Im, Myoung-Hyuk ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 286~298
This study was to investigate the K-8 grade students' conception types and trend of grade related to evaporation and conditions of evaporation activities. Twenty-five students were random sampled and they were interviewed in-depth during designed activities related to evaporation and conditions of evaporation. The data were analyzed qualitatively. The students' conceptions related to evaporation activities were divided into 5 types. The conceptions related to conditions of evaporation were divided into 5 types, too. Students' conceptions gradually changed to scientific conceptions with grade. But alternative conceptions were continued also.
Development and Application of Web-based Instruction Program for the Enriched Course of School Biology
Ye, Jin-Hee ; Park, Chang-Bo ; Seo, Hae-Ae ; Song, Bang-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 299~313
A web-based instruction program for the enriched course under the 7th Revised National Curriculum of Biology in Korea was developed and the application effects to learners were analyzed. For the development of the web-based instruction program, five topics of biology from the enriched courses through 7th to 10th grades in the middle and high school science textbooks were selected and modulated with interrogative sentences. Each topic of programs was divided into four activity sections according to the learners' activity procedures supplemented with explanations and evaluations. Each activity was hyper-linked to multi-layers and animations. Further, a virtual experiment was also developed and an evaluation section designed by Java Script was attached. Among five topics, one topic of 'Reproduction and development' at 9th grade level was selected to examine the effects on students' learning. Among 247 9th grade students in the research subject school, only 67 students were able to accessible to ultra-thin Internet cables with their computers at home and they became an experimental group. A control group was assigned to those who are similar level of school science achievement to the experiment group and did not use the web-based program. It was found that most of 9th grade students are able to use Internet at home, however, they do not prefer to use Internet for homework or task project. Rather, most of students used Internet for e-mail or information navigation. Students used internet to solve problems of science and perceived the benefits of Internet for science learning. However, there are not many students to utilize Internet for science homework or task project. Students expressed that they do not prefer to use a web-based learning program for science learning due to lack of interests in science. The effects on students who studied with this program appeared to be significantly high compared to those who did not study with this program. Students who studied with this program positively evaluated this program, in particular, they enjoyed animation effect and virtual experiments. It was concluded that a web-based program for science learning should be developed and distributed through Internet in an attractive and interesting format for students. It was also concluded that various web-based programs for science learning with animation effect and virtual experiments should be developed to increase students' interests in science as well as to improve students' science achievements.
Effects of Students' Prior Knowledge on Scientific Reasoning in Density
Yang, II-Ho ; Kwon, Yong-Ju ; Kim, Young-Shin ; Jang, Myoung-Duk ; Jeong, Jin-Woo ; Park, Kuk-Tae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 314~335
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of students' prior knowledge on scientific reasoning process performing a task of controlling variables with computer simulation and to identify a number of problems that students encounter in scientific discovery. Subjects for this study included 60 Korean students: 27 fifth-grade students from an elementary school; 33 seventh-grade students from a middle school. The sinking objects task involving multivariable causal inference was used. The task was presented as computer simulation. The fifth and seventh-grade students participated individually. A subject was interviewed individually while the investigating a scientific reasoning task. Interviews were videotaped for subsequent analysis. The results of this study indicated that students' prior knowledge had a strong effect on students' experimental intent; the majority of participants focused largely on demonstrating their prior knowledge or their current hypothesis. In addition, studnets' theories that were part of one's prior knowledge had significant impact on formulating hypotheses, testing hypothesis, evaluating evidence, and revising hypothesis. This study suggested that students' performance was characterized by tendencies to generate uninformative experiments, to make conclusion based on inconclusive or insufficient evidence, to ignore, reject, or reinterpret data inconsistent with their prior knowledge, to focus on causal factors and ignore noncausal factors, to have difficulty disconfirming prior knowledge, to have confirmation bias and inference bias (anchoring bias).
An Analysis of Korean Middle School Students' Achievement of Scientific Inquiry and the Nature of Science in TIMSS-R
Hong, Mi-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 336~344
The purpose of this study was to analyse achievement of 'Scientific Inquiry and the Nature of Science' in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study-Repeat (TIMSS-R), which was performed in 1999 with 38 nations participating. Korean 8th grade students' achievement of 'Scientific Inquiry and the Nature of Science' was compared to that of other countries and other content areas in science. Average percent correct of items in each subcategory - Scientific Method, Experimental Design, Scientific Measurements, Describing and Interpreting Data - was also analysed. Although 'Scientific Inquiry and the Nature of Science' topics were not included in intended curriculum in Korea, Korean students' average scale score of 'Scientific Inquiry and the Nature of Science' was significantly higher than international average and, in comparison with other science content areas, achievement of that area was relatively high. The reasons could be that the most students studied topics related to 'Scientific Inquiry and the Nature of Science' through the implemented curriculum and that the Korean teachers recognized the importance of inquiry. According to the results to analyze subcategories, the average percent correct of Korea were higher than 50% except the 'Scientific Measurements' subcategory. However, the international average percent correct were lower than 50%. Especially, the average percent correct of Korea was the highest in 'Describing and Interpreting Data' subcategory despite there were many students who were confused at observation, hypothesis and conclusion.
Changes in the Number of Applicants and Mean Score and Applicants' Responses on the Test Items of 'Science Inquiry' of the CSAT
Lee, Yang-Rak ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 345~356
This study investigated the trends in the number of applicants and mean score and applicants' responses on the test items of 'science inquiry' of the College Scholastic Ability Test(CSAT) implemented for 3 years
. The results of this study were as follows: The percentage of applicants of science track for 1995 CSAT were 43.13%, but reduced to 29.5% for 2001 CSAT. And unlike other tracks, the percentage of male applicants, ranking above average, of science track was 65.58%, which is about twofold of female applicants(34.42%). The mean score of 'Science inquiry' was 58.6 in 1999, and 69.5 in 2001. And the score of the applicants, ranking above average, of humanity and social science course and science course, were 85.8 and 90.7 respectfully in 2001 CSAT. These high mean scores were caused by the policy of "easy CSAT" so called. Most of test items were developed to have difficulty 60-79% or above 80%. This easy CSAT provoked intense dispute about the discriminating power of CSAT. The mean score of male applicants was higher than that of female. But the difference decreases every year. Applicants were generally very good at solving tests focusing on process skills only but poor at solving tests related to physics or calling for two or more science concepts. Thus special measures to cope with the decrease in applicants, especially female applicants, for science track should be provided. To increase discriminating power of CSAT, it is recommended to develop test items with wider range of difficulty and to reduce test items which are focussing process skills and can be solved without any special science concepts. And special consideration should be given to teaching the content area with poor achievement and high actual difficulty compared to the expected.
An analysis of the processes of conceptual change through the successive refinement and articulation of student's conceptual framework - Focused on the theoretical discussions -
Park, Jong-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 357~377
This study is for better understanding about the process of students' conceptual change. As a starting point, it is assumed that the process of students' conceptual change can be viewed as the process of the successive refinement and articulation of students' conceptual framework. Based on the theoretical review of conceptual change literature, various processes, which can be involved in the above assumed process, can be found. And also, by analyzing the process of development of scientific knowledge about Planck's blackbody radiation law and Bohr's atom, six types of processes of refinement and articulation of scientific knowledge can be found. It is hoped that these theoretical discussions can guide the direction for obtaining and interpreting the students' real responses during the process of conceptual change.
Analysis of Test Items and the Applicants' Responses on the Chemistry Part in the General Science of College Scholastics Ability Test
Hong, Mi-Young ; Jeon, Kyung-Moon ; Lee, Yang-Rak ; Yi, Bum-Hong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 378~386
In this study, the students' responses on the chemistry items of in the general science of College Scholastics Ability Test (CSAT) implemented for the past 3 years since 1999 were investigated. The number of items by content and inquiry process, the average percent correct by content and inquiry process, the distribution of items by the level of percent correct, and the items with high and/or low percent correct were analysed. There were the fewest items in 'environment' area, especially in 'ozon layer', no test item had been made. The most difficult content area was 'acid rain' in 'environment'. By inquiry process, the most number of items belonged to 'analyzing & interpreting data', and 'identifying problems & formulating hypothesis' was the most difficult process. No test item came under the level of 'very difficult', and many items under the 'easy' or 'very easy' level. Students were generally poor at solving test items demanding several concepts, and very good at simply requiring basic concept treated in lower grade. Educational implications are discussed.
The Effects of Intelligence and Scientific Attitude on Understanding in Surrounding Plants
Kim, Jin-Hee ; Kim, Young-Shin ; Eom, Ahn-Heum ; Lee, Sang-Sun ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 387~397
Understanding the surrounding plants (SP) by the high school students was compared with their abilities of intelligence (SI) and attitude (SA) in science education. 276 students attending 11 grade high school in the city of Incheon selected for this work were tested for SP and their abilities of SI and SA. The rates of SP were observed to be not related to the personal properties of student but to the abilities of total or science achievement scores made throughout school life. The abilities of SP were, by linear regression, calculated to be dependent upon the some components or variables of SI or of SA. Particularly, the abilities of SP were closely related to the abilities of picture matrix and vocabulary, but not to those of scientific logics among variables of SI. Also, the abilities of SP were calculated to be positively related those of scientific attitude, but negatively to science anxiety in SA. As based on this work, the SP was strongly suggested to be helpful for students 'intelligences or for students' learning in their life.
A Study on Validity, Reliability and Practicality of a Concept Map as an Assessment Tool of Biology Concept Understandings
Cho, Jung-II ; Kim, Jung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 2, 2002, Pages 398~409
The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity, reliability and practicality of a concept map as an assessment tool in the context of biology concept learning. Forty undergraduate students participated in concept mapping, and the maps were scored by preservice science teachers, using one of three different scoring methods, that is, concept map scoring methods developed by Burry-Stock, Novak & Gowin and McClure & Bell. Two scorers were assigned to each scoring method. As far as the validity of the assessment methods was concerned, two of the three methods were found to be very valid, while Burry-Stock's scoring method was shown little valid. As far as the internal consistency of the methods was concerned, considerably high consistencies were shown between every pair of scorers, judging from high correlation coefficients between the pair of scorers for each scoring method. It took from 1.13 minutes to 3.70 minutes to assess a map at the average. It showed that concept mapping could be used in school classrooms with the limited resources of time and people. These findings suggest that the concept mapping can be an appropriate tool for assessing biology concept understandings.