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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 8 - Dec 2009
Volume 29, Issue 7 - Nov 2009
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Oct 2009
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Aug 2009
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Jun 2009
Volume 29, Issue 3 - May 2009
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
A Case Study on Reflection-in-practice in Science Teachers' Teaching Changes
Choi, Jong-Rim ; Lee, Sun-Kyung ; Kim, Chan-Jong ; Yu, Eun-Jeong ; Kim, Je-Heung ; Oh, Hyun-Seok ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 29, issue 8, 2009, Pages 793~811
The purpose of this study is to understand how a teacher's teaching can be changed while he or she teaches the same contents in different classes. The qualitative research method was used in this study. Data were collected from classroom observations, several in-depth interviews, and stimulated-recall interviews after each class. All the data were transcribed and analyzed interpretively, and then, the results of the analysis were checked by each participating teacher. The results are as follows: First, changes appeared in each class in terms of the teaching items, tools, sequence, and time, even though the same teacher taught the same contents. It showed that the teacher's teaching practice changed immediately and intuitively in class. Second, teachers tried to implement "exploratory teaching" or "move-testing teaching" to address the emerging problems during their teaching. They then reflected on and modified their own teaching. This type of change, which happened during the teaching practice, can be an example of "Reflection-in-practice." Thus, the results of this study can provide helpful insights into how teachers might adapt and reflect in their teaching. It suggests that teachers need to recognize their subconscious teaching changes and learn "Reflection-in-practice."
Analysis of Test Result at Secondary Science Using Cognitive Diagnosis theory
Kim, Ji-Young ; Kim, Soo-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 29, issue 8, 2009, Pages 812~823
The purpose of this study is to search effective assessments methods by using the Fusion model of Cognitive diagnosis theory. Attributes are skills or cognitive processes that are required to perform correctly on a particular item. After test items were developed, item's attributes were decided and Q-matrix about item's attributes was made. After testing, the result was analyzed according to gender and achievement level. The results of the analysis showed that students mastered 'Interpreting data' best, and 'synthesizing' worst among the five attributes. Female students showed higher ability than male students in 'recalling.' Students of high achievement level mastered more scientific attributes than students of low achievement level. Conventional assessments only provided a single summary score but Cognitive diagnosis modeling provided useful information by estimating individual knowledge states by assessing whether an examinee has mastered specific attributes measured by the science test. The skill profiles can offer a skill level of strong, weak, or mixed for each student for each skill. Therefore, the skill profiles will provide useful diagnostic information in addition to single overall scores.
An Analysis of Science Writing by High School Students through the Argumentation Structure Instruction: Focus on Writing tasks Based on Genres of Science Writing
Park, Jeong-Eun ; Yu, Eun-Jeong ; Lee, Sun-Kyung ; Kim, Chan-Jong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 29, issue 8, 2009, Pages 824~827
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the changes in structure and contents of different functional genre of science writing during high school using the argumentation structure. For this thesis, seven students of a girls' high school in the national capital region took the argumentation structure instruction for 40 hours for a month. As a result, considerable changes had occurred amid the Explanation genre, the Experiment-recount genre and the Exposition genre. In the Explanation genre and the Experiment-recount genre, noticeable progress had been made in the usage of the argumentation elements and scientific concepts and knowledge evolved in a more rarified and detailed manner. In the Exposition genre, argumentation structure had changed from the simple argumentation structure to the subordination or the multiplex argumentation structure. Simultaneously, it was affirmed that the types and number of the argumentation elements increased significantly along with enlargement of respective scientific concepts and knowledge. Hence, this implies students can determine their understanding of scientific facts and contents during the progress of developing the argumentation structure. It is necessary that students take the well-organized argumentation structure instruction.
The effect of practicing the authentic open inquiry on compositions of laboratory reports
Kim, Mi-Kyung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 29, issue 8, 2009, Pages 848~860
This study examined the characteristics of scientists' writing on the laboratory reports written in the authentic open inquiry, and explored the possibility that the class discussion after the inquiries could influence the laboratory report writing. The samples were 131 10th graders in a science high school in Seoul. The control group (n=45) practiced traditional school science inquiries, the experimental group 1 (n=43) practiced the authentic open inquiries, and the experimental group 2 (n=43) practiced the authentic open inquiries and the class discussion after the laboratory activities. Their laboratory reports were analyzed into three parts - prediction (prediction with background and apposite description), data analysis (data transformation and critical analysis), and conclusion (objective description based on evidence). The frequency of the characteristics of scientist's writing in the experimental group was higher than the control group. Particularly, the differences of the prediction with background (p<.01) and the critical analysis of data (p<.05) were statistically significant. However, the frequency of writing the conclusion based on evidence was very low in all of the three groups. The result from comparing descriptions of reports showed that the writing prediction in experimental groups were more elaborate, and the data transformation in experimental groups were more correct, and the evaluation to data in experimental groups were more critical than the control group. And the descriptions of the critical evaluation to data and the finding flaw in methods were found in experimental groups 2, indicating that the class discussion can stimulate students' scientific thinking.
An Investigation of the Types of Analogies Generated by Science-Gifted Student, Mapping Errors on the Chromatography, and the Perceptions on Generating Analogy
Kim, You-Jung ; Moon, Se-Jeong ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 29, issue 8, 2009, Pages 861~873
This study investigated the types of analogies generated by science-gifted students, mapping errors on the chromatography, and the perceptions on generating analogy. The subjects were science-gifted eighth-graders (N=68) enrolled at four gifted-education centers in Seoul. Analyses of the results revealed that most science-gifted students represented the analogies using verbal and pictorial forms based on concrete and everyday experiences, and they elaborately explained them including the functional attributes and the causal relationships of the target concept. Science-gifted students selected the analogies having rich similarities or similar structure and principle between the target concept and the analogy as the best of the self-generated analogies. And they used mainly their 'school life' as analogy materials. The results of the mapping test showed that many science-gifted students had mapping errors such as 'failure to map' and 'overmapping'. They were found to have the positive perceptions on generating analogy. The present study will provide the basic information to develop an instructional model in generating analogy in an education program for science-gifted students.
An Analysis of 'The Phases of the Moon', Contents of 9th Grade Science Textbook
Chae, Dong-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 29, issue 8, 2009, Pages 874~885
The purpose of this study is to analyze illustrations, contents, and experiments in 6 kinds of science textbook from the 9th grade covering the phases of the Moon (on the phases of the Moon in six 9th grade science textbook) and to suggest coherent and effective contents and frame of the science textbook. Hence, the researcher decided the study problem. The study problems are as follows; 'Are the illustrations in the science textbook presented to help understand the phases of the Moon depending on the position of the observer?', 'Does the contents of the book clearly mention the phases of the Moon?', 'Can students understand the phases of the Moon through the experiments in the science textbook?', 'Do illustrations, contents, and experiment of the science textbook consistently explain the phases of the Moon?'. 10 persons (9graduate students including the researcher) took part in this study. All things unanimously agreed upon by all participants were reflected in the results. The results are as follows: First, the universal observer's view point is mixed with the earth observer's view in the illustration of these science textbook regarding the phases of the Moon. Moreover, illustrations of some textbooks are presented with such words as 'sunrise', 'midnight' and consequently contain too much. Second, the contents of the science textbook concerning the phases of the Moon is not described clearly. In addition, they don't give clear and detailed explanations for the reason of these changes. Third, all of the textbooks, except one textbook, describe the experiment regarding the phases of the Moon with the earth observer's view point but don't specifically mention that the view point is that of the earth observer's view point. Fourth, illustrations, contents, and experiments in the science textbook don't coherently explain the phases of the Moon. In addition, it is confirmed through the process of the result analysis that the described contents in the science curriculum is not well constructed or logical.
Effects of Cognitive Conflicts before Confronting Anomalous Phenomena on Middle School Students' Conceptual Changes in Physics
Kwon, Mi-Rang ; Kim, Ji-Na ; Kim, Jung-Bog ; Kwon, Jae-Sool ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 29, issue 8, 2009, Pages 886~897
One of useful strategies to change students' misconceptions into scientific conceptions in physics is the cognitive conflict strategy, the main point of which is to arouse cognitive conflicts by presenting anomalous phenomena to students. However, it has been reported that students experienced cognitive conflicts while expecting or reasoning results of an experiment before confronting an anomalous phenomenon. Therefore, we have examined how much students' cognitive conflicts were aroused before presenting an anomalous phenomenon. Then, we investigated the effects of the cognitive conflicts aroused prior to the students' confrontation with an anomalous phenomenon, both on the cognitive conflicts occurring after the students' confrontation with it, and on the students' conceptual changes. This study was performed during regular classes about light-source and weightlessness concepts. Subjects from two different middle schools in Pusan took part in the study. Preconceptions, degrees of cognitive conflicts before and after confronting anomalies, and postconceptions were checked during the classes. Then, delayed postconceptions were also checked in 3 weeks. As a result, the degree of cognitive conflicts before confronting an anomaly was as much as the degree of cognitive conflicts after it. There was significant correlation between both conflicts. Also the degree of cognitive conflicts before confronting an anomaly was a main factor in predicting the conceptual changes, while both conflicts had been related separately to the conceptual changes.
The Influences of the Role-playing Analogy in Chemistry Concept Learning on Mapping Understanding and Mapping Errors
Kim, Kyung-Sun ; Yang, Chan-Ho ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 29, issue 8, 2009, Pages 898~909
In this study, we investigated the influences of the role-playing analogy in chemistry concept learning on mapping understanding and mapping errors by analogical reasoning ability level. Seventh-graders (N=151) at a middle school were assigned to the comparison group and the experimental group. The students of the experimental group were taught with the 'running in the circle' role-playing analogy. After the students were taught about 'the relation between volume and pressure of gas', the test of mapping understanding in the next class and the retention test four weeks later were administered. The students with typical mapping errors were also interviewed to investigate their mapping processes. The results revealed that the role-playing analogy in chemistry concept learning improved mapping understanding and its retention regardless of analogical reasoning ability level. It was also found that the students in the experimental group had fewer mapping errors than those in the comparison group. However, there were similar patterns of mapping errors in both groups, and there were no significant differences in the frequencies of each type of mapping errors by analogical reasoning ability level. Educational implication of these findings are discussed.
Professional Level of Non-physics Major Middle-school Science Teachers in 'Force and Motion' Content Knowledge
Park, Kyeong-Yeong ; Kim, Young-Min ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 29, issue 8, 2009, Pages 910~922
The purpose of the study was to investigate the professional level of the Korean non-physics major middle-school science teachers in 'force and motion' content knowledge. For the study, nine science teachers who majored in chemistry, biology, or earth science were sampled from middle-schools in a big city in Korea. The physics concept test-tool (subjective type), which the authors developed, were administered, and then followed by in-depth interviews. The research findings are as follows: Firstly, non-physics major science teachers' correct answer rate in physics knowledge test of secondary school level was not so high that they may have difficulty in teaching correct concepts in physics to middle-school students. Secondly, some teachers show that they can not apply some physics concepts from one to another situation. That means that they may have difficulty in teaching physics conceptual application in various situations to students.
Problem Analysis of the Experiments Illustrating pH Effects on Enzyme Activities in High School Science Textbooks - Focus on Starch-Iodine Reaction -
Ji, Jae-Hwa ; Jeong, Dae-Hong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 29, issue 8, 2009, Pages 923~933
In this study, analysis was carried out on science experiment in high school textbooks, illustrating 'the effect of pH on enzyme activity.' Five of the total 16 science textbooks introduced in this experiment, and the experimental conditions therein were analyzed. Textbook analysis revealed that pH of below 3 was used for 'acidic condition' and that of over 11 was used for 'basic' condition. Using the experimental conditions described in the textbooks, review experiments were performed. Buffering effect with the addition of saliva was found in the pH region around 7 when buffer solution was not used to control pH as was in the textbooks. The enzyme activity experiments were performed controlling pH from pH 2 to 13 with buffer. The color of the sample was blue from pH 2 to 4, and then disappeared from pH 5 to 8, reflecting that starch was digested owing to enzyme activity. In pH 9 light blue color appeared, indicating de-activation of enzyme under this basic condition. However, the blue color of the sample became lighter at pH 10 and disappeared from pH 11, which was different from the expected behavior anticipating dark blue color due to de-activation of enzyme under strong basic condition. These results can wrongly influence students to interpret that enzyme can be activated in this pH condition. So, we analyzed the reason for the color of the sample turning light blue in pH 10 and disappeared from pH 11. The analysis resulted that
subunits of polyiodides within the starch helix in starch-iodine complex, showing blue, decreases above pH 10 due to disproportionation to HOI,
by the reaction with
The Relationship between Students' Images of Science and Science Learning and Their Science Career Choices
Lee, Jane Ji-Young ; Kim, Heui-Baik ; Ju, Eun-Jeong ; Lee, Soo-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 29, issue 8, 2009, Pages 934~950
This study attempts to identify the relationship between students' images of science and science learning, and their career choices. A total of 163 students (seventh graders) from three different middle schools participated in this study. Students' images of science and science learning were investigated using the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) and the Draw-A-Science-Learner Test (DASLT), respectively. Then, students' drawings were analyzed using the Draw-A-Scientist Test Checklist (DAST-C) and the Draw-A-Science-Learner Test Checklist (DASLT-C). The relationship between each element composing the students' images and their career choices were analyzed. Among several elements constituting the students' image of science, 'expression,' 'lab coat,' 'oddity,' 'knowledge symbol,' 'technology symbol,' 'co-work,' 'danger,' and 'STS' showed significant differences between students who chose a science-related career and students who did not. It was also revealed that the following elements - 'expression,' 'learning type,' 'inquiry symbol,' and 'learning place' - were more significantly associated with a science-related career choice compared to other elements consisting of an image of science learning.
Understandings on the Cycle as a substance and ESE
Kim, Yun-Ji ; Jeong, Jin-Woo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 29, issue 8, 2009, Pages 951~962
Examining research papers and other texts on the subject, this study summarizes previous studies, with focus on circulation as a subtopic of Earth Systems Education. In relation to the Earth Systems unit included in the revised 10th-grade science textbook, this study explains the meaning of Earth Systems and the basic concepts of Earth System Science. It surveys the origin and application of Earth Systems Education, which developed primarily in the U. S., and introduces its objectives, concepts, and communicated content. It also reviews the contents of Earth Systems Education adopted in the Korean school curriculum, and provides a comparative analysis of the content on circulation appearing in Earth Science I textbooks. Finally, it is proposed that an understanding among educators of Earth Systems and of its necessity as a subject of education is imperative for Earth Systems Education to become firmly established as a compulsory component of the national school curriculum.
Analysis of Conceptions of Earth System Cycles as Perceived by College Students
Kim, Yun-Ji ; Jeong, Jin-Woo ; Wee, Soo-Meen ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 29, issue 8, 2009, Pages 963~977
The purpose of this paper is to identify college students' conceptions of the earth system cycles as learners of earth science education (ESE) and draw educational implications. An eight-week creative story writing project was held with 62 non-science students taking a general course on earth science. Their creative stories were categorized by analyzing the conceptions and types of cycle with a story mapping technique. The cycle conceptions of earth systems were expressed diversely into 32; most of the cycle types were circular and complex, while the others were branch-shaped and linear types that fail to complete the cycles. College students' conceptions of the earth system cycles is biased toward natural-abiotic systems; less than 30% of them are shown to be aware of all three categories: natural-abiotic, natural-biotic, and human systems. It is essential to diversify the content of education on earth system cycles and help learners develop systematic methods of thinking so that they will be able to recognize the impacts of feedback from human activities through ESE.
High School Students' Errors in Constructing and Interpreting Science Graph
Kim, You-Jung ; Choi, Gil-Soon ; Noh, Tae-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 29, issue 8, 2009, Pages 978~989
In this study, we investigated high school students' errors in constructing and interpreting graph on experimental results by students' science achievement level. Two tests regarding constructing and interpreting graph about 'the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas' were administered to 11th-graders (N=140). Analysis of the results revealed that most students exhibited many errors in the processes of constructing and interpreting graph. In the processes of constructing graph, there were 16 types of errors on the categories of 'misinterpreting the variables', 'mis-marking the graphical elements', and 'misusing the data'. The students of lower achievement level had more errors than those of higher achievement level in the four error types, that is, 'missing the variables', 'representing the best fit line using a broken line', 'adding the data', and 'neglecting the data'. However, the results were reversed in the error type of 'not marking the origin.' In the processes of interpreting graph, there were 9 types of errors on 'misreading the data', 'wrong interpolation and extrapolation', and 'establishing the wrong relationship'. The students of lower achievement level had more errors than those in the higher achievement level in the error types of 'wrong interpolation' and 'misdescribing the relationship between variables'. Educational implications of the findings are discussed.
Development of a Model of Brain-based Evolutionary Scientific Teaching for Learning
Lim, Chae-Seong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 29, issue 8, 2009, Pages 990~1010
To derive brain-based evolutionary educational principles, this study examined the studies on the structural and functional characteristics of human brain, the biological evolution occurring between- and within-organism, and the evolutionary attributes embedded in science itself and individual scientist's scientific activities. On the basis of the core characteristics of human brain and the framework of universal Darwinism or universal selectionism consisted of generation-test-retention (g-t-r) processes, a Model of Brain-based Evolutionary Scientific Teaching for Learning (BEST-L) was developed. The model consists of three components, three steps, and assessment part. The three components are the affective (A), behavioral (B), and cognitive (C) components. Each component consists of three steps of Diversifying
Emulating (Executing, Estimating, Evaluating)
Furthering (ABC-DEF). The model is 'brain-based' in the aspect of consecutive incorporation of the affective component which is based on limbic system of human brain associated with emotions, the behavioral component which is associated with the occipital lobes performing visual processing, temporal lobes performing functions of language generation and understanding, and parietal lobes, which receive and process sensory information and execute motor activities of the body, and the cognitive component which is based on the prefrontal lobes involved in thinking, planning, judging, and problem solving. On the other hand, the model is 'evolutionary' in the aspect of proceeding according to the processes of the diversifying step to generate variants in each component, the emulating step to test and select useful or valuable things among the variants, and the furthering step to extend or apply the selected things. For three components of ABC, to reflect the importance of emotional factors as a starting point in scientific activity as well as the dominant role of limbic system relative to cortex of brain, the model emphasizes the DARWIN (Driving Affective Realm for Whole Intellectual Network) approach.