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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Dec 2002
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
The Effects of Cognitive Conflict on Students' Conceptual Change in Physics
Lee, Young-Jick ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 5, 2002, Pages 923~943
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the levels of cognitive conflict and students' conceptual change. In this study, 30 Korean high school students were selected from 450 10th graders by examining the pretest results. Two different strategies were used to induce cognitive conflicts in students, an anomalous or conflict situations; demonstrations and logical arguments against students' preconception. After arousing the students' cognitive conflict, the level of cognitive conflict was rated. Pretest, post-test and delayed post-test were administered to check the conceptual change. The tests consisted of 5 items in mechanics and electricity, respectively. Therefore, the demonstration method showed effective conceptual change, more than the logical argument method did. Students changed their conceptions more easily and frequently in the area of mechanics than in electricity. Students who showed higher levels of cognitive conflict indicated more positive conceptual change than those who showed lower conflict levels. 59 cases (56%) out of 105 who experienced high levels of cognitive conflict were changed into scientific conceptions one month later; however only 16 cases (35%) out of 46 who experienced low levels of cognitive conflict changed into scientific conceptions. Students who experienced higher levels of cognitive conflict showed higher rates of conceptual change. It could be concluded that designing instruction to induce cognitive conflict is a useful strategy to promote conceptual change.
The Korean Elementary Students' Conceptions of the Simple Electric Circuit
Seo, Sang-Oh ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 5, 2002, Pages 944~956
The purpose of this study was to investigate students' conceptions of the simple electric circuit using a battery and a bulb. 19 fourth grade students from a rural elementary school in Korea participated in this study. Data on the children's understandings of electric circuit were collected through three sources; prediction tests, drawing tests and individual interviews. The prediction tests were paper and pencil tests composed of 10 problems, predicting whether bulbs in 10 simple circuit diagrams would light. For each prediction, the children were asked to provide a written explanation of their thinking. The drawing tests consisted of 6 problems. One was to draw the inside of the bulb base, and the others were to make the wire connections between a battery and a bulb in the diagrams, to light the bulb. The interviews were conducted with seven children who showed differing degrees of understanding. No student was aware of the wire connections inside the bulb base. Many students stated whether the bulb would light or not, according to the tip of the bulb contacting the positive battery terminal and an end of wire contacting the negative battery terminal. Most of them thought that the tip of the bulb should contact the positive battery terminal, so that the bulb would light. In short, students did not use a scientific conception of electric current to predict and explain the electric circuit.
Theoretical Benefits and Research Findings Underlying the Use of Microcomputer-Based Laboratory in Science Teaching
Han, Hyo-Soon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 5, 2002, Pages 957~969
Theoretical benefits and research findings on the use of Microcomputer-based Laboratory (MBL) are considered for using MBL in a way that will be of benefit to students and teachers, and discussed as a whole for further synthesis, including the formulation of a research agenda for future consensus-based action. Based on the findings obtained from a comprehensive review of the literature, using a systematic approach, the uses of MBL were compared and contrasted for advancing understanding of the teaching and learning processes in science and mathematics. A number of benefits were proposed by MBL developers but not investigated by educational researchers. A few research studies considered the following practical aspects raised by classroom science teachers: technical problems of MBL equipment; inaccuracy or incompleteness of presentation; efficient ways for handling class time with MBL instruction; and development of MBL curriculum materials for their own instruction. This lack of research related to the use of MBL in science classrooms resulted in educational research that was neither respected nor utilized by science teachers. Setting a research agenda based on the theoretical benefits and research findings is necessary for the effective use of MBL in science classrooms can help to maximize the prospects for successful school improvement projects while minimizing the innovation-related frustrations of individuals.
Practical Work in British School Science during the Second Half of the 19th Century
Song, Jin-Woong ; Cho, Sook-Kyoung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 5, 2002, Pages 970~990
This study examines how practical work in science was introduced in British schools and became an important part of school science activities during the second half of the 19th century. Firstly, the establishment of a national education system in Britain is reviewed. Secondly, a general development of school science teaching is summarized with a special attention to students' enrollment in science subjects. Thirdly, the practical work in elementary schools are discussed in relation to the introduction of Object Lessons in curriculum. Then, the situations of practical work in science in secondary schools, particularly in Organized Science Schools and some famous public schools, are illustrated. Finally, the overall development until present days is critically discussed in relation to the types and aims of practical work in science.
Case Studies of Preservice Teachers' Conceptual Ecologies
Park, Hyun-Ju ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 5, 2002, Pages 991~1009
This qualitative study investigated two preservice teachers' conceptual ecologies in professional development during the science teacher preparation program. The notion of a conceptual ecology contains nature of knowledge, science and science teaching, learning, and content knowledge and comfort level. The data were collected during the participants' preservice year and their practicum experience. Both data collections and analyzing were from the various sources of interviews, teaching observations, journals, and information and profiles by the participants' supervisor. Two preservice teachers serve as cases representative of this study. Results show that problems preventing the preservice teachers from moving closer to conceptual change teaching were their understandings of the nature of science and the nature of knowledge. The preservice teachers' views about knowledge come from, and what knowledge is, are largely shaped by the nature of science and learning drive pedagogy and classroom practice. Knowledge of and comfort with the subject matter are also important.
A Status Analysis of Middle School Students' Preference for Science
Yoon, Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 5, 2002, Pages 1010~1029
The purpose of this research was to survey middle school students' preference for science and its causal factors, so as to analyze the causal relationships between them. Preference for science and its causal factors were defined theoretically, and a theoretical model was constructed to measure them and analyze the causal relationship by structural equation modeling. According to the theoretical model and a pilot test, a questionnaire was developed with three parts; the background information of a respondent, the preference for science, and the causal factors of preference. The questionnaire was administered to one class per grade of randomly selected 8 middle schools from 4 areas across the country, and 819 students' data were collected. Preference for science was defined as a state of mind. It revealed to what extent, and how, one likes science. It consisted of 3 categories - 'emotional response', 'behavioral volition', 'valuational comprehension', and each category was divided into two subcategories. Causal factors affecting the preference for science consisted of three categories - personal, educational and social factors, and each was divided into 2 or 3 subcategories. Middle school students' preference for science was middling as a total. Curiosity about contents of science and valuation of science were high, comparatively, but behavioral volition about science was especially low. Students' responses to the causal factors were relatively high in every educational factor and sociocultural valuation of social factors, but relatively low in socioeconomic rewards of social factors, and especially low in personal factors. The causal relationship about the preference for science was investigated by multiple regression analysis and path analysis, using the structural equation model. Multiple regression analysis about the preference for science and its causal factors revealed important factors. The important factors were personal ability, the personal traits, rewards in school science, and contents of school science in order of magnitude of standardized regression coefficient
. Stepwise regression analysis with each of the subcategories of the preference for science as dependent variables showed what factors were important in each subcategory. According to the result of structural equation modeling, personal factors affected 'emotional response' and 'behavioral volition' directly, and social factors affected 'valuational comprehension' directly. Educational factors affected all categories of the preference for science by influencing not only 'emotional response' and 'valuational comprehension' directly, but also 'behavioral volition' indirectly. The way to promote middle school students' preference for science was suggested, based on the analysis result.
The Effects of Mental Capacity and Size of Chunk of Problem Solver and Mental Demand of Problem on Science Problem Solving
Ahn, Soo-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 5, 2002, Pages 1030~1043
The development of cognitive psychology provides us a theoretical base from which we can obtain information about human problem solving. One purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive psychological factors on the problem solving of the two kinds of tasks (content free, content specific). And the other purpose was to find out the existence of critical situation in problem solving process. Even the items of tasks with the same logical structure and content knowledge could have different sizes of mental demand. The results were as follows. The mental demand of the problem, and the problem solver's mental capacity, might be the main factors in problem solving. Critical situation of both a group and an individual existed in the tasks that need content free knowledge (FIT 752 task). But the critical situation of a group was completely different from that of the individual in the tasks that need content specific knowledge (electric circuit task). According to the analysis of achievement for each individual in the task that need content specific knowledge, the critical situation of an individual existed in problem solving, but the critical situation of a group was not existed by were summed up the individual results.
Science Teacher Education in Hong Kong
Yip, Din-Yan ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 5, 2002, Pages 1044~1070
Initial science teacher education in Hong Kong is provided by the Post-graduate Diploma in Education Programme (PGDE) for both pre-service and in-service secondary school teachers. This programme includes a balanced treatment of subject curriculum and teaching in science, general pedagogical knowledge and skills, educational psychology and school administration. The science courses in this programme also have some units that equip science teachers with the knowledge and skills that are essential for teaching a science curriculum that emphasises conceptual change and understanding of the nature and methods of science. This emphasis is illustrated by two studies: (1) Developing a conceptual change model of instruction in Biology teachers, and (2) Constructing understanding of the nature and methods of science.
Science Teacher Education in Taiwan
Lin, Huann-Shyang ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 5, 2002, Pages 1071~1081
This article describes the status of science teacher education in Taiwan. The pre-service and in-service science teacher training system, institutes, curricula, programs, and evaluation on the institutes were briefly introduced. The differences before and after the 1996 reform of science teacher training system were compared. Finally, the attempts and efforts that have been done through the channels of research to promote science teachers' professional development were addressed. These efforts include the Case studies of exemplary science teachers' teaching performances, the development of licensure instruments for the certification of science teachers, the use of computers and distance education for supervising student teachers, the exploration of promoting science teachers' understanding about the nature of science, the exploration of promoting science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge, the exploration of promoting science teachers' ability of increasing effective student-teacher and student-student interactions, and the exploration of effective teaching strategies.
How Are the Novice Getting to Be the Expert? : A Preliminary Case Study on Japanese Science Teachers
Ogawa, Masakata ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 22, issue 5, 2002, Pages 1082~1102
Most of comparative studies in science teacher education so far have been conducted in terms of teacher education policy, pre- and in-service training system and curriculum, and certificate system. While such superficial information can be readily obtainable, it does not necessarily enable us to make access to reality of science teachers' professional development in respective countries, because practice in professional development among science teachers is deeply embedded into respective socio-cultural environment or climate. In order to get information on reality in science teachers' professional development, alternative approaches of research should be developed. This paper aims at pursuing an alternative way to approach reality of Japanese science teachers' professional development. An email survey of free description method with 29 in-service science teachers with a variety of years of experience in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, revealed that Japanese science teachers have developed their expertise through very close daily-based communication with their peer science teachers. At least, within their consciousness, neither formal in-service training programs, nor pre-service training programs have had much stronger effects on their professional development than such non-formal, daily-based, deep, apprenticeship-typed or in some sense, family-typed communication. The results suggest that in order to conduct meaningful comparative studies, we should take much more attention to how to make access to reality of science teachers' professional development.