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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 2004
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
Selecting the target year
How Does Cognitive Conflict Affect Conceptual Change Process in High School Physics Classrooms?
Lee, Gyoung-Ho ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 1, 2004, Pages 1~16
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of cognitive conflict in the conceptual change process. Ninety-seven high school students in Korea participated in this study. Before instruction, we conducted pretests to measure learning motivation and learning strategies. During instruction, we tested the students' preconceptions about Newton's 3rd Law and presented demonstrations. After this, we tested the students' cognitive conflict levels and provided students learning sessions in which we explained the results of the demonstrations. After these learning sessions, we tested the students' state learning motivation and state learning strategy. Posttests and delayed posttests were conducted with individual interviews. The result shows that cognitive conflict has direct/indirect effects on the conceptual change process. However, the effects of cognitive conflict are mediated by other variables in class, such as state learning motivation and state learning strategy. In addition, we found that there was an optimal level of cognitive conflict in the conceptual change process. We discuss the complex role of cognitive conflict in conceptual change, and the educational implications of these findings.
Differential Effect of Item Characteristics on Science Achievement Between Genders
Shin, Dong-Hee ; Moon, Nan-Moo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 1, 2004, Pages 17~28
The purpose of this study is to determine the patterns of differences between genders in science achievement. Eleventh grade, 140 female and male students were sampled from a school in Seoul. According to the analysis results of pilot study, 20 items were finally selected for the main study. To sharpen our interpretations of the factors and provide some confirmation, we supplemented the statistical analysis with a more detailed cognitive study of the items using think-aloud protocols and interviews with student test takers. The analysis of this study took into account the different item formats, contexts, and presentation styles. The findings are as follows: First, there was no significant gender difference between multiple-choice and open-ended items. Second, male students achieved significantly better in the context of everyday life in multiple-choice items. Third, male students favored items presented as written texts. Fourth, in problem-solving process, female students tend to apply their science concepts, whereas male students tend to apply their everyday experiences. The results of this investigation indicate that gender difference in science achievement depends heavily on item characteristics.
Reaching Beyond the Science Education Guidelines: Project-Centered Approaches
Son, Yeon-A ; Shin, Young-Joon ; Lee, Yang-Rak ; Choi, Don-Hyung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 1, 2004, Pages 29~47
Two project-centered secondary school programs were studied as part of an effort to elucidate successful components for science reform-based curriculum development. The Teachers for Exciting Science (TES), and Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) programs in Korea and U.S., respectively, are project-centered programs because their curricula are centered on the activities initiated and engaged in by the students. Students serve as principal investigators in their projects, and teachers serve as guides. Both programs were analyzed based on criteria such as curriculum design, teaching, lives of students, lives of teachers, evaluation of program, from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In the programs, teachers and students directed the development of curricula and their implementation. Students assumed teacher roles as mentors of other students. And emphasis was on development of communication skills through student-delivered talks and written papers, and professional development of teachers as educators and scientists. Participation in TES stimulated secondary school student interest in science, encouraged inquiry thinking, increased achievement in learning science, and promoted better awareness of science related to real life. FAST students practice laboratory and field techniques, experimental design, hypothesis formation, generalization, and practical implications of research as academic and applied disciplinarians. These project-centered programs have been successfully implemented in field, lab, and classroom curricula for secondary science education. Comparison of these programs will provide an opportunity for identifying key elements instrumental in successful implementation of guidelines for science education, as measured through successful outcomes.
Constructivism and STS Reflected in the Korean Education Programs for Secondary Science Teachers
Cha, Hee-Young ; Chung, Wan-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 1, 2004, Pages 48~62
This research aimed to investigate whether Korean education programs for secondary science teachers reflect constructivist perspectives. To identify how to introduce the idea of constructivism and STS into the courses of the current Korean education programs for secondary science teachers, two programs were selected: the Qualifying In-service Program held in Seoul and the pre-service programs established in the four departments of science education of the Korean National University of Education in Chungbuk. The course guidebooks, syllabi, and text materials prepared for implementation of the courses were collected and analyzed. E-mail correspondence with the program instructors who had conveyed both ideas to the trainees provided us more precise information about the characteristics of the classes, such as the total time provided the ideas and the teaching strategies used to implement the classes. The results indicated that the pre-service programs included the ideas of constructivism and STS more than did the Qualifying In-service Program. It is necessary that the courses included in the Korean in-service program, in particular the Qualifying In-service Program for secondary science teachers, have to be more focused on the constructivist perspectives.
Searching for Science Education in On-Line Resources Provided by Natural History Museums
Shin, Myeong-Kyeong ; Lee, Sun-Kyung ; Choi, Ji-Eun ; Kim, Chan-Jong ; Lee, Chang-Zin ; Byun, Ho-Seung ; Lee, Sun-Kyung ; Lim, Jin-Young ; Jung, Young-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 1, 2004, Pages 63~75
The purpose of this study is to explore characteristics of on-line teaching materials on websites of natural history museums, particularly with regard to educational perspectives and the nature of science. The target resources were selected from the websites of the Natural History Museum in London, the Australian Museum in Sydney, the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, and the Smithsonian Museum in Washington D.C.. A total of twelve on-line resources from these museums used in this study were selected as representative informal science teaching materials. For the investigation, this study developed a checklist with a total of nine items that were grounded on mostly reviewing previous literature and articles focusing on educational perspectives of natural history museums and science centers. Exciting and positive results were found in all four museums. The analyses, however, indicated weaknesses as well as strengths in on-line resources regarding their usages as informal science teaching venues.
Co-evolving with Material Artifacts: Learning Science through Technological Design
Hwang, Sung-Won ; Roth, Wolff-Michael ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 1, 2004, Pages 76~89
Recent studies of science and technology "in-the-making" revealed that the process of designing material artifacts is not a straightforward application of prior images or theories by one (or more) person(s) isolated from his or her (their) environment. Rather, designing is a process contingent on the social and material setting for both engineering designers and students. Over the past decade, designing technological artifacts has emerged as an important learning environment in science classrooms. Through the analyses of a large database concerning an innovative simple machines curriculum for sixth-and seventh-grade students, we accumulated valid evidence for the nature of the designing process and science learning through it. In this paper, we show that design actions intertwine with the transformation of the objectified raw materials and artifact, the designer collective, and the mediating tools enabling that transformation, which constitute the elements of an activity from the perspective of cultural-historical activity theory. We conceptualize the continuous change of relation between material artifacts, designers, and tools throughout the design activity as co-evolution. Two episodes were selected to exemplify synchronic and diachronic change of relations inherent in co-evolving activity system. Finally, we discuss the implications of co-evolution during design activity for science learning.
Preservice Science Teachers' Previous Experience, Beliefs, and Visions of Science Teaching and Learning
Kang, Kyung-Hee ; Lee, Sun-Kyung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 1, 2004, Pages 90~108
This study is to understand preservice science teachers' previous experience, beliefs about teaching and learning, and visions of themselves as future teachers. The data were collected from two individual interviews with 7 voluntary students and analyzed qualitatively for category construction. As the results of this study, we presented two cases, which showed that their different views of teaching science are strongly related to their previous experiences as learners and observers in schools, and that there is the apparent consistency between each participant's beliefs about science teaching and learning and their own visions of teaching in a science classroom. Implications for preservice science teacher education related to the results were discussed.
Developing Active Role of Science Museum in Educating on Ethical Issues on Science and Technology: Four Case Studies
Choi, Kyung-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 1, 2004, Pages 109~120
The purpose of this study was to examine a) each of the selected science museums for its role in educating on ethical issues in science and technology, b) what are the most frequently dealt ethical themes in science and technology; c) how were those themes presented (via exhibition, play, panel, movies, etc); and d) identify common characteristics in the selected science museums' presentations of ethical issues. The results indicated that selected museums present ethical issues related to technology development, mainly on biotechnology and environmental issues. The type of presentations dealing with ethical issues most frequently were exhibitions, panels and simulations, followed by demonstrations and lectures. All of the selected museums had common characteristics for actively taking an educational role in ethical issues in science. The study suggests that efforts to communicate the ethical issues in various areas should be reinforced to educate students and the public, and that it may be the museum's role to expose ethical aspects of technology related to human rights, dignity, health and development issues from the early stage of its development.
Students' Views of Science
Park, Hyun-Ju ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 1, 2004, Pages 121~128
This study was to investigate high students' conceptions of acids and bases, and their views on learning science. Multiple sources of data were collected over six months with a participation of sit tenth graders and their science teacher. The transcripts of interviews and other data were examined with an eye toward students' conceptions of acids and bases, and their views of learning science. Students' views of science are displayed the representative pattern. Each pattern is represented with an episode. Students' views of learning have been found to reflect the transmissive models of science educational practice. Students accept passive and difficult-to-modify views of the learner roles that they should play in the science classroom. Students identified science classes as conservative places, despite the introduction of science literacy as a goal of Korean science education since 1980. Behaviorism remains the major influence in their expectation, design, and practice in school science. Moreover, 'transmission' remains the persistent and dominant classroom cultural dynamic for both teaching and learning of science.
Yet Another Paradigm Shift?: From Minds-on to Hearts-on
Song, Jin-Woong ; Cho, Sook-Kyoung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 1, 2004, Pages 129~145
Since science was first taught in schools, maybe during the 18th century, school science education has experienced many substantial changes in its goals and nature over the period. The historical changes are usually referred to by some key terms, like, mechanics' institutes, object lessons, heuristics, general science, inquiry, STS, misconceptions. To characterize these changes, science educators frequently use some slogan-like analogies, referring to parts of the human body to indicate the movement of science education during a particular period of time: for example, 'Hands-On' for inquiry movement during 1960s-70s, 'Minds-On' for constructivist movement during 1980s-90s. In this paper, we briefly summarize the overall historical development of science education in Britain, then further expand the analogies to cover the overall process, that is, Ears-On
Minds-On. To illustrate future directions of the 21st century, we propose a new analogy, 'Hearts-On', and also discuss the meanings and implications of a 'Hearts-On' analogy by illustrating how this new paradigm can be applied to reflect various current trends of science education, particularly in Korea. In addition, a parallel historical change between school science and science museums & centres is discussed.
Differences in the Use of Heuristics When a Sixth Grader Solves a Problem
Park, Hyun-Ju ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 1, 2004, Pages 146~156
The purpose of this study is to look at the use of heuristics when a sixth grader solves a problem. Two research questions have been formulated: The similarities and differences in the use of heuristics when a student solves two problems that are science-knowledge-based and not science-knowledge-based, and the different types of prompts. A male sixth grade student participated in this study. All of the information for the study was collected in three interviews. The interviews began with observing the student's solving problems. The student was asked how and why he solved problem that way. There were some interactions between the researcher and the student during the interview procedures. As results of this study, eight general heuristics were used in both solutions: Check examples for support of an idea: check examples for exceptions to an idea: restate the problem: compare to known examples or patterns: make a hypothesis; check the relevance of other information present; use analogy: and recognize patterns/similarity. There seemed to be more similarities than differences in the type of general heuristic that were used in the two problem solutions. The student was systematic and consistent in his use of the general use of heuristics. Five types of interviewer prompts were detected in the two problem solutions, directional cues, modeling, clarity, problem posing, metacognition and validation.
A Survey of the Distribution of the Facilities Supporting Students' Out-of-School Science Activities and Their Programs in Korea
Song, Jin-Woong ; Lee, Jung-Won ; Kim, So-Hee ; Oh, Won-Kun ; Cho, Sook-Kyoung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 1, 2004, Pages 157~170
Students experience science not only through school science lessons but also through various other channels. Science-related facilities, including science museums and centers, are important channels for informal science education. Korea has a number of governmental and private facilities in which young people can experience various aspects of scientific activities, and many of them also provide the programs supporting out-of-school science activities. However, there has been no systematic survey study on those facilities providing out-of-school activities, thus they have not been used effectively as well as their social utility is not fully realized. To this end, in 2002 researchers of this study carried out surveys (1) of the facilities supporting out-of-school science activities and (2) of science programs provided by these facilities. The surveys show that there are approximately 180 facilities supporting science activities in Korea. More than 40% of them are located in Seoul and Gyeonggi areas. Among them, the proportion of special theme science museums was the greatest (37.9%). The facilities supporting out-of-school science activities usually do not target the specific age groups but are intended for all people. The proportion of governmental facilities exceeds that of private ones. 41.8% of the facilities examined in this study run their own science activity programs. Among the 10 categories of the programs, 'science class' type programs were the most common. There were more programs for elementary and middle school students than preschoolers, high school students and adults. The contents of the programs were more related to astronomy and meteorology, the observation of living things and field trips. Despite their high practical potential, the special theme science museums were found to be lacking in relevant programs, which could fulfill their values for informal science education.
Analysis of Preservice Elementary Teachers' Lesson Plans
Hong, Jung-Lim ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 1, 2004, Pages 171~182
The purpose of this study is to analyze lesson plans from third to sixth grades of science and to find out teaching strategies in respects of learning functions provided by preservice elementary teachers in education university. On the whole, to control students' learning process preservice teachers used more shared-regulation strategy than strong teacher-regulation one. Teaching activities for regulative learning function were most used in strategy of strong teacher-regulation, and in strategy of shared-regulation those for cognitive learning functions were most used. But teaching activities for affective learning functions were used a little considered in both teaching strategies. In introduction step of instruction, affective and regulative learning functions were more instructed by strong teacher-regulation strategy and cognitive learning functions were more instructed by shared-regulation strategy. The affective, cognitive, and regulative learning functions were largely planned by shared-regulation teaching strategy in development. The regulative learning functions were planned by strong teacher-regulation strategy than by shared-regulation strategy and affective learning functions were considered a little bit in consolidation. There was a tendency that strong teacherregulation strategy was increased in lessons for fifth and sixth grade.
Science-Related Attitudes of Korean Housewives
Kim, Heui-Baik ; Min, Jin-Seon ; Park, Jee-Young ; Heo, Nam-Young ; Song, Jin-Woong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 1, 2004, Pages 183~192
The purpose of this research is to suggest the way to promote housewives' understanding of science and technology, based on the survey results of the attitude toward science and technology, the scientific attitude, and the interest in science and technology of housewives in Korea. The questionnaire was developed by researchers and administered to housewives who live in Seoul to get basic information. Housewives showed slightly positive attitudes toward science and technology, and similarly positive scientific attitudes. These scores were increased as monthly income and education level were raised. Housewives' interest of the science-technology related topics (foods, health, education, leisure, social issues, cooking, housing, everyday activity) was relatively high, and the interest of foods, health, education, and leisure was significantly correlated with the scores of housewives' attitude towards science and technology and their scientific attitudes. Housewives are shown to be curious to know these topics when they were asked by their children or do not know the terms appeared in media, or purchase home appliances and food. And they get the answers in a passive way by asking their family members or by watching TV or newspapers. They preferred TV program for enhancing their understanding of science. But such program could be proper to present science knowledge but not fulfill the role to promote scientific literacy. Specially designed programs through science centers or science museums would be suggested for their lifelong education.