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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 7 - Dec 2013
Volume 33, Issue 6 - Oct 2013
Volume 33, Issue 5 - Aug 2013
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Jun 2013
Volume 33, Issue 3 - May 2013
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
The Effect of Science Writing Heuristic Laboratory Class on the Creative Thinking and Critical Thinking of Middle School Students
Park, Sungju ; Moon, Seongbae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1259~1272
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1259
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) laboratory class on the creative thinking and critical thinking of middle school students. Science writing heuristic programs were developed based on SWH strategies developed by Keys et al (1999). This study was conducted on 63 students from two classes as the comparative group and 63 students from two other classes as the experimental group. The cognitive level of the group as a homogeneous group was similar, and the program was applied to a total of 18 periods based on nine topics from March to July 2011. Evaluation instruments used in pre-test and post-test were the creative and critical thinking tests. To consider the score for creative and critical thinking. the SPSS 20.0 program was used. The study made use of technical statistics and ANCOVA. The result of this study showed that creative problem solving skills were improved by SWH in laboratory class. Therefore, persistent presentation of SWH teaching strategies and developing various experiment topics are required.
Analysis of Examples Categorized by Function in the `States of Matter` Chapter of Third Grade Science Textbooks and Students` Conceptions
Paik, Seounghey ; Choi, Jungin ; Park, Eunju ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1273~1284
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1273
The purpose of this study was to analyze the examples represented in school science textbooks by the function types for students` scientific conceptions. According to the framework of analysis, we selected lacking examples in the textbooks, and developed a questionnaire for students. The questionnaire was applied to 157 third grade students to survey their conceptions related to matter states and change of states. The ratio of students` scientific conceptions related to solid the state was high because distinct examples were represented in the textbook. However, the ratios of students` scientific conceptions related to the liquid and gas states were low because there were no distinct examples in the science textbook. Contrast examples and expansive examples of liquid and gas such as fog and steam need to be represented in science textbooks in order to help students construct scientific conceptions of matter states and change of states.
An Analysis on Problem-Finding Patterns of Well-Known Creative Scientists
Kim, Youngmin ; Seo, Hae-Ae ; Park, Jongseok ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1285~1299
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1285
Nurturing students` scientific creativity is considered an important element in science education in Korea. The study aims to explore patterns displayed by well-known scientists in their quest for problem finding. Each case of scientists` course of problem solving is described in terms of historical background, a process of problem finding, and a process of problem solving. There are five patterns from ten scientists which are as follows: Pattern 1 is that scientists find problems from insufficiencies and/or errors from explanation of theories at the time and the related cases are A. Lavoisier, G. Mendel, and J. Watson. Pattern 2 shows that scientists find a problem because of strange phenomena unexplained by theories at the time, and here important case studies are E. Rutherford and W. R
ntgen. Pattern 3 demonstrates that scientists find a problem from analogical reasoning between known theories and unknown science phenomena. The cases include S. Carnot and T. Young. Pattern 4 points to the fact that scientists find a problem while they utilize a newly invented experimental instrument. Here, G. Galilei is an important example. Pattern 5 establishes that scientists happen to find a problem while they conduct research projects. The works of M. Faraday and J. Kepler are prominent case studies related to this pattern.
Pre-service Science Teachers` Difficulties in the `Inquiry Mentoring` Program
Lee, Bongwoo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1300~1311
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1300
The purpose of this study is to investigate pre-service science teachers` difficulties in the `inquiry mentoring` program, which was developed to improve pre-service science teachers` inquiry teaching ability. For this study, I developed the `inquiry mentoring` program in which pre-service science teachers taught high school students. This program was adapted for 2.5 months, and 45 pre-service science teachers participated and taught 44 high school students. During this program, pre-service science teachers kept `mentor diaries` and wrote `mentoring reports` at the end of the program. Interviews were conducted with all pre-service science teachers. Results are as follows: first, pre-service science teachers thought that the difficulties in inquiry mentoring resulted from their inadequacy (mentor factor) than students` inadequacy (mentee factor). Second, pre-service science teachers perceived their lack of cognitive ability, inquiry ability and teaching ability as a mentor factor. Third, pre-service science teachers thought that they had difficulties in students` differences and lack of activity as a mentee factor. Fourth, they described difficulties caused by emotional distance as well as physical distance as an interaction factor. They also mentioned the difficulties related to teaching range and online interaction. Fifth, pre-service science teachers expressed a sense of frustration with the inquiry environment. Additionally, some implications were discussed for pre-service science teacher education through the `inquiry mentoring` program.
Analysis of Pre-service Secondary Science Teachers` Uses of Curriculum Materials in Curriculum Design
Yang, Chanho ; Bae, Yujin ; Noh, Taehee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1312~1328
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1312
In this study, we investigated preservice secondary science teachers` uses of curriculum materials in curriculum design through a case study. Two preservice science teachers at a college of education in Seoul participated in this study. We interviewed them about their beliefs on teaching and learning prior to their teaching students. We then observed their teaching and collected all of the teaching/learning materials. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted before and after the instructions. Their uses of curriculum materials were systematically analyzed in the aspects of reading, evaluating and adapting curriculum materials. The analyses of the results revealed that their uses of curriculum materials had a significant difference in curriculum design. There was a difference in the way of reading curriculum materials that derived from different perspectives of curriculum reconstruction. The perspectives of curriculum reconstruction also affected the way of adapting curriculum materials. While the `adding` was an important adaptation in curriculum design with active perspectives, the `changing` was an important one with passive perspectives. In addition, the degrees of evaluating curriculum materials from the learners` views depended on their beliefs on teaching and learning. It was also connected to qualitative differences of adaptation in `increasing student control over an activity` and `increasing teacher control over an activity`. Educational implications of these findings are discussed.
A Study on the Change of the Beginning Science Teachers` Beliefs About a Lesson and Teaching Practice in Argument-Based Inquiry Using Science Writing
Kwon, Jeongin ; Nam, Jeonghee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1329~1342
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1329
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the change of beginning teachers` beliefs about a lesson and that of teaching practice and argument-based inquiry using science writing. Participants were three science teachers (A, B, and C) from different middle schools. Classroom observation and interview data were collected and transcribed for analysis. A Summary Writing test was also administered to examine whether there was an improvement in students` learning. The results indicated that the interaction between the teachers and their students developed, which is concluded as an improvement in the teaching practice. Teacher A and B also reported that teacher-student interaction had improved. Teacher A and C came to understand that argument-based inquiry using science writing classes constituted learner-centered instruction. The result from the Summary Writing Test showed the impact of the changes in teaching practice and in teachers` awareness of students` learning as well as produced meaningfully higher scores than compared groups on the rhetorical structure of all the specific areas in teacher A`s school and on the scientific concept at B and C`s schools.
Research on Science Teacher`s Perception of Teaching Science Terminology
Yun, Eunjeong ; Park, Yunebae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1343~1353
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1343
It is necessary to teach science terminology in order to solve the problems induced from the fact that students have low comprehension in science terminology. The purpose of this study was to investigate science teacher`s perception of teaching science terminology. The questionnaires consisted of perception of science terminology, science terminology for teaching, teaching of science terminology, and teaching methods for science terminology. As a result, science teachers had difficulty with science terminology and were not familiar with them as well as students were. Despite having perceived the necessity of teaching science terminology because it serves as a great influence on students to study science, they didn`t have enough knowledge of the teaching methods for science terminology, so that they felt difficulties in teaching science terminology. Finally, science teachers hope to display new science terminology with explanations on each page of the science textbooks.
Analysis of the Types of Teachers` Questioning in Verification Laboratory Instruction and Discovery Laboratory Instruction
Kim, O-Beom ; An, Un-Ha ; Kim, Eun-Ae ; Ko, Min-Seok ; Yang, Ilho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1354~1366
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1354
The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of teachers` questioning between verification laboratory instruction and discovery laboratory instruction. Results were that there was no difference in questioning types in verification laboratory instruction and discovery laboratory instruction. Most teachers in two types of laboratory instruction used closed questionings more than open-ended questioning. This shows that teachers` laboratory instruction processes are focusing on `get the content` rather than consideration of the characteristics of laboratory instruction types. Such results show that the teachers in verification laboratory instruction and discovery laboratory instruction provide little opportunity for children to improve in scientific thinking. Therefore, teachers should make good plans with a questioning strategy that can be adapted to the types and characteristic of laboratory instruction. If teacher`s questioning is practiced well in the science class, it can improve students` scientific thinking and science laboratory instruction.
Development of Science Academic Emotion Scale for Elementary Students
Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, Hyo-Nam ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1367~1384
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1367
The purpose of this study was to develop a Science Academic Emotion Scale for Elementary Students. To make a scale, authors extract a core of 14 emotions related to science learning situations from Kim & Kim (2013) and literature review. Items on the scale consisted of 14 emotions and science learning situations. The first preliminary scale had 174 items on it. The number of 174 items was reduced and elaborated on by three science educators. Authors verified the scale using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, inter-item consistency and concurrent validity. The second preliminary scale consisted of 141 items. The preliminary scale was reduced to seven factors and 56 items by applying exploratory factor analysis twice. The seven factors include: enjoyment contentment interest, boredom, shame, discontent, anger, anxiety, and laziness. The 56 items were elaborated on by five science educators. The scale with 56 items was fixed with seven factors and 35 items to get the final scale by applying confirmatory factor analysis twice. Except for Chi-square and GFI (Goodness of Fit Index), other various goodness of fit characteristics of the seven factors and 35 items model showed good estimated figures. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The Cronbach of seven factors are 0.95 in enjoyment contentment interest, 0.81 in boredom, 0.87 in shame, 0.82 in discontent, 0.87 in anger, 0.77 in anxiety, 0.81 in laziness. The correlation coefficient was 0.59 in enjoyment contentment interest, 0.54 in anxiety, 0.42 in shame, and 0.28 in boredom, which were estimated using the Science Academic Emotion Scale and National Assessment System of Science-Related Affective Domain (Kim et al., 1998). Based on the results, authors judged that the Science Academic Emotion Scale for Elementary Students achieved an acceptable validity and reliability.
Characteristics of Pre-service Teachers` PCK in the Activities of Content Representation of Boiling Point Elevation
Lee, Young Min ; Hur, Chinhyu ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1385~1402
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1385
This study analyzes pre-service teachers` PCK dealing with visualization of the contents related to boiling point elevation and teaching methods in mock-lessons. As a result of analyzing pre-service teachers` knowledge based on PCK factors, most of the pre-service teachers accentuated on understanding boiling point elevation conceptually, whereas some of the others inclined to make students understand boiling point elevation in a scientific way, let the kids use numerical formulas to describe the concept, and motivate them to learn through the examples in real life. The pre-service teachers represented majority of the important facts of boiling point elevation as the knowledge required to understand things conceptually. However, they did not focus on improving the scientific thinking and inquiring levels of the students. Also, the pre-service teachers tended to teach at the level and order of the textbook. In some other cases, they considered the vocabularies and materials in the textbook (which could have been highlighted in the editing sequence) as the main topic to learn, or regarded the goal as giving students the ability to solve exercises in the textbook. It turned out that the pre-service teachers had a low level of knowledge of their students. It is recommended that they should make use of the materials given (such as data related to the misconception of students) during the training session. The knowledge of teaching and evaluating students was described superficially by the pre-service teachers; they merely mentioned the applications of models, such as the cyclic model and discovery learning, rather than thinking of a method related to the goals, or listed general assessment methods.
Scientists` Perceptions of Imagination and Characteristics of the Scientific Imagination
Mun, Jiyeong ; Mun, Kongju ; Kim, Sung-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1403~1417
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1403
In this study, we investigated scientists` perception of imagination and explored characteristics of scientific imagination. For this, we found out conceptions and characteristics based on literatures which related to imagination. We recruited eight distinguished Korean scientists who have rich research experiences by using Snowball sampling for in-depth interviews (60-90 minutes). All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. From the analysis of interview data, we identified their perceptions of imagination and the nature of scientific imagination which scientists reflect on during their research work. Semi-structured interview protocol was focused on: 1) how scientists perceive `imagination` and 2) how scientists perceive the role of imagination in their scientific research. As results, we found out that scientists agreed that imagination plays an important role in scientific research process and they perceived imagination as an intrinsic part of human life. The study also indicated that participants have modern viewpoint about imagination. Moreover, we uncovered three characteristics of imagination in the research process. 1) Curiosity and interest have been a driving force for scientists` imagination. 2) When scientists use the imagination, they can be more creative during their research. 3) Imagination contemplated realistic possibilities based on the scientific knowledge, and produced the new ones. Educational implications for utilization of scientific imagination were also suggested.
A Study on Writing Process Components and Writing Strategies in Argumentative Writing
Kang, Sukjin ; Jo, Junmo ; Noh, Taehee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1418~1430
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1418
In this study, we investigated the writing process components and the writing strategies that appeared in the process of argumentative writing through students` think-alouds and semi-structured interviews. The subjects were 18 eighth graders. During argumentative writing, students were asked to decide whether they agreed with the given argument or not on the basis of information provided in the writing task. We categorized the writing process components and the writing strategies by analyzing the protocols of students` think-alouds and interviews, and evaluated the level of their written compositions. The analyses of the results indicated that the writing process components of argumentative writing showed different characteristics from those of problem solving writing in several components such as setting goals, organizing an outline, and evaluating content. In addition, the writing process component `coordinating information` was newly discovered in argumentative writing. The writing strategies were categorized into four groups by the types of decision making (reflective/intuitive) and the existence of outline organization: Reflective decision making and outline organization, reflective decision making and no outline organization, intuitive decision making and outline organization, and intuitive decision making and no outline organization. Students with the reflective decision making and outline organization strategy were found to get the highest scores in written composition in terms of the relationship between the argument and its grounds, the rebuttal of the opposing argument, and the structure of the writing. Educational implications are discussed.
Scientifically Talented Students` Image of Science Museums and Their Preferred Topics for Exhibits - Focused on Students in Gwangju City -
Kim, Jinkuk ; Park, Jongwon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1431~1449
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1431
This study is based on the assertion that science museums should consider visitors` views and expectations as they are not satisfied in many cases. In this study, we investigated 31 scientifically gifted students and 177 science high school students about their image of science museums. Using the questionnaire, it was found that only 51% of students visited science museums; however, the average number of visits was 4.2. This means that students tended to re-visit after the first visit of the science museum. Students had a `good` image of science museums when they incurred hands-on experiences and observed new, interesting, curious and funny exhibits. And students had a `bad` image of science museums due to the following aspects: lack of new and interesting exhibits, information and guide, diverse contents, and hands-on experience; deficiencies in environment; and inadequacy of the management, operation and composition of exhibits. Therefore, they hoped that science museums will provide more hands-on experiences and experiments, new and interesting exhibits, systematic management and composition of exhibits, information and guides, and a good environment. So science museums need to pay special attention to aspects like management, information guides and environment for the first-time visitors. Based on the above results, we suggested "Directions for a good science museum based on students` views". While asking students what topics they wanted to know and learn in a science museum, each student was given the choice of four topics; eventually, 2.9 answers overlapped for each topic. When classifying students` topics into four main themes for the Gwangju National Science Museum, the order from the most popular theme to the least one was `science in everyday life`, `ocean/space/future science`, `light and science`, and `culture, art and science`. Among the topics mentioned by students, only 37% are exhibited in Seoul, Gwacheon, Daejeon, or Gwangju science museums. We hope that the results and research methods will be used for evaluation, re-construction, and reinvigorated presentation of science museums.
The Analysis of Verbal Interaction in Elementary Science Programs Using Multi-Level Instruction
Jung, Suk-Jin ; Shin, Young-Joon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1450~1470
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1450
The purpose of this study was to develop elementary science programs that used multi-level instruction and to analyze verbal interaction patterns in science classes that applied these programs. For this study, the 27 children from the fifth grade at B elementary school, located in Gyeonggi-do, were selected and separated into heterogeneous groups of four students. Verbal interactions occuring in two groups during each class were recorded using video. Elementary science programs using multi-level instruction were developed to target a fifth grade second semester `Lesson 1. Human Body`. This program provided a mission form for each group and evaluation form for each child. A mission form depending on the children`s level has different colors and levels of difficulty for questions. The evaluation form is composed of questions suitable for a child`s level in reaching the goal with key concepts. The verbal interaction was mostly categorized into the cognitive domain and the affective domain for analysis. The cognitive domain was subdivided into question, response, making solution, receiving opinion, and the affective domain was divided into behavioral participation and students` attitude. Results of study showed that the frequency of the cognitive domain was higher than the frequency of the affective domain. In the cognitive domain, the median-level was of highest frequency in the children. In the affective domain, high-level was of highest frequency in the children. In terms of both the cognitive and affective domains of children, low-level exhibited the lowest frequency. Verbal interaction frequency was no difference between high-level and median level in cognitive and affective aspects, so median-level children were actively participating in activities similarly with high-level children. There were more types of interactions question, response, making solution, students` attitude in the median-low level children`s verbal interaction than high-median level children`s verbal interaction.
Development of the Heuristic Attention Model Based on Analysis of Eye Movement of Elementary School Students on Discrimination task
Shin, Won-Sub ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1471~1485
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1471
The purpose of this study was to develop a HAM (Heuristic Attention Model) by analyzing the difference between eye movements according to the science achievement of elementary school students on discrimination task. Science achievement was graded by the results of the Korea national achievement test conducted in 2012 for a random sampling of classes. As an assessment tool to check discrimination task, two discrimination measure problems from TSPS (Test of Science Process Skill, developed in 1994) which were suitable for an eye tracking system were adopted. The subjects of this study were 20 students from the sixth grade who agreed to participate in the research. SMI was used to collect EMD (eye movement data). Experiment 3.2 and BeGaze 3.2 programs were used to plan experiments and analyze EMD. As a result, eye movements of participants in discrimination tasks varied greatly in counts and duration of fixation, first fixation duration, and dwell time, according to students` science achievement and difficulty of the problems. By the analysis of EMD, strategies of the students` problem-solving could be found. During problem solving, subjects` eye movements were affected by visual attention; bottom-up attention, top-down attention and convert attention, and aflunter attention. In conclusion, HAM was developed, and it is believed to help in the development of a science learning program for underachievers.
Exploring the Image Types of Secondary School Students` Perception about the Talented Person in Convergence
Lee, Jun-Ki ; Lee, Tae-Kyong ; Shin, Sein ; Chung, Duk-Ho ; Oh, Sang-Wook ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 33, issue 7, 2013, Pages 1486~1509
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2013.33.7.1486
This study aims to identify the image types of secondary school students` perception about the talented person in convergence and to find the differences in drawing images of the talented person in convergence among the students who have taken STEAM class and the ones who haven`t. One hundred and eighty seven students in middle and high schools located in the southern part of South Korea participated in this study and they were asked to draw a picture of the talented person in convergence with a brief explanation. Based on students` pictures, researchers categorized their perception about convergence and talented person in convergence by using an inductive method. The result indicated that secondary school students` perceptions were categorized into convergence as individual cognitive processing and collective cognitive processing and convergence as outcomes. The image of the convergence in a talented person leaning toward individual cognitive processing was divided into the following seven types: idea banker type, various talented celebrity type, multi-tasking master type, multi-talented career type, active problem-solver type, creative developer type, and unrealistic ideal man type. Another image of collective cognitive processing was split into expert group type and interactive-mates group type. The other image was transformer type which is the subcategory of convergence as outcomes. From this study, it can be suggested that secondary school students express the various images of the talented person in convergence depending on experiencing STEAM or not.