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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 9 - Dec 2007
Volume 27, Issue 8 - Nov 2007
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Oct 2007
Volume 27, Issue 7 - Oct 2007
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Aug 2007
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Apr 2007
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Apr 2007
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Mar 2007
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
The Effects of Science-Related and Scientific Attitudes in Small-Scale Science Experimental Learning on 3rd Grade Middle School Students
Yun, Jin-nyeo ; Lee, Ji-Hwa ; Moon, Seong-Bae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 27, issue 1, 2007, Pages 1~8
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of science-related and scientific attitudes in Small-Scale Science (SSS) experimental learning on 3rd grade middle school students. Two classes were chosen from a middle school in Pohang and classified into two groups: the first group, the experimental group, composed of twenty-six students, undergoing SSS and the other group, comparison group, composed of twenty-five students who were taught experimental learning by the traditional teaching method. The major observations of this study are as follows: The SSS experimental learning significantly influenced the students' science-related and scientific attitudes within the experimental group. Also, there was a meaningful difference in the subcategory of science-related attitudes and scientific attitudes before and after the SSS experimental learning. Otherwise, there was no significant difference in comparison group. In conclusion, the class using the SSS was positively influenced in forming students' science-related and scientific attitudes. In particular, the effect on subcategories of science-related attitudes such as attitude towards science are more remarkable. The SSS experimental learning helps students to enhance the subcategorial factors of scientific attitude such as their curiosity, critical thinking, cooperation, self-participation, persistence and ingenuity. The SSS experimental learning, therefore, can improve learning attitudes.
An Assessment of the Scientific literacy of Secondary School Students
Chung, Young-Lan ; Choi, Jin-Mi ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 27, issue 1, 2007, Pages 9~17
This study sets out to assess the scientific literacy of secondary school students and to describe their differences according to gender, grade, course. This study involved 112 middle school students and 213 high school students. Their scientific literacy was measured by the Scientific Literacy Test designed by Manhart (1997). A 70-item multiple-choice test was used to assess their scientific literacy. The constructs of science factor included 36 items making up physical science, life science, and earth science subtests. The social aspects of science factor consisted of 34 items in nature of scientific inquiry/knowledge, science as a human endeavor, science and technology, and societal perspectives. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test were conducted using the SPSS program. The scientific literacy score of the middle school students was 45.17. There was no significant difference according to gender but boys tended to perform better than girls on both the constructs of science factor and the social aspects of science factor. The scientific literacy score of the high school students was 51.79. There was no significant difference according to gender. But, boys tended to perform better than girls on the constructs of science factor. Girls tended to perform better than boys on the social aspects of science factor. The students taking a course on natural science got statistically higher scores than the students taking a course on humanities. The high school students got statistically higher scores than the middle school students.
The Influences of Cognitive Conflict and Non-Cognitive Variables on Conceptual Change and the Sources of Situational Interest Induced by a Discrepant Event
Kang, Hun-Sik ; Kim, Min-Kyoung ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 27, issue 1, 2007, Pages 18~27
This study examined the influences of cognitive conflict and non-cognitive variables induced by a discrepant event on process of conceptual change, and the processes that a discrepant event lead to situational interest. Seventh graders participated in this study. A preconception test was administered to select students possessing misconceptions about density. The tests of cognitive response and situational interest to a discrepant event were administered. After learning with a CAl program, the tests assessing attention and effort allocated to the CAl, and conceptual understanding were also administered. A path analysis revealed that cognitive conflict induced by a discrepant event caused situational interest, which in turn increased attention and/or effort and thus, resulted in conceptual change. The results of the path analysis on the processes in which a discrepant event led to situational interest suggested that novelty may be a primary source of situational interest. Novelty influenced situational interest directly as well as through attention demand, exploration intention, and instant enjoyment. Moreover, novelty exerted a direct effect on challenge, which in turn had negative effects on instant enjoyment directly as well as through cognitive conflict, and thus, decreased situational interest. However, the path coefficients of the latter were relatively smaller than those of the former. Educational implications are discussed.
The Influences of Small Group Discussion and Students' Visual Learning Style on Learning with Multiple Representations Using Drawing and Writing: Focused on Chemical Concepts
Kang, Hun-Sik ; Sung, Da-Yeon ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 27, issue 1, 2007, Pages 28~36
This study investigated the influences of small group discussion and students' visual learning style in learning chemical concepts with drawing and writing as methods to assist students in connecting and integrating multiple external representations. Seventh graders (N=449) at a coed middle school were assigned to individual drawing (ID), pair drawing (PD), individual writing (IW), and pair writing (PW) groups. All students learned "Boyle's Law" and "Charles's Law" for two class periods. Analyses of the results revealed that the students in the PD group, regardless of students' visual learning style, scored significantly higher than those in the ID group in a conception test. The scores of the students with strong visual learning preference in the PW group were significantly higher than those in the IW group in the conception test, while the scores of the students with weak visual learning preference were not significantly different between the two groups. Although the conception test scores of the PD group were higher than those of the PW group, the difference was relatively small. It was found that most students in both PD and PW groups perceived pair drawing and pair writing positively upon cognitive and motivational aspects.
Scientific Explanations by Earth Science Teachers in Secondary Schools: Analyses of the Logical Forms and Discursive Features
Oh, Phil-Seok ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 27, issue 1, 2007, Pages 37~49
The purpose of this study was to classify the logical forms of scientific explanations provided by teachers in secondary earth science classrooms, to examine the characteristics of the scientific explanations in different forms, and to identify the roles of the teacher and students in discursive practices for scientific explanations. Data came from the earth science teachers who participated in overseas teacher in-service programs in the years 2003 and 2004. A total of 18 video-taped lessons and their verbatim transcriptions were analyzed. The result showed that deductive-nomological explanations occurred most frequently in earth science classrooms and that the deductive-nomological model was well-suited to those problems for which there existed firmly established scientific laws or principles to construct scientific explanations. However, abductive explanations were presented when the classes dealt with retrodictive tasks of earth science. The statistical-probabilistic and statistical-relevance models were also employed in explaining weather proverbs and unusual changes of weather, respectively. Most of the scientific explanations were completed through the teachers' monologic utterances, and students assumed passive roles in discursive practices for developing scientific explanations. Implications for science lessons and science education research were discussed.
Comparison of 9th Grade Students' Understanding According to Experiments on the "Law of Definite Proportions" in Science Textbooks
Han, Yu-Hwa ; Lee, Min-Sook ; Paik, Seoung-Hey ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 27, issue 1, 2007, Pages 50~58
In this study, students' thoughts were searched according to the types of experiments related to the "law of definite proportions" in 9th grade science textbooks. The most common four types of experiments in textbooks were selected and analyzed for this study. It was found that the experiments needed various preconceptions and complex inferring process by students. But most of the students could not catch the concept understanding desired from the experiments. They just perceived simple observation from their senses. These phenomena were common regardless of types of experiments. These means that the level of preconceptions and inferring process for the interpretation of the experimental data did not match with students' level of thoughts. The goals of the experiments in science textbooks are to increase students' inquiry ability, and to acquire science concepts by themselves from the experiment results. But if the contents of experiments are not suitable to students' understanding level, the educational effects of the performance of these experiments were not positive. Therefore, these experiments need contents revisions for students to acquire the concept related to the "law of definite proportions" by themselves.
Perceptions on Microcomputer-Based Laboratory Experiments of Science Teachers that Participated in In-Service Training
Park, Kum-Hong ; Ku, Yang-Sam ; Choi, Byung-Soon ; Shin, Ae-Kyung ; Lee, Kuk-Haeng ; Ko, Suk-Beum ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 27, issue 1, 2007, Pages 59~69
The aim of this study was to investigate teachers' perceptions on MBL (microcomputer-based laboratory) experiment training program for teachers, the expecting effects of MBL experiment and application of MBL experiment after conducting MBL experiment training for science classes in schools. This study showed that most of the teachers who participated in the training program thought that the MBL experiment training program was very useful and instructive. Many teachers considered that MBL experiments using a computer could decrease time spent in the experiment by accurate and fast data collection and analysis. They also thought that the reduced time could be used more effectively in the analysis of experimental data and discussion activities leading to correct concept formation as well as in the development of graphical analysis and science process skills. However, they thought that MBL experiments were ineffective in learning how to operate experiment apparatus. This study also revealed that most teachers intended to apply MBL experiments in real classrooms context right after the training course and they pointed out many obstacles in introducing MBL experiments into their classrooms such as a budget to purchase equipment, poor laboratory conditions, and few MBL experiment training opportunities. In order to apply MBL experiment into the real classrooms, further changes were suggested as follows; development of technologies to reduce unit cost of equipment for MBL experiments, production and supply of many kinds of sensors, development of MBL experiment materials, and expansion of the training program for teachers.
Conceptual Definition and Types of Reflective Thinking on Science Teaching: Focus on the Pre-service Science Teachers
Park, Mi-Hwa ; Lee, Jin-Seong ; Lee, Gyoung-Ho ; Song, Jin-Woong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 27, issue 1, 2007, Pages 70~83
Reflection in teacher education is one reform effort that has taken hold in many teacher preparation programs. However, how to define it and how to foster it in a teacher's education are problematic issues. In this study, on the basis of literature review, science teachers' reflective thinking is defined as a process of thinking that deliberates on alternatives to solve conflict between one's previous knowledge/belief/practice and internal/external factors in science teaching context. Based on this definition, three types of science teachers' reflective thinking (i.e. technical reflection, professional reflection and critical reflection) were proposed. In addition, a framework of classifying the reflective thinking's types was also developed. To investigate science teachers' reflective thinking, two pre-service science teachers who majored in physics education participated in this study. The participants presented the monthly report on reflective practice, pre/post questionnaire, and education practicum journals. Individual interviews with them were conducted before and after their teaching activities. From the analysis of the data, it was possible to categorize the reflective thinking of the participants into three types. The major type of their reflective thinking was the technical reflection. However, it was difficult to find examples of the critical reflection.
The Biologists' Boon Activation Patterns during the Generation of Scientific Questions on Biological Phenomena
Kwon, Yong-Ju ; Jeong, Jin-Su ; Lee, Jun-Ki ; Yang, Il-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 27, issue 1, 2007, Pages 84~92
The purpose of this study was to investigate biologists' brain activation patterns during the generation of scientific questions on biological phenomena. Eight right-handed healthy biologists volunteered to be participants in the present study. The question-generation tasks were presented in a block design. The BOLD signals of the biologists' brain were measured by 3.0T fMRI system and data were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2). According to our results, the left inferior and middle frontal gyri, the medial prefrontal cortex, the bilateral hippocampus, the occipito-parietal route, the fusiform gyrus, and the cerebellum were activated significantly during the generation of scientific questions. Therefore, we suggested that generating scientific question is associated with analyzing observed situations, using verbal strategy, retrieving episodic memories for comparisons, and feeling cognitive conflicts.
Brain Activation in Generating Hypothesis about Biological Phenomena and the Processing of Mental Arithmetic: An fMRI Study
Kwon, Yong-Ju ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ; Lee, Jun-Ki ; Yang, Il-Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 27, issue 1, 2007, Pages 93~104
The purpose of this study is to investigate brain activity both during the processing of a scientific hypothesis about biological phenomena and mental arithmetic using 3.0T fMRI at the KAIST. For this study, 16 healthy male subjects participated voluntarily. Each subject's functional brain images by performing a scientific hypothesis task and a mental arithmetic task for 684 seconds were measured. After the fMRI measuring, verbal reports were collected to ensure the reliability of brain image data. This data, which were found to be adequate based on the results of analyzing verbal reports, were all included in the statistical analysis. When the data were statistically analyzed using SPM2 software, the scientific hypothesis generating process was found to have independent brain network different from the mental arithmetic process. In the scientific hypothesis process, we can infer that there is the process of encoding semantic derived from the fusiform gyrus through question-situation analysis in the pre-frontal lobe. In the mental arithmetic process, the area combining pre-frontal and parietal lobes plays an important role, and the parietal lobe is considered to be involved in skillfulness. In addition, the scientific hypothesis process was found to be accompanied by scientific emotion. These results enabled the examination of the scientific hypothesis process from the cognitive neuroscience perspective, and may be used as basic materials for developing a learning program for scientific hypothesis generation. In addition, this program can be proposed as a model of scientific brain-based learning.