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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 2004
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
Selecting the target year
The Relationship between Conservation Reasoning and Functional Prefrontal Lobe in Elementary School Students
Kim, Young-Shin ; Kwon, Yong-Ju ; Bae, Yoon-Ju ; Jeong, Jin-Su ; Jeong, Wan-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 417~428
Conservation reasoning makes operational thought possible as a functional tool and it is the essential concept not only in the area of science and mathematics but also in several aspects of daily life. The abilities to solve mathematical problems and that of scientific reasoning and abstract way of thinking depend on whether thereis conservation reasoning or not and they are critical concepts that enables us to confirm the steps of cognitive development. Therefor in the study, we emphasized the issue that is the ways to speed up the scientific era by analyzing the correlation between the formation of conservation reasoning and neuro-cognitive variables. About 50% of 1-3 grade students did not had conservation reasoning skills. The formation of conservations was not linear. Scientific reasoning ability, planing and inhibiting ability were significantly different in levels of conservation, And, conservation reasonings were significantly correlated with cognitive variables. Scientific reasoning and planning ability significantly explained about 20% of the conservation reasoning ability of 1-3 grades.
Analysis of Concepts Related to Explanations of Evaporation and Boiling in Secondary School Science Textbooks
Paik, Seong-Hey ; Jeong, Ae-Kyung ; Ko, Young-Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 429~441
This study was to examine the concepts using to explain evaporation and boiling in secondary school science textbooks developed in 6th and 7th science curriculum. The types of explanations were compared with maps represented the concepts relationships divided into middle and high schools, 6th and 7th curriculum, and subjects and chapters to find explanation diversity. The difference of explanations related to evaporation and boiling concepts was found in the school levels and subjects. There were few relationships between the main concepts of evaporation phenomena and those of boiling phenomena.
Evaluation on the Implementation of Girl Friendly Science Activity
Jhun, Young-Seok ; Shin, Young-Joon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 442~458
This study was conducted to develop a plan for a large-scale implementation of the Girl Friendly Science Program based on the results of analysis and investigation of its current pilot implementation, Girl Friendly Science Program materials, which was first developed in 1999 with the support from Ministry of Gender Equality, consist of 1) five theme-based units that are specifically targeted individual students' unique ability, aptitude, and career choice, and 2) differentiated learning materials for 7th through 10th grade female students. All the materials are available at the homepage (http://tes.or.kr/gfsp.cgi) of 'Teachers for Exciting Science(the organization of science teachers in Seoul area)'. Since the materials are well organized by topic and grade level and presented in both Korean word process document and html format, anyone can easily access to the materials for their own instructional use. Ever since its launch the number of visitors to the homepage has been constantly increasing. The evaluation results of the current pilot implementation of the materials that targeted individual students' ability and aptitude showed that it scored high in terms of its alignment to the original purpose, content, level, and effectiveness to implement in classrooms. However, its evaluation scores were low in terms of the convenience for teachers to guide the materials, and its organization and operation. The results also showed a significant change in students' perception of science, and students' positive experiences of science through various interdisciplinary activities. On the other hand, the evaluation of students' experiences with the materials showed that students' assessment about an activity was largely depending on a success or failure of their experiences. Overall, students' evaluation of activities scores were low for simple activities such as cutting off or pasting papers. According to students' achievement test results, differences between pre and post test scores in the Affective Domain was statistically significant (p<0.05), but not in Inquiry Domain. Based on teachers observations, numerous schools where have run this program reported that students' abilities to cooperate, discuss, observe and reason with evidences were improved. In order to implement this program in a larger scale, it is critical to have a strong support of teachers and induce them to change their teaching strategy through building a community of teachers and developing ongoing teacher professional development programs. Finally, there still remain strong needs to develop more programs, and actively discover and train more domestic woman scientists and engineers and collaborate with them to develop more educational materials for girls in all ages.
The Effects of Scripted Cooperative Learning in Elementary School Science Instruction
Koh, Han-Joong ; Kang, Suk-Jin ; Moon, So-Hyun ; Han, Jae-Young ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 459~467
In this study, the effects of scripted cooperative learning in elementary school science instruction were investigated. Three classes (95 sixth graders) were divided into three groups, including a traditional learning group, a cooperative learning group and a scripted cooperative learning group respectively. Students were taught about 'several kinds of gas' for nine class periods. After instruction, the effects upon student's achievement, science learning motivation, and attitude toward science instruction were examined. ANCOVA results indicated that there was a significant interaction effect between the treatment and achievement level in the achievement test scores. The achievement test scores of the low level students were significantly higher in the scripted cooperative learning group than those in the other groups. The science learning motivation and the attitude toward science instruction scores were also significantly higher among students in the scripted cooperative learning group.
Analysis of Curriculum Development Processes and the Relationship between General Statements of the Curriculum and Science Curriculum
Lee, Yang-Rak ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 468~480
It has been criticized that there are discrepancy between 'general statements' of the curriculum and subject-matter curricula. The possible reasons for this are as follows: The developers of the general statements were educational curriculum specialists. These specialists were not good enough to develop general statements and guidelines of subject matter curricula reflecting the characteristics of science contents, to examine developed science curriculum, and to give feedback to science curriculum developers. Under the present curriculum developing system where curriculum is developed in ten months or less by the research team commissioned unpredictably and imminently, it might be difficult to develop valid and precise science curriculum reflecting the purport of the general statements and teachers' needs. The inadequacy of these curriculum development processes resulted in (1) inconsistent statement about the school year to be applied to differentiated curriculum, (2) abstract and ambiguous stating about the characteristics, teaching-learning and assessment guidelines of enrichment activities, and (3) failure to reduce science contents to a reasonable level. Therefore curriculum development centers should be designated in advance to do basic research at ordinary times, and organized into a cooperative system among them. Two years or more of developing time and wider participation of scientists are recommended to develop more valid and precise science curriculum. In addition, commentaries on science curriculum should be published before textbook writing begins.
A Comparative Analysis of the Science Curriculums and Textbooks of Middle School in South and North Korea
Park, Kwang-Seo ; Jeong, Eun-Ju ; Yang, Il-Ho ; Park, Kuk-Tae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 481~498
The purpose of this study was to compare and analyse the subject organization and teaching units of middle school science curriculums and science textbooks, by studying the organization of subject matter and content scope and level of middle school science subject in South and North Korea. As a result of this study, the composition, scope, and level of content between middle school science textbooks in South and North Korea were similar. However, the study found that science education objectives, separated science curriculum subject organization, economical efficiency weighted format and organization of science subject matter, result-centered experiments, the enlightenment of Kim Ilsung and his son in North Korea science education were very far from the desirable direction of science education. Therefore, the view on level-based curriculum and organization of the science curriculum should be integrated, and preparation of student-centered organization of textbooks and expansion of science-technology-society content is needed before unification. And also, the united Korea science curriculum shouldn't simply compromise or neutralize between middle school science curriculum in South and North Korea. They should make a future-oriented plan for information and globalism society.
The Relationship between Learners' Epistemological Beliefs About the Nature of Physics Knowledge and Physics Knowing During Conceptual Change in Mechanical Energy
Moon, Seong-Sook ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 499~518
This study focused on research that illustrates the important interplay between learners' epistemological beliefs about science knowledge, physics textbook knowledge and knowing physics in the classroom. Also this study investigated learners' conceptual changes on the value of mechanical energy. To explore these topics, six sophomores were chosen as participants. Three categories were introduced to classify how participants' understanding of the nature of science knowledge, physics textbook knowledge has been linked with epistemological beliefs of knowing physics. The three categories were (1)receiving physics knowledge as authority, (2)receiving physics knowledge as the perception of teacher's role and (3)understanding physics knowledge as the perception that science knowledge is a product of a variety of human ideas. These categories were also concerned with construction of individual conceptions of mechanical energy. The participants who understood physics knowledge as the perception that science knowledge is a product of a variety of human ideas naturally used metacognitive strategy in classroom compared to other participants. And they had scientific conceptions about the value of mechanical energy. Others who were passive in classroom had unscientific conceptions about the value of mechanical energy due to definition of energy and epistemological beliefs about the nature of science knowledge. In the process of their conceptual changes on the value of mechanical energy, it was important to understand an instrumental aspect of scientific knowledge and to think about the relation between formulae and physical phenomena.
Development and Evaluation of Criterion-Referenced Performance Assessment Items Based on the 7th National Science Curriculum -Subject Unit of Reproduction and Biological Accumulation-
Chung, Young-Lan ; Park, Jin-Joo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 519~531
In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on performance assessment to evaluate students' abilities. Our nation has introduced a change in testing and assessment. Additional work on the efficacy, reliability, and comparability in order to develop the performance assessment item has been needed in the enforcement of the 7th National Science Curriculum. Also, criteria for professional and technical standards has been needed to be developed. The purpose of this study was to draw out various key concepts and to develop achievement standards, assessment standards and performance assessment items based on the 7th National Science Curriculum on the subject matter of reproduction(chapter 13) and biological accumulation(chapter 17). And also, this study examined the validity of completed performance assessment items based on classical test theory and polytomous item response theory. Twelve key concepts in chapter 13(reproduction) and four from chapter 17(biological accumulation) were abstracted. Twenty-six achievement standards in chapter 13(reproduction), and nine in chapter 17(biological accumulation) were developed. The achievement standards were determined in terms of knowledge(K), process skill(P) and attitude(A). Twenty-five assessment standards in chapter 13(reproduction) and nine in chapter 17(biological accumulation) were developed. Based on the developed achievement standards and assessment standards, twenty-two performance assessment items(seventeen open-ended questions, three essays, and two portfolios) with concrete grading criteria were developed. Eight open-ended items were applied to 240 10th graders to evaluate reliabilities of the test which consisted of four items per each chapter. The results would be suggested that the applied items were valid for performance assessment because item difficulties and item discriminations were proper. There was not much differences in item discrimination between interpretation from classical test theory and that from polytomous item response theory. However, there were some differences in item difficulties between the interpretations of two theories because the characteristics of examinees were reflected in classical test theory.
Analysis of the Results of 2002 and 2003 Examination for Appointing Secondary School Science Teachers
Lee, Yang-Rak ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 532~543
The teacher appointment examination is consisted of a written test, an interview, a demonstration of teaching practices, one's academic record etc. The primary written test(full credit of 100) consists of multiple-choice test of general pedagogy(30%) and constructed response test of science(70%). The science test consists of science education(
) and science content(
). Five science exams were implemented for appointing general science, physics, chemistry, biology and earth science teachers in 2002 and 2003. The credits alloted to science education domain decreased from
in 2002 to
in 2003. The percentage of correct answer was similar between science education and science content domain in 2002, but the percentage of correct answer in science education domain(70.2%) was 29.8% higher than that of science content domain in 2003. Earth science exam almost reached the target mean score of 60 but the other four exams showed the mean scores ranging from 45.0 to 52.7 in 2002 and from 40.1 to 49.6 in 2003. The percentage of high difficulty items(p<40%) was 41.2% in physics and chemistry in 2002, 50% in physics and chemistry, and 45% in biology in 2003. Seventy eight percent of the items showed fairly high discrimination index(r>.30). In addition, the reliabilities of 5 tests were from .79 to .88. In conclusion, it is recommended that the credits alloted to science education domain should be increased up to 30%, and exam difficulties should be lowered to a proper level by making science content items easier.
An Analysis of Conception Types of High School Students, Chemistry Teachers, and Pre-service Science Teachers about Salt Bridge of Daniel Electronic Cell
Park, Jin-Hee ; Kim, Dong-Uk ; Paik, Seoung-Hey ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 544~555
This study examined the conception types of high school students, chemistry teachers, and pre-service teachers about the salt bridge in Daniel cell by a questionnaire and follow-up interviews. High school chemistry II textbooks were analyzed for finding the cause of the understanding difficulties of the teachers and students. Pre-service teachers' thoughts examined for the problems of pre-service teacher programs. From the analysis, it was found that teachers only thought that the role of salt bridge is for ion movement of two solutions involving electrodes. But they didn't have the conception that salt bridge has a roll of connection a circuit. This result was similar to students' and pre-service teachers' results. It was possible that insufficient and different explanations of the textbooks were attributed the teachers' and students' conceptual difficulties.
Application Effects of Biology Modules for Improving Science High School Students' Creativity and Scientific Thinking
Yoon, Deog-Geun ; Kim, Sung-Ha ; Cha, Hee-Young ; Lee, Kil-Jae ; Chung, Wan-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 556~564
Two biology modules were developed previously for the purpose of improving creativity and scientific thinking of secondary school students. A hypothetical-deductive experimental procedure was reflected in the module when students themselves can perform a series of activities of making hypothesis and designing an experiment to solve the questions. They followed a series of scientific processes to determine some characteristics regarding plant pigments and the transport process of materials in living organisms. Four classes of 9th graders in'S' Science High School were divided into the experimental and the control group. The same contents of the modules were taught to the control group by the traditional experimental way. The students' creativity, scientific thinking, scientific inquiry skill and knowledge achievement were examined before and after the interventions. As results, the experimental groups showed more significant improvement on the areas of the students' creativity, scientific thinking, scientific inquiry skill and achievement than the control groups. Results indicated that the specially designed modules in terms of hypothetical-deductive experimental procedure were effective to improve science high school students' creativity and scientific thinking abilities.
Teaching Behavior Elements and Analysis of Instructional Types Generated in Elementary Science Teacher's Classroom
Yang, Il-Ho ; Ser, Hyung-Doo ; Jeong, Jin-Woo ; Kwon, Yong-Ju ; Jung, Jae-Gu ; Seo, Ji-Hye ; Lee, Hea-Jung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 565~582
The purpose of this study was to explore the elements of teaching behavior and classify instructional types through the teacher's classroom observation in elementary school science classrooms. 18 elementary school teachers were selected at Seoul city and Kyungkido. The topic of lesson was 'How the weight of object is changed according to the shape to sink in the water'. Each class was recorded and analyzed that. The teaching behavior elements were used inductional analysis method. The instruction types were classified into instructional organization, teaching strategies in teaching-learning processes, the level of openness of inquiry at science classroom. The validity and reliability of the data were analyzed by 7 science educators. The results of the analysis of the teachers discourse showed that there are 23 types of teaching behavior elements. Used teaching behavior elements revealed the differences from each teacher. There were 7 types among the 12 types of class and the most common types of instruction were unsystematic, teacher-centered, and guided-inquiry. The result showed that guided inquiry type was found more than open inquiry type and teacher-centered instructional, content-centered instructional, superficial inquiry process showed characteristic.
Patterns of Designing Tools Experiments with Types of Force Conceptions in Elementary School Students
Kwon, Sung-Gi ; Park, Jong-Du ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 583~595
The purpose of this study was to identify whether the elementary school students force conceptions may influence on designing tools experiments. Four questions with multiple choices and reasons for those choices were asked to identify scientific/alternative force conception. Also four tasks for tools experiments matched to each force conceptions were developed into open questions in hypothesizing. controlling variables and methods of experiments. Forty elementary students were selected from 4 classes in sixth grade of a school in Daegu city. The major findings of this study were that the types of force conceptions can be classified into scientific and alternative conceptions. The patterns of designing experiments could be identified with types of hypothesis, controlling variables and methods of experiments in each four tools experiments. But students those who had scientific force conception did not better in hypothesis, methods of controlling variables and results for simple experiment than those who had alternative force conceptions. These results imply that students' force conception did not influence on designing tools experiments. The assumption that scientific conception could improve designing experiments was not guaranteed by this results.
Characteristics of Explanatory Hypothesis Formation by Anxiety Types in High School Students Cognitive Conflict about Action-Reaction Task (I)
Cho, Yeoung-Hean ; Kim, Yeoun-Soo ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 596~611
Based on conceptual change theory, cognitive conflict is known as an important factor for conceptual change even though there are still questions about its positive and negative effects on science learning. However there are little research which propose types of meaningful(constructive) cognitive conflict in learning science. The purpose of this study is to find out how are the anxiety types of cognitive conflict to which high school students respond in the action-reaction task, and to reveal what's the characteristic of the explanatory hypothesis according to the anxiety types. The result of this study indicated that first, the characteristics of the anxiety types of the cognitive conflict were classified as eight types. Especially the students who belong to the types of conviction of logical misconception and reasonable modification suggested explanatory hypothesis close to physical nature. On the other hand, the students who showed other types of anxiety except the two types of anxiety suggested temporary supported hypothesis or simple explanatory hypothesis based on students' observation and intuition. Finally we discussed the importance and the implication of the types of anxiety in applying the cognitive conflict strategy to science instruction.
Middle and High School Students' Mental Representation on Electric Circuits
Choi, Kwan-Soon ; Park, Yang-Yoon ; Kim, Beom-Ki ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 612~620
The purpose of this study was to investigate how middle and high school students represent circuit diagrams with different shapes but electrically same. What prototypes of circuit which students possessed were, how students represented the connection of resistors, and what criteria used while grouping the circuit diagrams were investigated. The participants were 10 middle and 10 high school students. The results show that they represented the circuit diagrams by the geometrical resistor configurations rather than physics principles, not considering the presence of a junction or a battery on the branch. This representation was constrained by the circuit prototypes. Middle and High school students seems to have the own way of representing circuit diagrams without considering physics principles.
Understanding Students' Conceptions in the Research on Conceptual Change in Science: from Misconception to Mental Model
Park, Ji-Yeon ; Lee, Gyoung-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 621~637
In science education, the research on students' conceptions has been started in early 1970. From the early 1980, the research on students' conceptions stimulated the research on conceptual change. Recently, mental model has been a theoretical background in concrete arguments on "how students' conceptions are constructed or created?" Mental model has been studied early in cognitive psychology, and several researchers have studied it partially in science education area. In this study, we compared different theories that explained students' conceptions in, mainly, physics. Further we discussed the possibility of mental model as a theory that could integrate different explanations about students' conceptions from different theory.
Analysis of Interaction Pattern of the Students in Online Discussion of Physics Investigation
Lee, Bong-Woo ; Lee, Sung-Muk ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 638~645
In this study, the on-line discussion learning system of physics investigation was developed for developing the creativity in the problem solving and critical thinking. And with the number of participants of a topic unit, the formation of multiple discussion field and a turn-taking, we found that the interaction patterns of the students were composed of interpersonal interaction pattern, interaction pattern of one to one participation, interaction pattern of one to many participation and interaction pattern of many to many participation. These interaction patterns could make us understand the participation structure and the aspect of interaction of the students in the cyber space.
The Effects of Feedback Types in Self Assessment on the Students' Science Concept Understanding and Science-Related Attitudes in the Middle School Science
Nam, Jeong-Hee ; Choi, Joon-Hwan ; Kong, Young-Tae ; Moon, Seong-Bae ; Lee, Suk-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 646~658
In this study, the effects of feedback types in self-assessment on the students' science concept understanding and science-related attitudes were investigated. Student's perceptions towards the self-assessment and the feedback provided were also examined. Ten classes from a middle school were chosen. Five of those classes were assigned to the comparative group that any type of feedback was not provided and the other five classes were assigned to the experimental group which feedback was provided. The experimental group was further divided into three groups for implement of three types of feedback. Experimental group A was given feedback in the form of written comments and experimental group B was provided feedback through correct-wrong response to the students answer. Experimental group C was provided oral feedback to the whole class. The tests of science-related attitudes were administered before and after the instruction period. The science concepts understanding test was done only after the instruction. There were significant differences between the experimental group and comparative group in understanding of scientific concepts. The enhancement of science-related attitudes was also significantly higher for the experimental group. There were significant differences between the experimental groups in science-related attitudes. However, there were no significant differences in understanding of scientific concepts in relation to the types of feedback in experiment groups. Interviews with the students of the experimental groups showed that students had positive attitudes towards self-assessment and the types of feedback. And they regarded self-assessment and feedback as helping them understand the science concepts. In conclusion, it was acknowledged that providing feedback in self-assessment showed considerably positive influences on the improvement of the understanding of scientific concepts and science-related attitudes.
An analysis of STS Contents Reflected in the Middle School Science Textbooks and Instructions
Hong, Mi-Young ; Jeong, Eun-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 659~667
The purposes of this study were to examine the middle school science textbooks published according to the 7th curriculum by analyzing overall structure of the books and STS contents, and to diagnose the current status of STS education in science classroom through interviews with teachers and students of the middle schools. It was found that STS approaches were of increasing importance in the science textbooks, however, they were not popular in the science classes. STS topics in the middle school textbooks were related mostly to 'applications of science' and 'social problems and issues', and few of the topics were related to 'cooperative work on real problems', 'multiple dimensions of science' and 'practice with decision making strategies'. Major barriers of STS education implementation in middle school science classroom were identified as follows; difficulties of assessment, teachers' insufficient cognitions and experiences regarding STS education, perceptions of students and parents that prefer didactic lecture methods and working on exercises. Desirable directions for the improvement of present status of STS education in middle school science classes were proposed.
Korean Fifteen-Year-Olds' Alternative Conceptions on the Greenhouse Effect Revealed in PISA Test Results
Kwak, Young-Sun ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 24, issue 3, 2004, Pages 668~674
This study investigated Korean fifteen-year-olds' (mis)conceptions on the greenhouse effect based on the PISA results. Based on previous studies on students' ideas about the greenhouse effect, Korean students'understanding of the natural factors and human-induced factors of the greenhouse effect were analyzed. Students' misconceptions about causes of the greenhouse effect were also examined. In addition to CO2, Students mentioned CFCs, atmospheric pollution, water vapor and methane as greenhouse gases. Many students indicated that the greenhouse effect and ozone depletion have a causal relationship. Teaching implications of the misconceptions were also discussed.