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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 8 - Dec 2014
Volume 34, Issue 7 - Oct 2014
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Sep 2014
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Aug 2014
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Jun 2014
Volume 34, Issue 3 - May 2014
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Development and Intervention Effect of Customized Instructional Program for Underachievers in Middle School Science
Lee, Kyung-Hee ; Han, Mi-Jung ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Choi, Byung-Soon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 34, issue 5, 2014, Pages 421~436
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2014.34.5.0421
The purposes of this study were to develop the customized instructional programs by the causes of science underachievement and to identify the effectiveness of these programs. For these, we analyzed the characteristics of underachievers and causes of science underachievement and classified 22 7th grade science underachievers into three different types such as lack of science process skill, lack of science learning motivation, and lack of science learning strategy. They then were divided into the experimental and comparative groups. Instructional programs treated for both groups covered the same topics and were conducted once a week for 60 minutes each time for 15 weeks. Eleven students in the comparative group were treated with an activity-centered science program that dealt with basic science concepts. Unlike science underachievers in the comparative group, those in the experimental group were given customized instructional program. After the treatment, students were administered several tests including a test on awareness of the program, science process skill test, science learning motivation and strategy test, and academic science achievement test. In addition to the results of those tests, worksheets, daily activity reports, and interviews were used to evaluate a customized instructional program that was applied to the experimental group. Results of the study showed that these programs relieved science underachievers from the cause of poor achievement and accordingly help them achieve better performance in academics. In addition, both lack of learning motivation and lack of learning strategy types tended to relieve the other causes of science underachievement. Also, the experimental group showed a high level of satisfaction with the customized instructional programs.
Using a Learning Progression to Characterize Korean Secondary Students' Knowledge and Submicroscopic Representations of the Particle Nature of Matter
Shin, Namsoo ; Koh, Eun Jung ; Choi, Chui Im ; Jeong, Dae Hong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 34, issue 5, 2014, Pages 437~447
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2014.34.5.0437
Learning progressions (LP), which describe how students may develop more sophisticated understanding over a defined period of time, can inform the design of instructional materials and assessment by providing a coherent, systematic measure of what can be regarded as "level appropriate." We developed LPs for the nature of matter for grades K-16. In order to empirically test Korean students, we revised one of the constructs and associated assessment items based on Korean National Science Standards. The assessment was administered to 124 Korean secondary students to measure their knowledge and submicroscopic representations, and to assign them to a level of learning progression for the particle nature of matter. We characterized the level of students' understanding and models of the particle nature of matter, and described how students interpret various representations of atoms and molecules to explain scientific phenomena. The results revealed that students have difficulties in understanding the relationship between the macroscopic and molecular levels of phenomena, even in high school science. Their difficulties may be attributed to a limited understanding of scientific modeling, a lack of understanding of the models used to represent the particle nature of matter, or limited understanding of the structure of matter. This work will inform assessment and curriculum materials development related to the fundamental relationship between macroscopic, observed phenomena and the behavior of atoms and molecules, and can be used to create individualized learning environments. In addition, the results contribute to scientific research literature on learning progressions on the nature of matter.
Pre-service Science Teachers' Understanding of Students' Misconceptions in Physics and Perceptions on "Teacher as a Researcher" through the Research Experience
Ko, Yeonjoo ; Lee, Hyunju ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 34, issue 5, 2014, Pages 449~457
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2014.34.5.0449
Recent studies have shown that teachers should have be aware of and understand students' misconceptions, which is one of the major components of PCK. However, teachers often have difficulties in understanding misconceptions and in applying appropriate instructional strategies to change misconceptions. Thus, we designed a method course for pre-service teachers (PSTs) adapting the concept of "teacher as researcher". In the course, PSTs conducted research to investigate students' misconceptions in physics. Twenty-five female PSTs participated in the study. They went through the research process including creating question items, administering items to their target populations, collecting and analyzing student responses, and writing a research paper. Data source included individual interviews with the PSTs, field notes during classroom observation and PSTs' research papers. The results were as follows. First, the PSTs confirmed students' misconceptions and learning difficulties in physics. They experienced discrepancies between their conjecture and research findings. Second, PSTs developed the sophisticated understanding of students' misconceptions and appropriate teaching strategies. Third, the research experience provided the PSTs opportunities to reexamine their physics content knowledge while creating items and explaining scientific concepts. They realized that physics teachers should develop sound understanding of physics concepts for guiding students to have less misconception. Lastly, they realized the necessity of being a teacher as a researcher.
Law, Theory, and Principle: Confusion in the Normative Meaning and Actual Usage
Cheong, Yong Wook ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 34, issue 5, 2014, Pages 459~468
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2014.34.5.0459
Educational Discourses on the nature of science(NOS) identify understanding of the role of scientific knowledge, especially the distinction between law and theory, as a crucial goal of instruction. However, the scientist community uses the terms such as law, theory, and principle without explicit definition so that the terms have no coherent meanings in their conventional language expression. The inconsistency between the norm and the reality could impose confusion on the teaching and learning. From the awareness of the problem, this study critically reviews the science education research papers and literatures on the philosophy of science which focus on the meaning of law, theory, or principle and the structure of scientific knowledge. From the examination of the science education researches, it is revealed that the disparity between the normative meanings of the law and theory by NOS researchers and actual usage of the terms is quite serious. From the review of the literatures of the philosophy of science, the necessity of the distintion of three categories: law, theory, and principle beyond the dichotomy between law and theory is brought up. By synthesizing the related literatures, we provide an outline of the characteristics of knowledges belonging to law, theory, and principle. Considering the conflict between the normative definition and the conventional language, it could be unnecessary to emphasize clear distinction on the terms as an instructional goal. Instead, the goal of instruction should focus on that there are three types of scientific knowledges of different functions and characteristics.
Program Development of Scientists' Episode: Focusing on Scientists' Joy, Anger, Sorrow, and Pleasure
Lee, Yun-Kyung ; Shin, Dong-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 34, issue 5, 2014, Pages 469~478
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2014.34.5.0469
To provide students an alternative image of science and scientist, we developed five lesson plans that include scientists' joy, anger, sorrow, and pleasure in their life. Through the 10 hour lessons with the five topics, we investigated the effect of our program on students' image change toward scientists, their science learning, and their career development in science field. Twenty high school students participated in our program and five of them were analyzed. The qualitative data included opinionnaire survey before and after the program, field note, video recording, students' worksheets, and interview. The science episode lessons that reflect the human side of scientists were designed in five steps. The first step is the one about imaging of scientists, the second step is the one about reading scientists' episode in their life, the third step is the one about investigating human side of scientists, the fourth step is the one about feeling sympathy in scientists' context, and the last step is the one about judging human side of scientists. Students participated in this program got to feel familiarity in scientists as well as confidence in science. By obtaining the alternative image of scientists after the class, it is expected that students will play roles of well-prepared supporters with scientific literacy.
The Development of Argument-based Modeling Strategy Using Scientific Writing
Cho, Hey Sook ; Nam, Jeonghee ; Lee, Dongwon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 34, issue 5, 2014, Pages 479~490
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2014.34.5.0479
The purpose of this study is to develop an argument-based modeling strategy, utilizing writing and argumentation for communication in science education. We need to support students and teachers who have difficulty in modeling in science education, this strategy focuses on development of four kinds of factors as follows: First, awareness of problems, recognizing in association with problems by observing several problematic situations. Second is science concept structuralization suggesting enough science concepts by organization for scientific explanation. The third is claim-evidence appropriateness that suggests appropriate representation as evidence for assertions. Last, the use of various representations and multimodal representations that converts and integrates these representations in evidence suggestion. For the development of these four factors, this study organized three stages. 'Recognition process' for understanding of multimodal representations, and 'Interpretation process' for understanding of activity according to multimodal representations, 'Application process' for understanding of modeling through argumentation. This application process has been done with eight stages of 'Asking questions or problems - Planning experiment - Investigation through observation on experiment - Analyzing and interpreting data - Constructing pre-model - Presenting model - Expressing model using multimodal representations - Evaluating model - Revising model'. After this application process, students could have opportunity to form scientific knowledge by making their own model as scientific explanation system for the phenomenon of the natural world they observed during a series of courses of modeling.
An Analysis of Structural Relationship Among the Attitude Toward Science, Science Motivation, Self-Regulated Learning Strategy, and Science Achievement in Middle School Students
Lee, Jungsoo ; Chung, Younglan ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 34, issue 5, 2014, Pages 491~497
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2014.34.5.0491
The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural relationships among the attitude toward science and science motivation such as affective characteristics, and self-regulated learning strategy such as cognitive factor of science achievement. 853 middle school students residing in Seoul completed questionnaires about attitude toward science, science motivation, and self-regulated learning strategy. The sample variance-covariance matrix was analysed using AMOS 20.0, and a maximum likelihood minimization function. The results are as follows: First, attitude toward science, science motivation and self-regulated learning strategy of middle school students were all found to have a significant direct effect on science achievement. Second, attitude toward science and science motivation in middle school students has a direct effect on the self-regulated learning strategy. Third, attitude toward science in middle school students has a substantial indirect effect on science achievement mediated by their self-regulated learning strategy. Forth, science motivation in middle school students has indirect effect on science achievement mediated by their self-regulated learning strategy. Therefore, in order to improve science achievement among middle school students, teachers should consider synthetically the affective characteristics such as attitude toward science and science motivation, and cognitive factor such as self-regulated learning strategy.
Analysis of Scaffolding Phase in the Discourse during Docent-led Tours in a Science Museum
Choi, Moon-Young ; Kim, Chan-Jong ; Park, Eun Ji ; Jung, Won-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 34, issue 5, 2014, Pages 499~510
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2014.34.5.0499
The purpose of this research is to understand interactive learning during docent-led tours in a science museum focusing on scaffolding. We developed a scaffolding framework by collating the work of other researchers in related fields. The results show that scaffolding included three dimensions: purpose, interaction, and domain. The purpose dimension, divided into six categories, is related to the intention of the scaffolder and what the scaffolding are for: strategic, social, procedural, conceptual, verbal, and metacognitive. The interaction dimension reflects students' interaction with the scaffolder in two ways: dynamic (situation specific) and static (planned in advance). The domain dimension is related to two contents: domain-general and domain-specific (such as science). The scaffolding framework was applied to dynamic interactions between docents and visitors. The data was collected from elementary school students' family visits with the guidance of two docents at the Seodaemun Museum of Natural History. The data collected consisted of surveys, interviews, video-recordings, and transcripts. The analysis shows that five guiding contexts and scaffolding phases were recognized; 1) strategic scaffolding in a poorly illustrated exhibit; 2) conceptual scaffolding in a thoroughly explanative exhibit; 3) verbal scaffolding in misleading interpretation; 4) procedural scaffolding in a manipulative exhibit; and 5) metacognitive scaffolding with inaccurate content. In addition, the results show that the docents used the dynamic and static scaffolding synthetically so that the docent-led tour was effective. In conclusion, this study presents the usefulness of understanding visitors' science learning through the scaffolding framework, as well as the how docents can scaffold actively.
An Exploratory Investigation of the Imaginative Writing Processes of Middle School Students
Yang, Chanho ; Lee, Jaewon ; Noh, Taehee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 34, issue 5, 2014, Pages 511~521
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2014.34.5.0511
In this study, we conducted an exploratory investigation of the imaginative writing processes of middle school students. Twelve 8th graders were asked to imagine and write about the daily life of atoms, assuming that they became specific atoms for themselves. The think-aloud method was used to investigate students' writing processes. We recorded students' writing processes, and also collected the data through interviews to clarify ambiguities in their writing processes. The analyses of the results revealed that their imaginative writing processes could be classified into the three types by the two aspects of writing process components (retrieving information and generating ideas). That is, the integration of retrieving information and generating ideas, the predominant retrieving information, and the predominant generating ideas. The students who were classified into the type of the integration of retrieving information and generating ideas came up with a story and properly introduced science concepts into it. These suggested that this type of students expressed their own understanding more effectively, and that this type was most appropriate for imaginative writing in learning science. The results also showed that the imaginative writing processes were greatly influenced by whether the planning step was adequately considered or not. On the bases of the results, we suggest the teaching strategies for effective imaginative writing in learning science.