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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 7 - Dec 2013
Volume 33, Issue 6 - Oct 2013
Volume 33, Issue 5 - Aug 2013
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Jun 2013
Volume 33, Issue 3 - May 2013
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
Developing Sequential ConcepTests for In-service Science Teachers' Training based on Peer Instruction: Focus on 'Principle of Pinhole Camera'
Lee, Ji-Won ; Kim, Jong-Won ; Kim, Kyu-Hwan ; Hwang, Myung-Su ; Kim, Jung-Bog ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 229~248
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.229
The purpose of this study is to develop sequential concept tests (ConcepTest) for teachers' conceptual change on the straight propagation of light through in-service training of science teachers by peer instruction. We revised the ConcepTests for attaining the goal concept by implementing similar training courses for teachers three times and analyzing the results using both Hake gain and verbal protocol. The final form helped most teachers to reach the goal concept. While teachers are solving a given concept problem test, they had shown not only significant cognitive conflict to select one among candidate answers, but also used the concept obtained through the previous problem. The sequential ConcepTests developed in this study can be useful for training elementary and secondary teachers or pre-service teacher education.
The Impact of Reading Framework as a Reading Strategy on Writing for Reflection of Middle School Students
Sung, Hwamok ; Nam, Jeonghee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 249~265
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.249
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of reading framework on writing for reflection when applied to inquiry-based Science Writing Heuristic approach. This study was conducted with 67 3rd grade middle school students. Thirty-two out of 67 students were assigned to R-SWH (Reading framework-Science Writing Heuristic) group while the other 35 students were assigned to SWH (Science Writing Heuristic) group. The R-SWH group has consistently used reading framework which the SWH group has not used when the inquiry-based science writing heuristic approach were carried out. The result of this study indicated that the R-SWH group showed a higher proportion of students who made writing for reflection by learning from reading materials than the SWH group. The R-SWH group used reading materials in order to understand the idea comprehensively and concept related to the topic the most, while the SWH group also used them for the same purpose as the R-SWH group but the ratio was less than the R-SWH group. In addition, as the learning activity has progressed, the R-SWH group showed that the proportion of students who transferred the science concept from reading materials into writing for reflection and the number of transferred concepts were higher than those of the SWH group. Therefore, the reading framework applied to inquiry-based science writing heuristic approach can facilitate a meaningful activity on reading and writing as a scaffolding to develop conceptual understanding.
The Characteristics of Perceptual Change of High School of the Arts Students through Explicit Instructions on the Nature of Science
Kim, Hee-Jung ; Kim, Sung-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 266~283
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.266
The goal of this study is to explore the characteristics of perceptual change among students majoring in arts on the nature of science and apply the results to science education. According to the study, it is important to consider the results of interaction between learners' aptitude and teaching method. Teaching the nature of science to first grade students explicitly, experimental inquiry strategy was applied to fine arts students, and teaching strategy of scientific history to music students. To find out which elements of the nature of science have come into view on modern philosophy of science, pre and post tests on the nature of science (VNOS-C) were conducted on the students. To find out specifically why views on the nature of science have changed, a case study was conducted focusing on students who showed changes in their views on the elements of the nature of science. In conclusion, this study suggests that by using experimental inquiry strategy and strategy of scientific history properly, it is possible to change students' viewpoints on the elements of the nature of science and on modern philosophy of science. Through explicit instruction, we were able to find some positive conceptual changes on the nature of science and the modern philosophy of science in terms of both quantity and quality. This shows that the students studying arts are experiencing a constructivist conceptual change on the nature of science, and that conceptual ecology and learning strategy are involved in this process. Therefore, it is thought that this study offers an important implication in organizing science education on the nature of science.
Characteristics of School Science Inquiry Based on the Case Analyses of High School Science Classes
Lee, Sun-Kyung ; Son, Jeong-Woo ; Kim, Jong-Hee ; Park, Jongseok ; Seo, Hae-Ae ; Shim, Kew-Cheol ; Lee, Ki-Young ; Lee, Bongwoo ; Choi, Jaehyeok ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 284~309
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.284
This study aims to explore how to characterize high school science inquiry. For this research, data were collected from fifteen science classes (18 hours), through observation and videotaping, interviews with a few students and their teacher, and documents such as lesson plan or activity sheet in 13 Science Core High Schools. All the data were transcribed and analyzed. Analyses of these transcripts were proceeded in three steps: first, classroom cases showing active interactions between teacher-students and among students were selected; second, according to cognitive process of inquiry (Chinn & Malhotra, 2002), each segment was analyzed and interpreted; lastly, distinctive cases were determined to show essential features of school science inquiry. Based on the analyses, we characterize high school science inquiry in terms of features of variables controlling-device improvement, design studies, evidence-explanation transformation, and reasoning to formulate explanations from evidence. Teachers' role and educational support were discussed as well as the practical characters or features of school science inquiry.
Development and Analysis of Various Activity Types for Teaching Scientific Creativity
Park, Jongwon ; Kim, Jinkuk ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 310~327
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.310
This study aims to develop teaching materials for scientific creativity and to introduce it in more detail. To do this, based on the analysis of the previous studies, we developed about 80 activities in five categories. Main features of the developed materials are as follows: (1) it covers various areas of creativity, (2) each activity includes elements of scientistic creativity, (3) each activity includes guides for thinking creatively and instances of the guides, (4) these guides are categorized to be utilized in other situations for teaching creativity, (5) the activities can be transformed according to actual teaching situations. The teachers gave responses that materials were appropriate to teach scientific creativity and that they wanted to use the materials in schools. And based on the teachers' response about the advantages, disadvantages, and conditions for more effective use of the materials, we hope that further studies for actual use and revisions on the materials will be conducted. Finally, we suggested various methods to use the developed activities for different purposes and educational situations.
Analyses of Elementary Science-gifted Students' Epistemological Beliefs about Science Through Use of Anomalous Situations
Jo, Seon-A ; Kang, Hunsik ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 328~344
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.328
This study investigated the types of elementary science-gifted students' coping strategies and teachers' desired teaching strategies in anomalous situations. Their epistemological beliefs about science were then analyzed on the bases of the types. To do this, 5th and 6th year science-gifted students (N=72) were asked to respond to an open-ended question with some of them being interviewed deeply. The analyses of the results indicated seven types of coping strategies in anomalous situations and were identified as follows: Abandoning, asking a teacher for help, trying the experiment again with same methods, trying the experiments again with different methods, trying the experiment again after actively analyzing the causes, recognizing the experimental results, and explaining the experimental results. Seven types of teachers' desired teaching strategies emerged and were also identified as follows: Encouraging, providing successful experimental results, explaining, providing the opportunity for trying the experiment again with same methods, providing the opportunity for trying the experiments again with different methods, providing the opportunity and help for trying the experiment again after actively analyzing the causes, and providing the opportunity and help for explaining the experimental results. The fourteen types were grouped again into four categories such as 'transferring facts', 'constructing facts', 'transferring meanings', and 'constructing meanings' on the bases of the epistemological beliefs toward knowledge and the epistemological beliefs toward relation. Educational implications of these findings are discussed.
Current Status of Teacher Education Curriculum and Recruitment of General Science Teachers and Ways to Improve Them as Suggested by Professors from the Department of Science Education
Yang, Chanho ; Kwak, Youngsun ; Han, Jaeyoung ; Noh, Taehee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 345~358
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.345
In this study, we investigated the current status of the teacher education curriculum and the recruitment of general science teachers, and the ways to improve them as suggested by Professors from the Department of Science Education. Most science education departments have not required double majors in general science, and there are wide differences in the number of students who take the general science programs. There is not any department that requires science courses other than its own science major courses when students get only their own in-depth science major certificate. A few departments provide integrated science courses such as history of science, scientific creativity, integrated science, and so forth. Most professors revealed negative perceptions toward 'a compulsory requirement of double majors in general science' with other in-depth science majors such as physics, chemistry, biology, and earth sciences. The majority of professors also suggested providing elective courses in integrated science-related subjects. Regarding general science majored teacher employment, most professors did not agree with separate employment for the general science teacher, although they agreed with the necessity of the general science teaching certificate. They also suggested that preservice teachers need to take science courses other than their own specialized science majors for the in-depth science teaching certificate. Based on the results, we suggested ways to improve the teacher education curriculum and the recruitment of general science teachers.
A Study on the Current Status of Domestic Science Museum: Focus on Organization, Operation, and Education
Shin, Youngjoon ; Shin, Myeongkyeong ; Jhun, Youngseok ; Chung, Kwanghoon ; Lim, Doowon ; Moon, Manyong ; Lim, Jieun ; Lee, Bongwoo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 359~372
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.359
This study aims to investigate the current status of science museum in terms of evaluating its organization, management, and education program. The analytical framework developed for examination are as follows: First, the lack of professional staff in most target museums is the biggest impediment for domestic science museums to function properly. Second, funding has been very poor. Third, most museums failed to properly sustain exhibits, equipment, and facilities. Fourth, various advertising and marketing efforts for attracting more visitors are hardly done. And lastly, the domestic museums made little effort in pursuing research focusing on improving exhibitions and education program. Based on these findings, the future directions for domestic science museums to step-up opportunities have been discussed in this study.
Analysis of Secondary Beginning Science-Gifted Education Teachers' Reflection on Science Teaching through Coteaching
Yang, Chanho ; Kang, Hunsik ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 373~389
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.373
This study investigated secondary beginning science-gifted education teachers' reflection on their science teaching through coteaching with the case study. We selected two beginning teachers whose teaching careers in secondary science-gifted education were less than five years. The teachers planned, performed, and reflected together their science teaching for science-gifted students during nine class hours over three times. We observed their science classes through coteaching, and analyzed the transcripts for reflective discussions between them and their reflective journals in terms of 'productive reflection,' a concept suggested by Davis (2006). The results revealed that the aspects of 'instructional strategies and instruction for science-gifted education' and 'science-gifted students' were most frequently included in their reflection processes on science teaching, regardless of the type of data and the class time. 'Curriculum for science-gifted education' were also frequently included although fewer than two previous aspects. However, 'subject matter knowledge' and 'assessment' was hardly included. Two to four aspects among five aspects of the science teaching for science-gifted students were variously integrated in their reflection processes. Especially, the integrations between 'instructional strategies and instruction for science-gifted education' or 'sciencegifted students' and the other aspects were most frequent, and this tendency was stronger in more experienced teacher in science-gifted education. The integrations between 'subject matter knowledge' and the other aspects were often included in the more experienced teacher's reflection processes.
Identity Development of Science Teachers Involved in Teacher Communities: Based on the Theory of "Community of Practice"
Kim, Hyojeong ; Chung, Kayoun ; Lee, Hyunju ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 390~404
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.390
The premise of the study is that teacher communities or teacher interest groups are one of the representative examples of Communities of Practice (CoP) formed by teachers who engage in the process of collective learning regarding science teaching. Based on the theory of CoP, we investigated and interpreted the process of identity development of six science teachers who have been actively involved in teacher communities. We conducted 2-3 individual interviews with the teachers in order to explore their narratives and personal experiences of being involved in the communities over the years. Results indicated that a teacher community is a place where the teachers not only generated and shared repertories of ideas, documents on teaching and learning, or routines (i.e. practices), but also formulated a set of relationships through social participation. Teacher communities actively provide the teachers a sense of joint enterprise and identity, and where the teachers have an opportunity to develop themselves personally and professionally as science teachers playing major roles in their communities.
Secondary Science Teachers' Thoughts on 'Good' Science Teaching
Oh, Phil Seok ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 405~424
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.405
The purpose of this study is to explore the characteristics of secondary science teachers' thoughts on 'good' science teaching and to find a concept that can represent the way the teachers think. Participants were twenty pre- and in-service teachers who were enrolled in a graduate course I taught at a university located in Seoul in the first semester, 2011. The participating teachers collected and analyzed a variety of data and created portfolios while they were trained, as part of the course, on qualitative research methods with the same research questions as those of this study. In the current study, the process in which the teachers and I found answers to the research questions was narratively reconstructed based on the teachers' portfolios and my field notes. It was revealed that science teaching was perceived as a task aiming at realizing some kind of values and that because the teachers pursued various values in the science classroom and there exist conflicting relationships among different values, it was hard to define 'good' science teaching. It was also discussed that science instruction was inherently accompanied with the ongoing process of selecting values as the relationships among the values were ever-changing within the contexts of the classroom. This multi-faceted and dynamic structure of the teachers' thoughts on 'good' science teaching was conceptualized analogically as 'Foucault's pendulum,' which has multiple planes of oscillation. Implications for science teacher education and science education research were suggested.
Understanding Problem-Solving Type Inquiry Learning and it's Effect on the Improvement of Ability to Design Experiments: A Case Study on Science-Gifted Students
Ju, Mi-Na ; Kim, Hyun-Joo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 425~443
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.425
We developed problem-solving type inquiry learning programs reflecting scientists' research process and analyzed the activities of science-gifted high school students, and the understanding and the effects of the programs after implementation in class. For this study, twelve science-gifted students in the 10th grade participated in the program, which consisted of three different modules - making a cycloidal pendulum, surface growth, and synchronization using metronomes. Diet Cola Test (DCT) was used to find out the effect on the improvement of the ability to design experiments by comparing pre/post scores, with a survey and an interview being conducted after the class. Each module consisted of a series of processes such as questioning the phenomenon scientifically, designing experiments to find solutions, and doing activities to solve the problems. These enable students to experience problem-solving type research process through the program class. According to this analysis, most students were likely to understand the characteristics of problem-solving type inquiry learning programs reflecting the scientists' research process. According to the students, there are some differences between this program class and existing school class. The differences are: 'explaining phenomenon scientifically,' 'designing experiments for themselves,' and 'repeating the experiments several times.' During the class students have to think continuously, design several experiments, and carry them out to solve the problems they found at first. Then finally, they were able to solve the problems. While repeating this kind of activities they have been able to experience the scientists' research process. Also, they showed a positive attitude toward the scientists' research by understanding problem-solving type research process. These problem-solving type inquiry learning programs seem to have positive effects on students in designing experiments and offering the opportunity for critical argumentation on the causes of the phenomena. The results of comparing pre/post scores for DCT revealed that almost every student has improved his/her ability to design experiments. Students who were accustomed to following teacher's instructions have had difficulty in designing the experiments for themselves at the beginning of the class, but gradually, they become used to doing it through the class and finally were able to do it systematically.
Analysis of Science Academic Emotion of Elementary Students
Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, Hyo-Nam ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 444~465
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.444
The purpose of this study is to extract core situations that can arouse various academic emotions and to analyze the characteristics of intensity-frequency of these academic emotions from Korean elementary students in Science classes. To accomplish this study, authors conducted a survey of 642 sixth grade students. The result of the study are as follows: First, science academic emotions varied depending on each of the science learning situations. On the whole, positive-emotions were aroused in science experiment situations and negative-emotions were aroused in evaluation, personality of individuals and other people, teaching-learning method and science experiment situations. If teachers want to manage a specific emotion, they should control the core situations that can arouse that specific emotion. Second, positive-emotions appeared more than negative-emotions in intensity and frequency. But boredom, annoyance and stuffiness appeared the most among negative-emotions. Teachers have to reduce students' boredom, annoyance and stuffiness that are aroused in their science classes. Based on the results, authors become assured that introduction of the emotions was a very useful method in enhancing Korean elementary students' affective domain achievement in science classes.
An Exploration in the Measurement and Application of Attitude Towards Science based on Social Constructivism
Jo, Sonmi ; Ku, Ja-Ok ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 466~477
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.466
The purpose of this study is to explore the measurement of attitude towards science based on social constructivism and the application of this scale. The data were collected using questionnaires from 833 middle school students in the second grade. First, factor analysis were used to assess the construct validity of the scale of Reputation in Culture Border Crossings (R-CBC) developed by Krogh and Thomsen (2005). This finding indicated the construct validity of R-CBC scale based on social constructivism. Second, the correlation among two scales based on social constructivism and Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) scale based on individual constructivism were investigated to examine the convergent validity and the discriminant validity. The R-CBC scale was correlated with Simpson-Troost Attitude Questionnaire (STAQ) scale but the R-CBC scale and TOSRA scale were not connected. Third, students' attitude toward science assessed by three forms of measurements were compared according to the choice of high school type. Students' attitude toward science measured by R-CBC scale and STAQ scale were different in three types of high school. This finding indicated that two scales based on social constructivism are useful measurements that can predict the choice of high school type.
The Significance of the " GukMinSoHakDokBon", published in 1895, on the History of Science Education
Park, Jongseok ; Kim, SooJung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 478~485
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.478
"GukMinSoHakDokBon", published in 1895, is the first national textbook designated by the Education Institute. Ten of the 41 chapters consist of scientific contents. In this thesis, some the contents are reviewed in detail and studied to see what significance it has in view of science education. The scientific contents described in "GukMinSoHakDokBon" include Plants Change, Clock, Camels, Wind, Hive, Respiration, Crocodiles, Nature of Animals, and Chemical Elements. For that kind of diversity, it was told that "GukMinSoHakDokBon" was not considered for normal students, and there were many ambiguities due to in sufficient explanations. Some of the contents were even technically wrong. So it has been noted that the scientific contents of "GukMinSoHakDokBon" have more significance in providing new information at that time but not in understanding newly-organized scientific knowledge. However, it is obvious that the early science education in Korea is composed of the methods of reading "GukMinSoHakDokBon". This is a common figure, which can be found in "Willson's Reader", the elementary reading textbook in the U.S. in the 1860's or "小學讀本" by the Ministry of Education in Japan. One thing remarkable is "GukMinSoHakDokBon" induced students' interests through the use of storytelling method for introducing some unfamiliar scientific knowledge. There is no doubt that "GukMinSoHakDokBon" has a very positive role in increasing students interest and intelligence. These advantages are being actively applied in the present model of storytelling education these days. Therefore, "GukMinSoHakDokBon" can be regarded as both a language textbook and an early figure in science education, and it can be also considered that "GukMinSoHakDokBon" has a significance not only in approaching scientific substances theoretically but in using storytelling methods to deliver unfamiliar and strange knowledges to students.
Epistemic Level in Middle School Students' Small-Group Argumentation Using First-Hand or Second-Hand Data
Cho, Hyun-A ; Chang, Ji-Eun ; Kim, Heui-Baik ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 486~500
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.486
This study is conducted to examine how epistemic reasoning and argument structures of students vary according to data sources used in the process of argumentation implemented in the context of inquiry. To this end, three argument tasks using first-hand data and three argument tasks using second-hand data were developed and applied to the unit on 'Nutrition of Plants' for first year middle school students. According to the results of this study, epistemic reasoning of students manifested during the process of argumentation and varied according to data sources. While most students composed explanations with phenomenon-based or relation-based reasoning in argumentation using first-hand data, all the small groups composed explanations that included model-based reasoning in argumentation using second-hand data. In the case of arguments including phenomenon-based or relation-based reasoning, students described only observable characteristics, with warrants omitted from arguments in many cases. On the other hand, in the case of arguments that included model-based reasoning, explanations were composed by combining the results of observations with theoretical knowledge, with warrants more apparent in their arguments.
The Investigation on the Possibilities of Assumption Reversal Thinking Skill: Focusing on the Characteristics of the Idea Generation Process by University Students
Kang, Seong-Joo ; Park, Ji-Young ; Yoon, Jihyun ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 501~510
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.501
In the creative problem solving processes, the core was to generate unique and various ideas. Thus, an assumption reversal thinking skill needed to be considered as a concrete method that could help students who have difficulties with generating ideas. In this study, we applied the assumption reversal thinking skill to university students and explored the characteristics of the idea generation process. On the basis of the results, we found that the assumption reversal thinking skill helped students generate new ideas, inducing their perspective changes. Therefore, we could ascertain the possibilities of the assumption reversal thinking skill as a thinking frame supporting students' idea generation. However, there is a need to develop methods for students to exclude prejudice by theoretical judgment, intervention of the value, and experience for fostering more effective assumption reversal thinking. Also, ways should be considered so that students would be able to cultivate task commitment and courage of implementing new ideas, bearing criticism from others.
The Effects of Science Writing on Middle School Students' Science - related Attitude, Learning Motivation, and Academic Achievement
Shin, Joung-In ; Shin, Yejin ; Yoon, Heojeong ; Woo, AeJa ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 511~521
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.511
This study aims to investigate the effects of science writing activities on the students' science-related attitude, motivation for learning science, and academic achievement. One hundred and twenty seven second graders of a middle school located in Gyeonggi province participated in this study. The experimental group performed science writing activities, while the comparative group performed problem solving activities at the end of the regular science lessons over 30 class hours. For the students' science-related attitude and motivation for learning science, TOSRA, PALS, and MSLQ were used with some modification and supplementation. For the students' academic achievement, scores on science examinations were used. The results of this study are as follows: First, the test of the science-related attitude showed that science writing activities have positive effects on the cultivation of sciencerelated attitude, as for the sub-factors, 'attitude towards scientific inquiry,' 'pleasure of science lessons,' and 'active attitude towards science'(p<.05). Second, the test of motivation for learning science showed that the science writing activities had positive effect on the improvement in students' motivation, as for the sub-factors, 'difference in values on task' and 'self-efficacy'(p<.05). Third, science writing activities are effective on improvement in the students' academic achievement(p<.05), especially on the high-level achievement group.
Analysis on the Relationship Between the Construct Level of Analogical Reasoning and the Construction of Explanatory Model Observed in Small Group Discussions on Scientific Problem Solving
Ko, Minseok ; Yang, Ilho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 522~537
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.522
This study analyzed the relationship among the construct level of analogical reasoning, prediction and uncertainty, and the construction of an explanatory model that were produced during small group discussions for scientific problem solving. This study was participated in by 8 students of K University divided into 2 teams conducting scientific problem solving. The participants took part in discussions in groups after achieving scientific problem solving individually. Through individual interviews afterwards, changes in their thinking through discussion activities were looked into. The results are as follows: The analogy at the Entities/Attributes level was used to make people clearly understand the characteristics of certain objects or entities in the discussions. The analogy at the Configuration/Motion level that was produced during the discussions ensured other participants to predict the results of problem solving. The analogy at the Mechanism/Causation level changed the structure of problem situations either to help other participants to reconstruct the explanatory model or to come up with a new situation that was never been through before to justify the created mechanism and through this, the case of creating Thought Experiments during the discussions were observed. if looking into the changes of analogies, each individual's analogic paradigm during the discussions were shown as production paradigm, reception-production paradigm, production-reception paradigm, and reception paradigm. The construction and reconstruction of the explanatory model were shown in analogic production paradigm, and in the reception paradigm of an analogy, participants changed their predictions or their certainty.
Effects of Reading Motivational and Behavioral Factors on the Population of High, Middle and Low Scores in Science Achievements of PISA 2009
Kim, Dong-Hwa ; Seo, Hae-Ae ; Kim, Mijung ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 538~551
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.2.538
Korea is reported as one of the highest performing OECD countries in PISA 2009 science achievement, ranking
among 65 participating countries. However, the top level 6 percentage came only at 1.1% and ranks
among paticipating countries. Such dissatisfying results call for attention to seek effective teaching and learning strategies for top level students in Korea. This study aims to investigate the effect of reading motivational and behavioral factors on PISA 2009 science achievement for the population who scored high compared to populations scoring middle and low. For this purpose, PISA 2009 science achievement as well as students questionnaire data were utilized. Variables of reading motivational and behavioral factors were selected and structural equation modeling was employed to examine a hypothetical cause-effect relationship between reading factors and science achievement. It was found that there is a cause-effect relationship between reading factors and science achievement for the whole population. For those in the top 16% of students in PISA 2009 science achievement, reading behaviors on text-memorization have had little or no effects, while reading motivational and other behavioral factors showed a significant influence. In contrast, the middle 68% and low 16% populations have had significant effects for text-memorization on science achievement.