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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 35, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
A Case Study on Spatial Thinking Revealed in Elementary School Science Class on Solar System and Stars
Lee, Jeong-A ; Lee, Kiyoung ; Park, Young-Shin ; Maeng, Seungho ; Oh, Hyunseok ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 35, issue 2, 2015, Pages 179~197
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2015.35.2.0179
Based on the importance of spatial thinking to understand celestial motion, this study aimed to investigate how spatial thinking was treated in astronomy classes. For this study, we analyzed four elementary teachers` science classes about the unit `solar systems and stars` in 5th grade in terms of spatial thinking. The results showed that sharing perspectives and orientation explicitly between a teacher and students were important for students to understand celestial motion. Providing the earth-based and the space-based viewpoints simultaneously were helpful for students` understanding of celestial motion. Based on these results, this study suggested that clarifying the viewpoint and orientation, showing the earth-based and the space-based viewpoint simultaneously, and reorganizing the relative units of astronomy based on celestial motion and spatial thinking.
Korean Middle School Students` Epistemic Ideas of Claim, Data, Evidence, and Argument When Evaluating and Critiquing Arguments
Ryu, Suna ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 35, issue 2, 2015, Pages 199~208
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2015.35.2.0199
An enhanced understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge-what counts as a scientific argument and how scientists justify their claims with evidence-has been central in Korean science instruction. However, despite its importance, scholars are generally concerned about the difficulty of both addressing and improving students` epistemic understanding, especially for students of a young age. This study investigated Korean middle school students` epistemic ideas about claim, data, evidence, and argument when they engage in reading both text-based and data-inscription arguments. Compared to previous studies, Korean middle school students show a sophisticated understanding of the role of claim and evidence. Yet, these students think that there is only a single way of interpreting data. When comparing students` ideas from text-based and data-inscription arguments, the majority of Korean students barely perceive text description as evidence and recognize only measured data as evidence.
Analysis of the Science Words Used by Science Teachers in Teaching the Unit of `Force and Motion`
Yun, Eunjeong ; Park, Yunebae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 35, issue 2, 2015, Pages 209~216
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2015.35.2.0209
In science classrooms, using science terminology is a very important aspect of communications between science teachers and students, as well as in the science learning of students. This study was conducted to investigate the usage of the science terminology in the lectures of science teachers, and identify the problem in the aspect of both communication and teaching. To do this, we have recorded 13 hours of class teaching `Motion` part in unit of `Force and Motion` from three science teachers, and extracted science terminologies from the science teachers` lectures by using an analysis program. We performed qualitative analysis, such as kind of science terminology used, and linkage between curriculum and textbook, and quantitative analysis, such as number of science terminology, and frequency of use. With respect to communication, there appears some problems in its proportion in the teacher`s lecture in class. It is deemed that science terminology in teachers` lectures were too many, that the frequency of usage of important conceptual terminology was low, and that teachers use higher level terminologies to explain key concepts. And in respect to science learning, there were problems where terminologies including important concepts were used separately by the teachers and textbooks, terminologies of higher level concept were used, and there might be differences between teachers in majority of teachers.
Exploring Small Group Features of the Social-Construction Process of Scientific Model in a Combustion Class
Shim, Youngsook ; Kim, Chan-Jong ; Choe, Seung-Urn ; Kim, Heui-Baik ; Yoo, Junehee ; Park, HyunJu ; Kim, HyeYeong ; Park, Kyung-Mee ; Jang, Shinho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 35, issue 2, 2015, Pages 217~229
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2015.35.2.0217
In this study, we explored the development of scientific model through the social-construction process on "combustion." Students were 8th graders from one middle school class. Each student engaged in small group discussions three times and made a group model on combustion. Discourses between peers and teacher were videotaped, audiotaped, and transcribed. The results show that the small groups constructed an initial concept: `Conditions of combustion`, which they then evaluated and revised the initial concept through combustion experiment. Following the discussions, some small groups evaluated their model and made a revised model. Then, the small groups compared various models and constructed a scientific model through consensus within the small group and as a whole class. Finally, students kept revising their model to `Burning needs oxygen.` This tells us that the social construction process of scientific model made a meaningful role to build scientific model through diverse discussion between the students and their teacher, although they have had some difficult process to reach the final consensus. The data also showed some group features: the members were open to other`s ideas. They analyzed the differences between their own ideas from others and revised their model after the whole class discussion. Lastly, they showed the tendency to make a good use of teacher`s guidance. This study implies the importance of having social interaction process for students to understand the scientific model and learn the nature of scientific inquiry in class.
Exploration of the Strategy in Constructing Visualization Used by Pre-service Elementary School Teachers in Making Science Video Clip for Flipped Learning - Focusing on Earth Science -
Ko, Min Seok ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 35, issue 2, 2015, Pages 231~245
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2015.35.2.0231
Flipped learning can be used as an innovative teaching method in science education. This study analyzes video clip produced by pre-service elementary school teachers for flipped learning and explore strategies to organize effective visualization. The pre-service elementary school teachers focused on providing information on macroscopic natural phenomenon using concrete case selection strategy for earth science class. They used marker and spatial transformation elements effectively, but their efforts to link the elements to the experience of students were not sufficient. In addition, it was very rare to put the contents into simplified drawing or provide extreme cases to enhance the imagery of students. In addition, it is necessary to provide specific case of multi-modal and link the material to the experience of students closely through familiar cases or analogical model to establish an effective visual teaching material. It may also be needed to present simplified drawing for enhancing imagery and provide extreme cases to make students have an opportunity to infer a new situation.
Developing an Instrument for Analysing Students` Behavioral Engagement in School Science Classroom
Choi, Joonyoung ; Na, Jiyeon ; Song, Jinwoong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 35, issue 2, 2015, Pages 247~258
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2015.35.2.0247
Students are engaged in classroom learning, and classroom learning occurs not only through conversation but also through nonverbal behavior. In science classrooms especially, there are meaningful nonverbal behaviors such as practical activities like observation and measurement. But these behaviors have not been properly investigated by existing instruments that try to measure students` engagement. This study aims to develop a new instrument for analyzing students` behavioral engagement especially in science classrooms. The method of developing the instrument was structured along three steps. First, student behaviors have been classified into fourteen categories through literature review and a series of observation of elementary science classroom. Second, based on these, a framework for analyzing student behavioral engagement has been developed. With the framework, every student moment could be labeled as Participatory Speech or Participatory Silence or Non-Participatory Speech or Non-Participatory Silence. Third, an instrument to which the framework is applied has been developed by using Microsoft Excel. As a trial, two fourth-grade students in elementary science class were analyzed with this instrument. The results of the trial analysis shows that the longest period of a science lesson was occupied by Participatory Silence (63% and 72%). Among the participatory silence, `listening` was the most common (51% and 42% of the trial lesson) and `observing` which is a specific behavior to science was the fourth position (17% and 17% of the trial lesson). It is expected that the developed instrument could be used in improving our understanding of the patterns of student engagement in science classrooms.
The Relation of High School Students` Epistemological belief, Acceptance of Evolutionary Theory and Evolutionary Knowledge
Kim, Sun Young ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 35, issue 2, 2015, Pages 259~265
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2015.35.2.0259
This study examined high school students` acceptance of evolutionary theory, evolutionary knowledge, and epistemological belief. The Christian and non-Christian students` acceptance of evolutionary theory and evolution content knowledge were compared in relation to their `scientific epistemological views` (domain-specific) and `evolution in relation to nature of science` (context-specific). The Christian students` evolutionary knowledge was most predicted by the theory-laden exploration of science, while the non-Christian students` scores on evolutionary knowledge were most predicted by the scientific epistemological views. In addition, the Christian students` scores on scientific epistemological views and evolution in relation to evolution were not significantly related to each other, while the non-Christian students` scores on both variables were significantly related. Furthermore, `evolution in relation to nature of science` is the strongest predictor of both Christian and non-Christian students` acceptance of evolution.
International Comparison of Cognitive Attributes using Analysis on Science Results at TIMSS 2011 Based on the Cognitive Diagnostic Theory
Kim, Jiyoung ; Kim, Soojin ; Dong, Hyokwan ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 35, issue 2, 2015, Pages 267~275
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2015.35.2.0267
This research purports to find out the characteristics of Korean students cognitive attributes and compare it with that of high-achieving countries who took TIMSS 2011 based on the Cognitive Diagnostic Theory. Based on TIMSS 2011 Science framework, nine cognitive attributes were extracted and the researcher analyzed that 216 of the TIMSS 2011 science items require these attributes. This analysis was conducted to come up with a Q-matrix. After producing the Q-matrix, multi-level IRT was used to figure out each countries` characteristics for each of the cognitive attribute. According to the study results, four attributes, such as `Use Models,` `Interpret Information,` `Draw Conclusions,` and `Evaluate and justify` were easier attributes for Korean middle school students. However, the other five attributes such as `Recall/Recognize`, `Explain`, `Classify`, `Integrate`, `Hypothesize and Design` were considered as harder attributes compared to other countries. Korean students also considered `Interpret Information` as the easiest attributes, and `Explain` as the hardest attributes of all. For Korean students, those attributes considered to be easy were the easiest and hard attributes as the hardest compared to other countries, showing very extreme cases. Therefore, to give students more meaningful learning experience, it is better to use all the attributes altogether rather than use specific attributes while constructing Science curriculum or textbooks.
A Comparative Analysis of Achievement Standards of the 2007 & 2009 Revised Elementary Science Curriculum with Next Generation Science Standards in US based on Bloom`s Revised Taxonomy
Choi, Jung In ; Paik, Seoung Hye ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 35, issue 2, 2015, Pages 277~288
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2015.35.2.0277
The purpose of this study is to find the point for improvement through the comparative analysis of the 2007 & 2009 revised science curriculum, and the NGSS of the United States with Bloom`s revised taxonomy. The results of the analysis confirmed that the revised curriculum in 2009 compared to the revised curriculum in 2007 has expanded the type of cognitive process and knowledge, which promote a higher level thinking. However, the revised curriculum in 2009 has been biased to the type of specific cognitive process and knowledge in cognitive process dimension and knowledge dimension as compared to the NGSS of the United States. In the revised curriculum in 2009, the type of cognitive process such as `analyze,` `evaluate,` `create,` and the type of knowledge such as `meta-cognitive knowledge` have been treated inattentively. In addition, through comparative analysis, it was identified that the type of cognitive process and knowledge that were neglected in achievement standards were not dealt with in the learning objective of teachers` guides, either. The revised curriculum should consist of achievement standards in comparison to the previous curriculum to reflect better the goals of science education. Therefore, it is necessary to create an achievement standards including various types of cognitive processes and knowledge by improving the method of statement of achievement standards of science curriculum.
Conception Types of Elementary School Students about the Moon Phase Changes and the Suggestions and Effects of Teaching Methods
Son, Jun Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 35, issue 2, 2015, Pages 289~301
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2015.35.2.0289
This study noted that elementary school students were unable to accurately comprehend the principles of moon phase changes and that teachers themselves lacked a full understanding of it as well. Therefore, this study classifies conception types through 161 5th grade respondents and suggests how to change students` conception types through the use of reconstructed teaching and learning materials (that have been developed in existing studies). It verified the changes in the learning achievement of 129 5th grade respondents and analyzed how to think about reconstructed teaching and learning materials through four teacher respondents and four 5th grade respondents from the same study. The results of this study are as follows: First, the conception types on moon phase changes were classified into C and W types. W types consisted of W1, W2, W3, W4, and W5 types. Students had difficulty in understanding the principles of a waxing crescent moon and first quarter phase changes. Second, the group taking classes, which implemented reconstructed teaching and learning materials, showed greater improvement in learning achievement posttest and long-term tests compared to those who have not. Finally, teachers and students reacted positively to the reconstructed teaching and learning materials as shown in exit survey results. In conclusion, it is suggested that teachers are better off utilizing reconstructed teaching and learning materials so that elementary school students may fully understand the principles of moon phase changes rather than just memorizing the results.
A Case Study on the Features of Classroom Norms Formed in Inquiry Activities of Elementary Science Classes
Chang, Jina ; Song, Jinwoong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 35, issue 2, 2015, Pages 303~312
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2015.35.2.0303
The purpose of this study is to analyze classroom norms formed in inquiry activities of elementary science classes and to consider about the actual problems in enacting school science inquiry. Focusing on the inquiry activity cases of two classes, the data were collected through classroom observation, student interview, teacher interview and questionnaires. Firstly, classroom norms were categorized into three categories theoretically: norms for behavior guidance; general academic norms; and scientific inquiry academic norms. The subcategory norms of each category were extracted inductively and the features, the causes of formation, and the influences on inquiry of each norm were also analyzed. Based on the analyses on classroom norms, the researchers identified three actual problems in enacting school science inquiry. First, the collective traits of school science inquiry caused structural problems in science classrooms. Second, teachers used their authorities in different ways according to phases of instructions. Third, the conflict cases were reported between general values for education and specific values for science inquiry. Educational implications are discussed in terms of the practices of school science inquiry and of the understanding classroom phenomena.
Investigating the Cognitive Process of a Student`s Modeling on a Modeling-Emphasized Argument-Based General Chemistry Experiment
Lee, Dongwon ; Cho, Hey Sook ; Nam, Jeonghee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 35, issue 2, 2015, Pages 313~323
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2015.35.2.0313
The purpose of this study is to investigate the cognitive process of student`s modeling on a modeling-emphasized argument-based general chemistry experiment. The participants were twenty-one freshman students. Six topics were carried out during the first semester and semi-structured interview was implemented at the end of the semester. Semi-structured interview questions were used to elicit elements of effective model, modeling strategies, difficulties that students have experienced during modeling, and resolving the difficulties that students have experienced during modeling. All student interview data were collected and transcribed. The results of this study are summarized as follows: (1) Elements of effective model were considered to be visual expression, persuasive explanation, and rhetorical structure. (2) Modeling strategies included arranging important keywords or writing the outline, and during the modeling process, students used various data, suggested data after reconstructing, suggested definitions and explanations of core concepts, used meta-cognition, and considering rhetorical structure. (3) Difficulties students have experienced during modeling could be categorized as lack of modeling strategy and understanding. (4) Resolving difficulties students have experienced during modeling could be categorized as modeling strategy and understanding. Students learn the strategy by feedback, modeling experience, evaluation of experimental report, models which they constructed previously and references, and the understanding of contents were achieved through arguments which occurred during classes and during the process of writing the experimental reports. These results suggest that when using modeling in teaching and learning, the argument-based learning strategy can be effective in enhancing students` modeling by helping them to understand meta-modeling with scientific concepts.
The Effects of Individualized Learning Adapted to Students` Conceptions Using Smart Devices in Science Instruction
Yun, Jeonghyun ; Ahn, Inyoung ; Noh, Taehee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 35, issue 2, 2015, Pages 325~331
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2015.35.2.0325
In this study, we investigated the effects of individualized learning adapted to students` conceptions using smart devices in science instruction upon students` conceptual understanding, the retention of conception, achievement, learning motivation, enjoyment of science lessons, and perception about individualized learning using smart devices. Four seventh-grade classes at a coed middle school in Seoul were assigned to a control group and a treatment group. Students were taught about molecular motions for seven class periods. Two-way ANCOVA results revealed that the scores of a conception test, the retention of the conception test, a learning motivation test, and an enjoyment of science lessons test for the treatment group were significantly higher than those for the control group. Although the score of the treatment group was higher than that of the control group in the achievement test, the difference was not statistically significant. Students` perceptions about individualized learning using smart devices were also found to be positive.
An Analysis of the Verbal Interaction Patterns of Science-Gifted Students in Science Inquiry Activity
Kim, MyungHee ; Kim, Youngshin ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 35, issue 2, 2015, Pages 333~342
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2015.35.2.0333
This study analyzes the verbal interaction patterns used in a social network activity analysis that appeared in a science inquiry activity of 31 small groups of science-gifted students consisting of 5 members each. The results of this study are as follows: The interaction patterns showed eight types. The most prevalent interaction pattern, type 1, is triangle-shaped, interacting with 3 members out of 5 without a central member. Type 2 is wye form, interacting with 4 members and with one alienated member. Type 3 is diamond-shaped, interacting with 4 members. Type 4 is ray form, interacting with 5 around a central member. Type 5 has an alienated member and interacts with 4 members around the central member. Type 6 is triangle-branched, 4 members linked to the central member. Type 7 is wye form linked all around the central member. Type 8 is wye form with a more complex link than type 7. These can be classified in two. One is the participation-type where the rest of the 4 members are linked to the central member. The other is the alienation-type where a member/members is/are alienated without a central member. The participation-type appeared in 9 groups (29%), type 4, type 6, type 7, and type 8. The alienation-type showed in 22 groups (71%), type 1, type 2, type 3, and type 5. On the basis of this study, we propose that the best number of members in a group is three. It helps prevent a free-riding effect or isolation of members. Also, we deem it more fruitful if there is a member playing a central role in a group.