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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Dec 2002
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
Analysis of Types of Explanation on Osmosis Concept in Chemistry and Biology Textbooks
Ko, Young-Hwan ; Kang, Dae-Hun ; Park, Dong-Joe ; Kim, Dong-Uk ; Paik, Seoung-Hey ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 683~695
In this study, we analyzed types of explanation on osmosis concept that were represented in chemistry and biology textbooks of high school and college. There were 5 types of explanation on osmosis concept. The types of explanation were diffusion of solvent, collision, hydration, equilibrium of concentration and screen of holes. Last two types of explanation were classified into misconceptions. The various types of explanation on osmosis concept might cause to have be a reason that students had many misconceptions and to feel difficult to learn about osmosis concept. Many of textbooks is accord to types of concept explanation and figure explanation on osmosis but some is not.
Changes of Correlational Reasoning Patterns of Middle School Students Through the Correlational Reasoning Activities
Park, Jong-Yoon ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Nam, Jeong-Hee ; Lee, Sang-Kwon ; Choi, Byung-Soon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 696~705
The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether the correlational reasoning activities could improve middle school students' correlational reasoning abilities. The subjects were 8th grade students, and the correlational reasoning activities of the CASE(cognitive acceleration through science education) program was intervened to the experimental group(n=111) during science class while usual science instruction was given to the control group(n=55). The correlational reasoning test was administered before and after the intervention. The pre-test results showed that most of subjects performed poorly in correlation problems and no significant differences were found between the two groups. In the post-test, the experimental group showed enhanced performance while the control group did not. Therefore it can be concluded that CASE program activities help the students to improve correlational reasoning ability. However, the proportions of students gave correct response were not so high: 27% for the multiple-choice item and about 6% for the essay-type items.
The Comparative Analysis of Science Process Skills and Teaching Methods in the 6th and the 7th Elementary School Science Curricula
Choi, Sun-Young ; Kang, Ho-Kam ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 706~716
The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the science process skills and teaching methods between the 6th and the 7th elementary school science textbooks. For this study, science textbooks and teacher's guidebooks from the 3rd to the 6th grade were analyzed. In this research the science process skills are divided by basic process skills(BPS) and integrated process skills(IPS). The BPS is composed of observing, classifying, measuring, predicting and inferring skill, which are 5 subcategories. The IPS is composed of problem cognition, formulating hypothesis, controlling variables, transforming data, interpreting data, drawing result, and generalization, which are 7 subcategories. The results found in the analysis of science process skills in the 6th and 7th science textbooks are as follows: 1. The percentage of the BPS was increased, but the IPS was decreased in the 7th than the 6th. 2. The percentage of the IPS was higher than the BPS in the 6th science textbooks, but the BPS was higher than IPS in lower grade and the IPS was higher than the BPS in higher grade in the 7th textbooks. 3. Observing and problem cognition skill were most dominant in the 6th and 7th science textbooks. 4. The percentages of observing(24.8%), classifying(5.4%), measuring(5.6%), inferring(6.0%) in the BPS and interpreting data(4.4%) in the IPS were increased, but predicting(3.8%), formulating hypothesis(0.5%), controlling variables( 1.8%), transforming data( 1.2%), drawing result(0.8%) and generalization(0.9%) skills were decreased in the 7th. And teaching methods suggested in the curriculum are as follows: the percentages of learning by observation(19.2%) and role play(0.1 %) were decreased, but learning by experiment(6.2%), learning by discussion(2.0%), learning by investigation(4.6%) and creative learning(6,4%) were increased in the 7th than the 6th. In conclusion, it was found that the basic process skills were emphasized in the 7th science textbooks than the 6th and the science process skills in the science textbooks of the 7th curriculum were distributed by the grade level of the elementary children.
The Effect of Grouping by Students' Agreeableness in Cooperative Learning
Han, Jae-Young ; Han, Su-Jin ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 717~724
In this study. the effects of grouping by students' agreeableness in cooperative learning strategy applied to middle school science classes on their achievement. confidence, satisfaction, attitude toward science class, and cohesion of group members were investigated. One hundred and fifty-eight students were assigned to control group, homogeneous group and heterogeneous group, and taught about separation of mixture for 7 class hours. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the achievement test scores. However, significant interaction between the instruction and the level of agreeableness were found in the satisfaction and the cohesion of group members. Students of higher agreeableness level in the homogeneous group were more satisfied with science class and cohesive. Students' attitude toward science class in the homogeneous group was also significantly higher than those in the other groups.
The Relationships of Graphing Abilities to Logical Thinking and Science Process Skills of Middle School Students
Kim, Tae-Sun ; Bae, Deok-Jin ; Kim, Beom-Ki ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 725~739
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of graphing abilities to logical thinking and science process skills of middle school students. The subjects for this study were selected 481 students from four middle schools for TOGS(the Test of Graphing in Science), GALT(Group Assessment of Logical Thinking) and TIPS II (Test of Integrated Process Skills). This study shows that the correlation coefficient between abilities of students to construct/interpret graphs and the logical thinking was 0.45, and the correlation coefficient between abilities to construct/interpret graphs and science process skills are 0.32. As a result, abilities of students to construct and interpret graphs arc more correlate the logical thinking than science process skills.
Junior High School Teachers' and Students' Perceptions on The Science Textbooks
Sohn, Young-Ok ; Park, Yune-Bae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 740~749
The purpose of this study was to survey junior high school teachers' and students' perceptions on the science textbooks. Subjects of this study were 113 science teachers and 715 students from junior high schools in Daegu and Kyungpook area. As statistical method, one-way ANOVA and t-test were used to check differences of the perceptions between teachers and students. Teachers had different perceptions by school location and class size, while students had different perceptions by school location, co-ed, class size, and grade level. Both teachers and students having the relativistic viewpoint on textbook knowledge regarded the knowledge as relativistic one, and preferred the student-centered textbooks. Teachers liked textbooks written by the student-centered view more than students did. Teachers had the more absolutistic viewpoint on textbook knowledge and on teaching, while students liked the electronic textbooks more than teachers did.
Effects of a Treatment Program by Types of Underachiever on the Science Achievement and Attitude Toward Science in Junior High School Students
Lee, Min-Ae ; Park, Yune-Bae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 750~756
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a treatment program by types of underachiever developed from "electric voltage and current" section in the 8th grade science textbook. The program for the underachiever who have lack of basic knowledge and needs to learning aimed to improve their achievement and attitude toward science. For this study, 171 8th grade students were sampled and distributed to control and experimental group. Among them, 54 underachievers were identified. The underachievers were defined as science achievement level is below mean and IQ is above 90. The independent variables in this study were teaching method (traditional instruction and developed instruction) and types of underachiever. The dependent variables were students' achievement and attitude toward science. Pretest-posttest control group design was used. The main results of this study were that the treatment program emphasizing learning sheet activities based on LT(Learning Together) model had significant effect for underachievers who have lack of basic knowledge and needs to learning to increase their achievement and attitude toward science.
The Effects of Scientific Inquiry Experiments Emphasizing Social Interaction
Kim, Ji-Young ; Seong, Suk-Kyoung ; Park, Jong-Yun ; Choi, Byung-Soon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 757~767
This study investigated the effects of scientific inquiry experiments emphasizing social interaction on the academic achievement, the ability for science inquiry and the learning motivation of the students. To examine the differences among the classes of scientific inquiry experiments according to the way of organizing small groups, the effects of the group in homogeneous cognitive level and the group in heterogeneous cognitive level were compared. 255 7th-graders were grouped into the treatment group and the control group. After the treatment group received the scientific inquiry experimental lessons emphasizing social interaction and the control group received traditional lessons for one year, academic achievement, ability for scientific inquiry, and learning motivation were examined. These inquiry experiments were composed of four steps which are eliciting, familiarizing, constructing and bridging. And students can interact with peers and teachers through the process of relating observed phenomena to concept, constructing experiment procedure, and eliciting results. The ANCOVA results revealed that there were significant effects of science inquiry experiments emphasizing social interaction on the academic achievement, the ability for scientific inquiry and the learning motivation of the students. The significant academic achievement of the students in most of the cognitive levels, if not all, was found and degree of improvement in the ability for scientific inquiry was lower than that in the academic achievement. Concerning the effects according to the way of organizing small groups, there were significant improvement in academic achievement and learning motivation of the group in homogeneous cognitive level compared to the group in heterogeneous cognitive level. These results indicate that social interaction in learning is important and it has positive influences on the improvement in academic achievement and ability for scientific inquiry of students.
The Comparison of Graphing Abilities of pupils in grades 7 to 12 based on TOGS(The Test of Graphing in Science)
Kim, Tae-Sun ; Kim, Beom-Ki ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 768~778
Science teachers often suppose that students are able to know the symbolical meaning of graphs when they see the graphs. But such a assumption is not based on the firm theories but a mere image. And we need to search them for holding the abilities to construct and to interpret. In addition, unfortunately, many researchers show that they scarcely have the graphing skills. And then, The Test of Graphing in Science(TOGS) was administered to 535 7th to 12th graders, for we search them for holding the graphing abilities to some degree. Though the higher grade, the better score, they lack the first three among 9 objectives of TOGS which are scaling axes, assigning variables to the axes, using a best fit line, plotting points, translating a graph that displays the data, selecting the corresponding value for y(or x), interrelating/extrapolating graphs, describing the relationship between variables, interrelating the results of the two graphs. It was concluded from this that subjects' graph construction is lower than their graph interpretation in graph skills. It suggests that school science have a bias toward graph interpretation. This tendency represents more strikingly in the case of upper students in TOGS than the others'.
Analysis of Internet Biology Study Sites and Guidelines for Constructing Educational Homepages
Kim, Joo-Hyun ; Sung, Jung-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 779~795
Internet, a world wide network of computers, is considered as a sea of information because it allows people to share information beyond the barriors of time and space. However, in spite of the unmeasurable potential applications of the internet, its use in the field of biology education has been extremely limited mainly due to the scarcity of good biology-related sites. In order to provide useful guidelines for constructing user-friendly study sites, which can help high school students with different intellectual levels to study biology, comparative studies were performed on selected educational sites. Initially, hundreds of related sites were examined, and, subsequently, four distinct sites were selected not only because they are well organized, but also because each is unique in its contents. Also, a survey was carried out against the users of each site. The survey results indicated that the high school students regard the web-based biology study tools as effective teaching methods although there might be some bias in criteria for selecting target sites. In addition to the detailed biology topics and the related biology informations, multimedia data including pictures, animations and movies are found to be one of the important ingredients for desirable biology study sites. Thus, the inclusion of multimedia components should also be considered when developing a systematic biology study site. Overall, the role of the cyber space is expected to become more and more important. Since the development of the user-satisfied and self-guided sites require interdisciplinary collaborational efforts which should be made to promote extensive communication among teachers, education professionals, and computer engineers. Furthermore, the introduction of good biology study sites to the students by their teachers is also important factor for the successful web-based education.
Relationships between Learning Modes and Knowledge Structures of Primary School Children: Reflected on the Concept Maps of the 'Structure and Function of Plant' Unit
Kim, Jong-Jung ; song, Nam-Hi ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 796~805
This study examined the knowledge structure constructed by children before formal instruction, and successive changes in the structural complexity of knowledge during and after the learning of 'Structure and Function of Plant' unit. It also investigated how those changes were affected by children's learning modes. The researchers made the 5th graders draw the first draft of their concept map to see the pre-existing knowledge structure concerned with the unit and four more concept maps after completing every fourth lesson. And to see how long their knowledge structures were preserved, the researchers made children draw additional concept maps in 3 days, 3 months, and 7 months after completing the unit. Children drew their current concept maps on the basis of the previous one while learning the unit and without the previous one after completing the unit. Each concept map drawn by children showed the degree of their current understanding on the structures and functions of plants. The results revealed that only two levels of hierarchy and five relationships among the components of the first concept map(relationship, hierarchy, cross link and example) were proven to be valid in terms of conceptual relevance. Growth in the structural complexity of knowledge took place progressively throughout the unit and the effects of learning mode on the growth were favorably reflected in concept map scores of meaningful learners over time(relationship, cross link, example: p<.01, hierarchy: p<.05). Although there were some differences on the concept map scores between two types of learners, they commonly showed that knowledge restructuring had occurred apparently in the early periods from the 1st to the 6th lesson and had not occurred at all in the last period of the unit. The frequency of tuning was higher in rote learners than in meaningful learners throughout the unit, but the frequency of accretion was reverse. Concept map scores of rote learners constructed in the course of learning of the unit decreased little by little gradually in all the categories after completing the unit. However, the average total map score of meaningful learners increased a little more in 7 months than in 3 months after completing the unit. Therefore it can be inferred that meaningful learners construct more stable and well-differentiated knowledge structures than the rote learners.
Investigating Students' and Teachers' Views on 'the Necessity of Learning Science' by the Network Analysis
Jung, Yong-Jae ; Song, Jin-Woong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 806~819
The purpose of this study was to investigate students' and teachers' views on the necessity of learning science in Korea. To grade sixth students(n=565) and teachers(n=57) of elementary schools in Seoul, Korea, a question, "Why do we have to learn science?", requiring a short essay of more than 7 lines including the reason and examples was given. From the analysis of short essays with the network analysis, it was found that most students and teachers had views of "we have to learn science to make personal everyday-life easy in aspect of personal usefulness and human everyday-life easy in aspect of social usefulness" with focusing on external value of science and taking examples of everyday-life related. And it was found that students' and teachers' views were somewhat biased toward focusing on external values of science.
Science Education: Constructivist Perspectives
Cho, Hee-Hyung ; Choi, Kyung-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 820~836
Constructivism has had a great influence on science education over the last two decades. The purpose of this article is twofold: First, to describe the characteristics of constructivism and, second, to suggest an ideal forms of science education in Korea as implied in constructivism. A review of the literatures in the first area shows that constructivism is philosophical/psychological view which believe in the social nature of the construction of scientific knowledge and its learning. And the analyses of a few schools of constructivism suggest decision-making as a goal of science education, learning as the active construction of meaning through interaction between learner and learning environments, and discussion and cooperation as appropriate teaching strategies. At the same time, the results necessitate teaching ethical aspects of science in the secondary schools, and also imply that performance assessment must be emphasized in evaluation of science education.
Effects of a Cognitive Acceleration Program on Secondary School Students
Choi, Byung-Soon ; Han, Hyo-Soon ; Kang, Seong-Joo ; Lee, Sang-Kwon ; Kang, Soon-Hee ; Park, Jong-Yoon ; Nam, Jeong-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 837~850
In an attempt to accelerate the development of formal reasoning ability of students, 'Thinking Science' activities developed by the Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education(CASE) project were implemented to 841 students in 7th grade aged 12+ in six middle schools over a period of two years. Homogeneity between the CASE group and control group was tested with SRT II, while the improvement of formal reasoning ability of the students was tested with SRT VII. The results were analyzed by treatment, gender, and cognitive levels of the students. Statistically significant gains were shown in the CASE group compared with those in the control group. Cognitive level of girls in the CASE group significantly increased as compared with the control group, while there was moderate effect in boys. These results implied that the thinking science activities were effective in cognitive acceleration of girls aged 12+. It was shown that much more CASE students in pre or concrete operational level shifted to formal operational level as compared with the control group while there were significant effects in all levels (ES=0.31
1.10) without showing any tendency.
Narrative Thought and ITS Implication on the Science Education
Kim, Man-Hee ; Kim, Beom-Ki ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 851~861
In this paper, two modes of thought are assumed, which are known as the paradigmatic and the narrative mode of thought by Bruner(1985; 1986). The former leads to well-formed argument, but the latter to good story; each providing distinctive ways of ordering experience, of constructing reality. Though the two are complementary, but not reducible to one another. However modern schooling has focused on the paradigmatic mode. It has come to its peak in science education. Recently some educators began to gaze at the narrative mode in other humanities, but not science. Narrative is commonly considered to be foreign to science. But many scientists are convinced that modern science depends on speculation much more than observation. The speculation is conducted by intrapersonal or interpersonal narrative, which was called "science-making" by Bruner(1996). The purpose of this paper is to introduce the narrative mode of thought compared to paradigmatic mode as the new concepts and to discuss its implications on the science education. Three implications will be suggested. The first holds that science class should improve student's narrative sensibility throughout the live science-making. The second holds that the narrative mode of thought should be used with the support of the paradigmatic mode in science classroom. Exactly narrative interpretations are adjuncts to scientific explanations. The third holds that the evaluation method should be developed for the narrative work in science education.
Elementary Students' Cognitive Conflict Through Discussion and Physical Experience in Learning of Electric Circuit
Seo, Sang-Oh ; Jin, Sun-Hee ; Jung, Sung-An ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 862~871
We investigated elementary students' conceptions of the simple electric circuit using a battery, a bulb and a wire, and made comparison between the cognitive conflict through peer discussion and the cognitive conflict through physical experience. Two hundred and sixty-four sixth grade students who already had learned about the electric circuit were participated. The questionnaire to investigate the student's conceptions about simple electric circuit consisted of 5 items drawing the wire connections between a battery and a bulb to light the bulb. The students in the discussion group paired randomly with student who had different conceptions, and then each pairs discussed about their ideas freely with each other. After discussion they conducted CCLT(Cognitive Conflict Level Test) which consisted of 4 factors; recognition, interest, anxiety, reappraisal. The physical experience group conducted a task in which they connected a battery and a bulb with a wire, then conducted CCLT. The sixth graders had various misconceptions. Most students were not aware of the scope of negative battery terminal and two electric terminals of a bulb. Many students emphasized the tip of a bulb and positive battery terminal. The score of CCLT in the discussion group was higher than in the physical experience group. This results showed that discussion with peers was more effective than physical experience to arouse cognitive conflict.
The Effects of Science Question Enhancement Instruction on the Science Question Level and Achievement of Middle School Students
Chung, Young-Lan ; Bae, Jae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 872~881
Student questioning is included in the priority of science literacy, to enable students to solve problems by exploring questions, communicating and constructing knowledge(AAAS, 1989). Also, the essence of student questioning in science lies in its function as a link between thinking and learning. But educators did not pay much attention to students' questioning in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of science question enhancement instruction on students' science questioning level and achievement. Also, this study showed the effects of other variables(logical thinking, science achievement, interest, and gender) on students' science questioning level. The pretest-posttest control group design group design was used. The sample was consisted of 80 second grade middle school students in experimental group(Science question enhancement instruction) and 74 students in control group(Traditional learning). Students in both groups were received identical content instruction on the unit 'Structures and functions of plant'. These groups were treated for 15 hours during 6 weeks. Students' questions were rated using the four levels described by the Middle School Students' Science Question Rating Scale(r= .96,)(Cuccio-Schirripa & Steinner, 2000). Science achievement data were collected using a 17 item multiple choice test(Cronbach
= .84). To investigate students' logical thinking ability, a abridged GALT(Cronbach
= .69) was used. Five-way ANOVA, ANCOVA, and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the results. The results indicated that students who received instruction on researchable questioning outperformed those students who were not instructed on high-order questioning(p< .01). Results of correlations indicated that instruction(r= .640), science achievement(r= .311) and logical thinking ability(r= .212) was significantly and positively related with students' questioning level. But, interest and gender did not show any significant correlation with students' questioning level. Science question enhancement instruction was more effective on science achievement than the traditional instruction(p< .01).
Elementary School Students' Views on the Nature of Science
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Kim, Young-Hee ; Han, Su-Jin ; Kang, Suk-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 882~891
The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary school students' views on the nature of science and to compare their views by gender. Participants were 159 sixth graders in Seoul. An instrument consisting of five multiple-choice items were developed on the bases of previous studies. At the end of each item, students were also asked to write their reason in details for selecting a specific option. The results indicated that the students' views on the nature of science, on the whole, were neither accurate nor adequate from the viewpoints of modern epistemology. On comparing their views by gender, however, no significant differences were found except the item concerning the 'nature of model'.
An Analysis of Vocational High School Students Preference for Science and Its Causal Factors
Im, Sung-Min ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 892~905
There are an increasing emphasis on affective domain, for example interest or belief, in science education. But decreasing interest on learning science and tendency to avoid science-related job are serious problems of secondary science education, especially in case of vocational high school students. However there are few researches for vocational high school students. In this study, preference for science is assumed to be a multidimensional property that reveals ones' behavioral volition and valuation as well as emotional response upon learning science. To investigate vocational high school students' preference for science and its causal factors, a Likert style questionnaire was developed through factor analysis. Students' preference for science was analyzed by 3 categories, and its causal factors are investigated by path analysis using structural equation model.
Factors of Students' Career Choice Related to Science
Yoon, Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 4, 2002, Pages 906~921
The purpose of this study was to survey the students' career choice related to science. Important factors of career choice were identified through factor analysis. 'Perception of career related to science', 'preference for science learning' and 'participation in science-related activity' were three main factors of science-related career choice. Students' responses to the three main factors were compared according to their career choice, grade and gender using ANOVA. Regression analysis was adopted to find out the relative importance among the three main factors. The subjects were 947 grade 6, 9 and 11 students in Seoul. Numbers of boys and girls in each grade was almost same. The questionnaire was developed to know the factors of students' science-related career choice after preliminary research and literature survey. The ratio of science-related career choice was not high (26%). Students' responses to and the relative importance of the three main factors differed with the grade and gender. From the results, making students have preference for science and giving them more opportunities of science-related activity is more important than making them have positive perception of science-related career. It is required to make a material for science career education considering the differences of age and gender using this study results.