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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 2004
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
Selecting the target year
A Study on Development and Effect of Information Communication Technology (lCT) Based Science Unit - Focusing on 'Reproduction' of Science 10
Cho, Jung-Il ; Yoo, Hyung-Bin ; Kim, Hyun-A ; Park, Soo-Jung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 193~201
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of ICT on tenth grade students' understandings of and attitude toward reproduction. The subject of the study was 8 classes of 267 students. Four classes learned with help of lCT, but another four classes learned on the basis of a textbook. Understanding of reproduction and the attitude were assessed using a written test and a survey, respectively. The lCT was found to be effective to foster understanding of reproduction concepts and consciousness toward human reproduction. Discussions in the web enabled students get some feedbacks on their preconceptions from other students.
Analysis of Inquiry Activities Related to Metabolism Presented in Life Science Textbooks Developed According to the National Common Basic Curriculum
Shim, Kew-Cheol ; An, Joong-Eim ; Kim, Hyun-Sup ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 202~212
The purpose of this study was to examine the connection among inquiry activities related to 'Metabolism' presented in life science textbooks developed according to the national common basic curriculum. To perform this, the type, process and context of inquiry activities of life science textbooks were analyzed. The number of inquiry activities is gradually increased from elementary to secondary school. As result of analysis, types, processes and skills, and context of inquiry were not balanced according to textbooks and school levels. It is suggested that the framework of evaluating inquiry activities based on curriculum objectives be provided when developing science textbooks. It also implies that teachers need to reconstruct inquiry contents and activities suitable to school situations when they teach in the real fields of education.
The Effects by Learners' Characteristics on Scientific Conceptual Changes using Cognitive Conflict Strategy
Kwon, Nan-Joo ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 216~225
Cognitive conflict plays a very important role towards conceptual change in science education. Many research were conducted on the topic, but they were limited and failed to determine the effectiveness of cognitive conflict strategies for conceptual change on science instruction. It is worth noting that the levels of cognitive conflict varied the same given situation. Besides, the conceptual change resulted in different forms, despite the same level of cognitive conflict. Assuming that one explanation could be found in the learners' characteristics, this study investigated the cognitive conflict and scientific conceptual change by learners' characteristics of middle school students. A proper understanding of the cognitive conflict will help science teachers to apply effectively the strategies towards science conceptual instruction. In this study, learners' characteristics are 'intelligence', 'cognitive level', 'general grade of science subject', 'cognitive style', 'personality', and 'attitudes related to science'. The results says; the intensity of cognitive conflict correlated with students' personality (reflectiveness) and attitudes related to science, and conceptual change correlated with intelligence and cognitive level.
Desyncronization And Correlation Coefficient of Brain Wave on Scientific Reasoning
Lee, Jo-Ok ; Shin, Ae-Kyung ; Chou, Byung-Sun ; Park, Kuk-Tae ; Kwon, Yong-Ju ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 226~233
The purpose of this study was to test whether the degrees of desyncronization in cranial nerves were related to correlation coefficient between brain waves measured on scalp. Based on the hypothesis. this research intended to describe the patterns of brain wave during scientific reasoning. EEG (electroencephalography) signals in 19 electrodes were recorded from elementary (6th grade) and middle (7th, 8th grade) school students as they performed roller-ball tasks: planning experiment, cognitive conflict, bridging, metacognition, and at rest (eyes closed and eyes opened). The results showed that the smaller the correlation coefficient was, the bigger the degrees of desyncronization. As compared to resting periods, the correlation coefficients in prefrontal and frontal lobe decreased during scientific reasoning. And the nerves in prefrontal and frontal lobes were most active during scientific reasoning. These results suggest that the correlation coefficient in addition to frequency of brain waves be analysed to get meaningful results of researches on scientific reasoning by brain wave.
The Effect of Interpretive Style Scientific Reading Materials on the Change of High School Students' Philosophical Viewpoints on Science
Hong, Sang-Wook ; Lim, Eun-Kyeong ; Jang, Myoung-Duk ; Jeong, Jin-Woo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 234~240
The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of interpretive style reading materials on high school students philosophical viewpoints on science. Subjects for this study were 137 girl students in four classes of a high school located in Daejeon city. The classes were divided into two groups: experimental groups and control groups. Students in the experimental groups were administered a series of the reading materials over thirty-six sessions. Additionally, PPP(Philosophical Perspectives Prove) was used in order to assess students philosophical viewpoints on science. Results of the study showed that the interpretive style reading materials takes effect on the change of students philosophical viewpoints on science. At the initial stage, a number of students exhibited viewpoints inclined toward inductivism. As time goes by, however, viewpoint of inductivism was decreased and view of falcificationism and view of relativism were increased. The results also indicated that the effect of intervention was stable.
Analysis of High School Students' Conceptual Differentiation Patterns using Concept map
Sim, Jae-Ho ; Chung, Wan-Ho ; Lee, Kil-Jae ; Hong, Jun-Euy ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 246~257
The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify high school students' conceptual differentiation patterns on human digestion system. The subjects were 124 high school students and this group was guided to independently construct concept maps. Among them, 19 were selected for an in-depth interview and a short test. The concept maps, interview transcripts and the results of short-test were analyzed to identify conceptual differentiation patterns. The results were as follows. Mainly three distinct conceptual differentiation patterns were identified. The first pattern can be named as an 'Free-flow type'. The group belongs to this pattern expressed numerous examples than meaningful concepts with unclear understanding of hierarchial relation between each concepts. Also, this group had difficulties in grasp interrelations of different concepts. The second pattern can be identified as 'Sequence type'. This group constructed concept maps by featuring conceptual sequence. The group applied meaningful learning, yet assembled concept maps primarily according to sequence of learning and exhibited less organized concept maps than hierarchial type. The third pattern can be named as 'Hierarchial type'. All students elaborated concept maps after lessons. The sequence type changed hierarchial type or sequence mixed with hierarchial type but free-flow type was hardly changed.
The Effect of the Emotional Intelligence Improvement Program in Middle School Science Class
Chung, Young-Lan ; Lee, Kyoung-Hwa ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 258~266
An increasing number of educators emphasize the affective domain in learning. Affective and cognitive objectives interact and can not be separated from each other. Good emotions and feelings assist students achieving optimally in the cognitive domain. Emotional intelligence harmonizes well with an affective science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of EQ(Emotional quotient) improvement program on students' EQ, science achievement, the science related attitudes, and science anxiety. A pretest-posttest control group design was employed. Subjects were 168 male and female first grade students in a middle school. A control group was instructed with a traditional teaching method, and an experimental group was instructed using EQ improvement program. Two groups were treated for 42 hours during 14 weeks. Two way ANCOVA and correlation analysis was performed using the SPSS. The results indicated that students who received EQ program got higher EQ and their science anxiety was lowered than students who were in a control group(p<.05). EQ program was not significantly effective on science attitude than the traditional instruction but, in the domain 'the enjoyment of science class' it was effective(p<.05). EQ program was significantly effective on students' achievement than the traditional instruction(p<.05).
A Study on Factors Influencing Kindergarten Teachers' Science Anxiety
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 267~276
The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing kindergarten teachers' science anxiety. The subjects were 182 kindergarten teachers. The career, educational background, scientific literacy, science-related experience, type of kindergarten, age of classroom students, science supporting environment of kindergarten, and students' interest in science were examined as possible factors affecting teachers' science anxiety. The results showed that the science-related experience, science supporting environment of kindergarten, and students' interest in science were related to the teachers' science anxiety. However, the most important factor influencing kindergarten teachers' science anxiety was science-related experience. These results can be interpreted that positive science experiences affect decreasing teachers' science anxiety
Types and Frequencies of Questions - Answers by Middle School Students in a Small Group Activities During School Experiments
Lee, Myoung-Sook ; Jo, Kwang-Hee ; Song, Jin-Woong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 277~286
This study investigated the types and frequencies of student-student questioning (SSQ) in a small group activities, 5 in one group or 2 in one group, during school experiments. Five girls of seventh grade were observed during school experiments and interviewed afterward. Between students, information-type questions were asked more frequently than thought-type questions. Most of the information-type questions were procedural ones and most of the thought-type questions were comprehension ones. However, thought-type questions did not make further discussion in the activities. The rate of answers in the case of 2 in one group was higher than that of 5 in one group. Moreover, the similar tendency was found when we investigated the rate of helpful question-answers. In a pair, lower achiever usually asked questions, not answered as much as in 5 in one group, and higher achiever answered. The frequency of SSQ in a pair was relatively low when there was a big difference of science achievements between pair members. In conclusion, information-type questions were asked more frequently than thought-type questions during school experiments and the rate of helpful question-answers was higher when group members was fewer.
Students' Understanding of the Analogies Used in Chemistry Education and the Limitations of Using Analogies
Kwon, Hyeok-Soon ; Choi, Eun-Kyu ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 287~297
In this study, students' understanding of the analogies used for chemical concepts in science textbooks, misconceptions induced by the analogy, and the factors affecting conceptual understanding were investigated. In addition to the tests of field independency and logical thinking ability, tests of students' understanding of concepts and analogies on three states of matter, pressure-volume relation, molecular motion, and changing state depending upon energy were administered. The results revealed that half of the subjects understood the analogies differently from the textbook writers' intention and that students' conceptual understanding was significantly correlated with the degree of understanding on corresponding analogies, field independency, logical thinking ability, and prior achievement of science. The results of analyzing the direct and indirect effects of each variable on conceptual understanding showed that the direct effect of prior achievement was significant and that field independency and logical thinking ability had indirect effects through understanding of analogies and prior achievement of science. The limitations and implications of using analogies in science education were discussed on the basis of the results.
Study on the Operational Status of the In-Depth and Supplementary Class of the 7th National Science Curriculum
Lee, Eun-Sook ; Choe, Young-Joon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 298~306
The purpose of this study was to find out the operational status for the in-depth and supplementary class of middle school described in the 7th national science curriculum. To do this 455 students of 8th grade and 71 science teachers are administered questionaries which were developed to ask about whether or not execute the in-depth and supplementary class, the frequency of the execution, the way of forming groups and the contents of teaching etc.. The operation of the in-depth and supplementary class at middle school were prevented by following factors such as too many class time of teachers, overpopulation in class, insufficiency teaching materials and so on. Therefore, to solve these problems, various approaches should be adapted such as effective teaching method, teacher training program, specialized classroom, independent teaching on the part of teacher and so on.
A Study on Middle School Students' Perceptions of Private Academy Science Education and of School Science Education
Park, Hyun-Ju ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 309~319
The purpose of this study is to investigate middle school students' perceptions of private academy science education and of school science education in order to promote school science education. 180 middle school students who were taking a science class at a private academy were participated, and the short form of Classroom Environment Scale was implemented for the study. The results showed that the students went to an academy for supplementing school science or for getting a better grade in school. Some students, however, have different reason to go to an academy; they were kinds of silence-learners or received-learners rather than constructed-learners. That is, they didn't know how to and what to study. Students didn't have an opportunity to think scientifically and creatively from both academy and school science classes. They studied harder in science class at private academy than at school. Some students felt more favorable to and comfortable with academy teachers compare to school science teachers.
Inductive Influence of Algorithmic and Conceptual Problems
Noh, Tae-Hee ; Kang, Hun-Sik ; Jeon, Kyung-Moon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 320~326
This study investigated whether algorithmic problem solving and conceptual problem solving influenced each other or not. Four classes of 12th grade (N= 112) that are equal in prior achievement were randomly assigned to group AC (Algorithmic-Conceptual problem) and group CA (Conceptual-Algorithmic problem). Students of group AC solved the conceptual problems after learning the related algorithmic problems, and those of group CA solved the same problems in reverse order. The results revealed that learning the algorithmic problems improved students' ability to solve the related conceptual problems, but learning the conceptual problems did not help students solve the related algorithmic problems. Regarding the confidence on problem solving, learning the algorithmic problems had little effect on the related conceptual problems. Learning the conceptual problems also had little effect on students' confidence on solving of the related algorithmic problems.
Development of STS Modules Reflecting Korean local Concerns and Their Evaluation Tools
Cha, Hee-Young ; Shim, Jae-Ho ; Lim, Chae-Seong ; Kim, Eun-Kyeong ; Kim, Sung-Ha ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 328~342
This study aims to develop STS modules which consider the local concerns of Korean society and their authentic evaluation instruments. Their titles are as follows: 'Health-Aiding Foods, are they necessary?', 'Competition between Alien and Native Species', 'Living Lesson of Lake Shihwa', and 'Problems of food wastes; Would you like to throw them away, if they are money?' All of them deal with issues unique to Korean local situations. Each module consisted of two versions; a student worksheet and a teachers' guide. Students' activities were categorized into six processes such as group activities, investigation, discussion and presentation, experiments, field trip, and multiple intelligence activities. Various assessment tools and abilities for the decision-making in their STS classes were also included. In order to validate these modules, 24 teachers who have been teaching science, biology and environmental science in the secondary schools reviewed these modules and provided feedbacks about their validity and usefulness. We expect that the various rubrics included in each module will provide teachers creative and flexible assessment methods for students' understandings and their decision-making abilities toward the issues.
What Makes Korea-Israel Science Teachers Inservice Program for Fostering Learners' Creativity Effective?
Seo, Hae-Ae ; Yoon, Ki-Soon ; Kwon, Duck-Kee ; Song, Bang-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 343~356
The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of Korea-Israel science teachers inservice program. Thirty science teachers who participated in the inservice program responded to pre- and post tests of the survey instrument on (a) their perceptions to creativity fostering science education and understandings of current education status and reform movement, (b) degrees of changes about understanding of creativity and implementing teaching methods for fostering creativity before and after the program, and (c) their evaluative opinions on the program. Suggestions for improving the program were proposed as follows: First, a pre-service workshop for the program should be provided in order to clearly realize the essential purpose of the program through increase of participating teachers' understanding of facing conditions of education, school policy, reform movement toward science education fostering creativity. Second, for the content of the program, creativity is more emphasized. Appropriate content and sufficient time arrangement for creativity will develop teachers' conceptual understanding of creativity in depth. Third, classroom observation of exemplary science teaching for fostering creativity should be sufficiently arranged. Fourth, amount of content and time allotment to Israel culture, religion, and education system should be reduced.
The Types and Characteristics of Educational Programs in Major Natural History Museums of the World
Lee, Sun-Kyung ; Choi, Ji-Eun ; Shin, Myeong-Kyeong ; Kim, Chan-Jong ; Lee, Sun-Kyung ; Im, Jin-Young ; Byun, Ho-Seung ; Lee, Chang-Zin ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 357~374
This paper described the types and characteristics of educational programs in major natural history museums of the world. Data were collected from the websites, annual reports, and written materials of the Natural History Museum at London, Australian Museum at Sydney, Field Museum of Natural History at Chicago, Smithsonian Museum at Washington D.C, Royal Tyrrell Museum at Canada and American Museum of Natural History at New York. As the result of this study, we presented ten types of educational programs, which were moveable museums, workshops, lecture/courses, festival/events, discovery activities, scientific exploration/research projects, field trips, youth curators/internship, loan materials and camp/tours. We also described the examples equivalent to each program type. The characteristics of educational programs provided by museums as informal learning settings were analyzed in terms of their themes, participation levels, connection with exhibition, relation to curriculum, and learning activity levels. Information in this paper will assist science teachers, museum educators and curators: (1) to design and implement various types and contents of educational programs; (2) to use characteristics of educational programs to assess and develop them; (3) to make important contributions to science education that involves the introduction of various scientific aspects and collections to the public, and the use of programs for science learning and teaching coherent to existing curricula.
A Suggestion of Cognitive Model of Scientific Creativity (CMSC)
Park, Jong-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 375~386
Creative thinking alone can not lead to scientific creativity. Scientific knowledge and scientific inquiry skills are needed for scientific creativity. Focused only on cognitive aspect, I suggested a cognitive model of scientific creativity (CMSC) consisting of 3 components: thinking for scientific creativity, scientific knowledge contents, and scientific inquiry skills. Recently, many researchers have emphasized the various thinking for creativity as well as divergent thinking. Therefore, I suggested three types of creative thinking - divergent thinking, convergent thinking, and associational thinking - and discussed its rationale. Based on this model, an example of activity material for the scientific creativity was suggested. In the further research, based on CMSC, various activity types related to scientific creativity and concrete learning materials for scientific creativity will be developed.
An Analysis of High School Students' Preference for Science and Its Causal Factors in terms of Gender Difference
Kim, Heui-Baik ; Kim, Mi-Young ; Im, Sung-Min ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 387~398
The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' preference for science(PS) and its causal factors in terms of gender difference, and to suggest the way to improve students' preference for science. A questionnaire to evaluate the PS of high school students and its causal factors was specially designed by researchers. It was administered to 429 boys and 449 girls in eight high schools. The average score of the PS was 3.16 of 5.00 which was not high, but the PS scores of students who had wanted to be engaged in jobs related to science or medical field, were higher than the students who would be in other fields. There was no statistically significant difference between the boys' PS scores and girls', but the average scores of causal factors were higher in boys than in girls. Path analysis using a structural equation model was indicated that the pathways showing how causal factors made effects on each category of the boys' PS were simpler than those of girls. Particularly, while educational factors made indirect effects on three categories of the boys' PS, they did direct effects as well as indirect effect on the girls' PS. This means that the girls' PS is possible to be improved by applying the educational programs specially developed for girls.
Relationship between Attitudes Toward Science and Science Achievement
Lee, Mee-Kyeong ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 399~407
The purposes of the study were to examine students' attitudes toward science and to investigate the relationship between attitudes toward and achievement in science. In order to achieve the purposes, the data collected from the National Assessment of Educational Achievement in 2001 were analyzed in this study. Approximately 1% of students within the entire population of the Grades 6, 9, 10 were randomly selected for the National Assessment of Educational Achievement in 2001. Students at all grade levels had slightly positive attitudes toward science. Positive attitudes toward science were higher at elementary level. Male students had more positive attitudes than female students and the difference in attitudes between male and female students was statistically significant. Also, there were significant differences in students' attitudes toward science among regions including Seoul, metropolitan city, small city and town. In addition, achievement in science was significantly and positively related to attitudes toward science, that is, the higher the students achieved, the more positive their attitudes toward science.
The Effect of the Delayed Resolution of Cognitive Conflict on Middle School Students' Conceptual Change in Science
Choi, Han-Yong ; Kim, Ji-Na ; Choi, Hyuk-Joon ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 2, 2004, Pages 408~415
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the delayed resolution of cognitive conflict on middle school students' conceptual change in learning the concept of the action and reaction with cognitive conflict strategy. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the time in which teacher tried to resolve cognitive conflict: instant resolution group, 2-day delay resolution group, and 7-day delay resolution group. Pretest, just before test, posttest, and delayed posttest were examined to measure the degree of conceptual change. Delay resolution groups' students answered the questionnaire asking what they had done to resolve cognitive conflict during the period which had been delayed resolution of cognitive conflict. The results of this study were as follows. First, instant resolution group showed significantly more scientific conceptual change than delay resolution groups. Secondly, most of delay resolution groups' students who tried to resolve cognitive conflict interacted with their peers. Also, delayed resolution of cognitive conflict was not helpful to resolve cognitive conflict. Thirdly, in delay resolution groups, we found the tendency that students who spent more than 30 minutes trying to resolve cognitive conflict altered their preconceptions into scientific concepts more easily than the others did. According to the results of this study, instant resolution of cognitive conflict is more effective on scientific conceptual change than delayed resolution of cognitive conflict.