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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Aug 2016
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Selecting the target year
Development of a Science Ethicality Test for Elementary School Students
Kim, Seongdeok ; Kim, Hyonam ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 1, 2016, Pages 1~13
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.1.0001
The purpose of this study is to develop a Science Ethicality Test (SET) to measure students' science ethics. To secure the validity and reliability of the SET, the authors have applied Rest's Four Components Model (FCM). To develop the SET, authors have conducted the following procedures: analysis of the Korean Youth Moral Test (Kim & Lee, 2012), alteration of the KYMT; and development of the SET. Rest's FCM is consisted of moral sensitivity, moral judgment, moral motivation, and moral character. The SET is consisted of ethical sensitivity, ethical judgment, ethical motivation, and ethical character with each factor having its own elements. To secure the validity and reliability of SET, authors requested a validity assessment from five experts (two evaluators are science education experts, two others are ethics education experts, and one evaluator is a scientist), and surveyed 599 elementary school students. As a result, SET proved high levels of validity and reliability.
The Change in Modeling Ability of Science-Gifted Students through the Co-construction of Scientific Model
Park, Hee-Kyung ; Choi, Jong-Rim ; Kim, Chan-Jong ; Kim, Heui-Baik ; Yoo, Junehee ; Jang, Shinho ; Choe, Seung-Urn ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 1, 2016, Pages 15~28
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.1.0015
The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of students' modeling ability in terms of 'meta-modeling knowledge' and 'modeling practice' through co-construction of scientific model. Co-construction of scientific model instructions about astronomy were given to 41 middle-school students. The students were given a before and after instruction modeling ability tests. The results show that students' 'meta-modeling knowledge' has changed into a more scientifically advanced thinking about models and modeling after the instruction. Students were able to be aware that 'they could express their thoughts using models', 'many models could be used to explain a single phenomena' and 'scientific models may change' through co-construction modeling process. The change in the 'modeling practice' of the students was divided into four cases (the level improving, the level lowering, the high-level maintaining, the low-level maintaining) depending on the change of pre-posttest levels. The modeling practice level of most students has improved through the instruction. These changes were influenced by co-construction process that provides opportunities to compete and compare their models to other models. Meanwhile, the modeling practice level of few students has lowered or maintained low level. Science score of these students at school was relatively high and they thought that the goal of learning is to get a higher score in exams by finding the correct answer. This means that students who were kept well under traditional instruction may feel harder to adapt to co-construction of scientific model instruction, which focuses more on the process of constructing knowledge based on evidences.
Developing and Assessing a Learning Progression for the Ecosystem
Yeo, Chaeyeong ; Lee, Hyonyong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 1, 2016, Pages 29~43
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.1.0029
There have been much efforts to reconstruct the science curriculum focusing on Disciplinary Core Ideas(DCI) in many countries such as America and Europe, the most practical effort has been to design a curriculum with learning progressions(LPs). LPs describe stepwise how students can systematically move toward the understanding of more sophisticated ideas or scientific activities and explain in succession the process of understanding the ideas while the students learn. In this study, a LP for ecosystems has been developed, and the developed LP is then evaluated accordingly. The Ecosystem is one of the DCI of the life science in Next Generation Science Standards(NGSS). The development process of the LP was set at step 4(Development, Assessment, Analysis, and Amendment), and developed through an iterative process of sequences. As a result of analyzing the developed LP, an assessment based on the LP provides reliable information to identifying student ability. This study proposes the development process of the LP and its methodological aspects to use Core Achievement Standards, Ordered Multiple-Choice items and the Rasch model. In addition, using the empirically proven LP suggests a way of strengthening curriculum linked to educational content, teaching methods and assessment. Utilizing the proposed development process in this study will be to present the standard into the direction of becoming part of the curriculum. Currently, the state of domestic research for the LP is still lacking. This study determined the development process of the LP and the need to conduct future research on the LPs.
Exploring Small Group Argumentation Shown in Designing an Experiment: Focusing on Students' Epistemic Goals and Epistemic Considerations for Activities
Kwon, Ji-suk ; Kim, Heui-Baik ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 1, 2016, Pages 45~61
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.1.0045
The purpose of this study is to explore students' epistemic goals and considerations in designing an experiment task and to investigate how a shift in the students' epistemology affected their argumentation. Four 7th grade students were selected as a focus group. According to the results, when they designed their own experiment, their epistemic goal was 'scientific sense-making' and their epistemic considerations - the perception of the nature of the knowledge product was 'this experiment should explain how something happened', the perception of the justification was 'we need to use our interpretation of the data' and the perception of the audience was 'constructor' - contributed to designing their experiment actively. When students tried to select one argument, their epistemic goal shifted to 'winning a debate', showing 'my experiment is better than the others' with the perception of the audience, 'competitor'. Consequently, students only deprecated the limits of different experiment so that they did not explore the meaning of each experiment design deeply. Eventually, student A's experiment design was selected due to time restrictions. When they elaborated upon their result, their epistemic goal shifted to 'scientific sensemaking', reviewing 'how this experiment design is scientifically valid' through scientific justification - we need justification to make members accept it - acting as 'cooperator'. Consequently, all members engaged in a productive argumentation that led to the development of the group result. This study lays the foundation for future work on understanding students' epistemic goals and considerations to prompt productive argumentation in science classrooms.
The Attitudes and Images of Middle School Students toward Invention
Kim, Ki-Yeol ; Ham, Hyung-In ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 1, 2016, Pages 63~73
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.1.0063
The purpose of this research is to investigate and analyze the attitudes and images of middle school students toward invention. This aims to provide basic data on qualitative improvement invention education. The results of this research are as follows: First, as for middle school students, the level of emotion and interest attitude toward invention is higher than elementary school students. The image of invention is positive but difficult (M=3.70). Second, as the overall attitude to invention according to gender of middle school students shows a consistent invention attitude, the attitude formation on invention during elementary school time is found to be important. The overall image of invention according to gender is shown to be significantly different (p<0.05). Third, the overall attitude on invention according to the grade of middle school students does not show a statistically significant difference (p>0.05). As for the ranking according to factors on attitude depending on grades, cognitive attitude is followed by emotional attitude, attitude of interest, and practical attitude. The overall image of invention according to the grade of middle school students does not show a statistically significant difference (p>0.05). This is determined as a result of the large pressure acting on the study from middle school. Finally, the acts of invention such as idea, creation, imagination, creativity are considered as important as the results of analysis of the words of the invention. Invention is analyzed to contribute to developing new products, providing convenience in life, social development, usefulness in real life, and alleviating inconvenience.
The Development and Validation of Instrument for Measuring High School Students' STEM Career Motivation
Shin, Sein ; Ha, Minsu ; Lee, Jun-Ki ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 1, 2016, Pages 75~86
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.1.0075
The purpose of the present study is to develop and validate an instrument to assess STEM career motivation. We developed 32 items for 7 constructs (i.e. education experience, career value, academic self-efficacy, career self-efficacy, career interest, parents' support, and career motivation) on STEM career motivation based on Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent et al.,1994). 767 first year high school students participated in this study. The items were validated by Messick's framework (1995). In this study, we examined the validity of items in four aspects (i.e. content, substantive, structural and generalizability of validity). Methodologically, we used Rasch analysis, Exploratory factor analysis, confirmative factor analysis based on structural equation modelling. We confirmed that our instrument with 32 items as valid and reliable for measuring the STEM career motivation. In addition, we tested the STEM career motivation model based on SCCT. Our model explained the data well, suggesting that external factors (education experience and parents' support) and cognitive factors (perception of value, self-efficacy and interest) were significantly related to STEM career motivation.
An Analysis of Content Validity of Behavioral Domain of Descriptive Tests and Factors that Affect Content Validity: Focus on the Fifth and Sixth Grade Science
Choi, Jung-In ; Paik, Seoung-Hye ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 1, 2016, Pages 87~101
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.1.0087
This study analyzes the content validity of descriptive tests developed for elementary schools, in order to acquire basic data to improve them. Various descriptive tests were collected and tested for differences in proportions between two-dimensional classification of educational objectives and the level of behavioral objectives. Results show that the descriptive tests developed by elementary school teachers mainly focused on "knowledge" and "understanding," and that content validity for behavioral levels to be low. Nine elementary school teachers were interviewed to understand the result. From the interviews, we found both internal and external factors that cause low content validity. The main internal factors were teachers' ability to make two-dimensional classification of educational objectives, the teachers' consideration of students' level, item level of difficulty, the ease of scoring, and path dependence. The main external factors were curriculum, parents, and administration. Based on the results, we suggested the factors related to elementary school teachers' PCK of descriptive tests.
Secondary Science Teachers' Concepts of Good Science Teaching
Lee, Bongwoo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 1, 2016, Pages 103~112
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.1.0103
The purpose of this study is to investigate secondary science teacher's concepts of good science teaching. To do these, I have developed a questionnaire composed of 32 good teachings on education content, instructional method, instructional environment and atmosphere and assessment categories. 136 secondary science teachers have participated in the questionnaire and were requested to show agreement. Additionally, they were requested to describe the best science teachings that they have experienced. Results are as follows: First, the best science teaching that science teachers thought is a teaching that is in full accord with students' level in education content category, a teaching with an energetic interaction in instructional method category, a teaching in a trustful atmosphere in instructional environment and atmosphere category, a teaching in which students could learn something through a teaching-related assessment in assessment category. Second, secondary science teachers thought that a self-directed learning, a differentiated instruction and a teaching with diverse materials are not important factors in good science teaching. Third, there is a difference between good teaching that secondary science teachers have conceived and good teaching that they have experienced. It shows that science teachers did not precisely understand what good science teaching is. Additionally, I discussed the need of finding a case on good science teachings and a support of an interaction-focused teaching.
Phenomenological Study on the Elementary Students' Experience Participating in the Science Fair
Kim, Eunha ; Kwon, Hyeoksoon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 1, 2016, Pages 113~123
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.1.0113
The purpose of this study is to understand the elementary student's growth and its implications from the students' experience participating in the science fair by phenomenological study. The results are as follows. First, the students have various experiences. They acquire scientific knowledge and inquiry skills by conducting in-depth experiments, visiting several places, and interviewing experts. They have some experience in writing experiment journals to record the inquiry process in their own language, and presenting their results in public. Second, the students suffer several difficulties while preparing for the science fair. They have some difficulties when the results were not consistent with the hypothesis, or they had to repeat the experiment over and over. They feel burdened in writing the experiment journal. They had a few time to meet friends or for hobbies. Third, the students improve scientific attitude through the science fair, and they receive a positive effect on the affective side. They developed scientific interest, curiosity, cooperation, etc. And they also gained a sense of accomplishment, confidence, friendship, good relationship with teachers, career interest, etc. This study finds out that students participating in the science fair have a lot of experience that cannot be done easily in a normal science class. Even though students confront some difficulties in the inquiry process, they make good progression and feel accomplished. So the science fair is valuable experience for them.
Effect of Motivational Belief about Learning Science and Self-Directed Learning Ability on Middle School Students' Conceptual Understanding of Matter Change
Im, Sungmin ; Kim, Inwhan ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 1, 2016, Pages 125~134
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.1.0125
The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between motivational belief about learning science, self-directed learning ability and conceptual understanding of matter change with a quantitative method, assuming that motivational belief and self-directed learning ability might affect conceptual understanding. To do this, the authors investigated middle school students' motivational belief about learning science, self-directed learning ability, and conceptual understanding of matter change using measurement tools based on previous studies, and then analysed the casual relationship between three variables using PLS structural equation model. As a result, three latent variables in this study could be evaluated as appropriated in reliability and validity. And also, self-directed learning ability could affect both the motivational belief and conceptual understanding, while motivational belief could affect only self-directed learning ability but not conceptual understanding. Through this study the authors confirmed that in the context of science learning self-directed learning ability can directly affect conceptual understanding but motivational belief can affect indirectly. This study is significant in that the causal relationship between different variables in science learning could be confirmed in a quantitate manner, and also in that it can suggest PLS structural equation method as a new research methodology in science education research area.
Science Classroom for Promotion of Democratic Civic Literacy?: Exploratory Discussions Focused on Elementary School Teachers' Views
Joung, Yong Jae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 1, 2016, Pages 135~145
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.1.0135
The purpose of this study is to investigate elementary teachers' views on the democratic scientific inquiry and the methods for promotion of democratic citizenship in science classroom, and to conduct exploratory discussions about science classroom for promotion of democratic citizenship based on their views. Data were collected from 96 elementary teachers. AS results show, the elementary teachers in the study thought that the features of democratic scientific inquiry was 'communication and cooperation', 'autonomy and fairness', and 'contribution to the benefit of mankind and society'. In addition, the participants regarded the 'inquiry/activity focused on communication and cooperation' as the best method for promotion of democratic citizenship in science classrooms. Finally, several suggestions on the science education for promotion of democratic civic literacy and the democratic inquiry were given.
Construction of Preservice Biology Teachers' NOS Pedagogical Content Knowledge within Biology Teaching Context
Kim, Sun Young ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 1, 2016, Pages 147~158
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.1.0147
This study examined the changes of preservice biology teachers' NOS pedagogical content knowledge through two consecutive science methods courses: NOS understandings; attitudes toward teaching science; difficulties of NOS teaching; NOS teaching strategies; and views of orientation of NOS teaching. During the science methods course I, the preservice teachers engaged in discussions and reflections on what science is and how scientific knowledge has produced, drawing NOS aspects from episodes of history of science, and planning the lessons cooperating NOS instructional objectives. Then the next semester, through the science methods course II, the preservice teachers had a chance of the simulated teaching by adopting NOS teaching and learning activities in the context of the secondary biology context. The preservice teachers, further, reflected on their NOS teaching. The results showed that the preservice teachers constructed the NOS pedagogical content knowledge. They significantly improved their views of NOS and its teaching(p<.05) after the science methods course I, and retained their understanding after the science methods course II(p>.05). The preservice teachers mentioned the difficulties of teaching NOS in the secondary biology context, and further suggested effective NOS teaching methods in their reflective journals.
An Analysis of the Perceptions and Difficulties Experienced by Science Teachers in Flipped Learning
Shin, Young-joon ; Ha, Ji-hoon ; Lee, Sung-hee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 1, 2016, Pages 159~166
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.1.0159
This study analyzed perceptions and difficulties in applying Flipped Learning with an interview method grounded on understanding and experience of Flipped Learning in science class. The interviewees selected were six teachers working in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province. Three teachers having over two years of experience in operating Flipped Learning in science were selected, one each from elementary, middle, and high school and another three teachers who had just started to operate Flipped Learning this year were chosen, one each from elementary, middle, and high school. According to the result of a 3-step interview conducted with the participating teachers, they indicated very high satisfaction with the implementation of Flipped Learning in elementary, middle, and high school science classes. They responded that Flipped Learning was particularly more helpful for inquiry activity. The teachers, however, felt burdened by the class preparation and had difficulty in organizing the class. To explore ways to get rid of the difficulties in Flipped Learning, this author discussed the textbook system where one could draw various implications for improving the current class.
Analysis of the Characters' Role Presenting Elementary School Science Textbook: Targeting the 2009 Revised Science 4th-Grade Textbook
Sung, SeungMin ; Chae, HeeIn ; Lim, Heejun ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 1, 2016, Pages 167~175
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.1.0167
This study aims to find out the meaning of characters used in science textbooks by analyzing the roles of the characters on the 2009 revised science textbooks and the extracted sentences and see if there are indications referable to compiling future science textbooks by finding out where the characters are efficiently used and where supplement is needed. Target textbooks among those developed for the 2009 revised elementary school science textbooks are the first and second semester of the 4th-grade. Methods used include analysis on the roles of character-containing questions using character role analysis whose illustration analysis frame is more supplemented/adjusted than those used in the foregoing studies, analysis on character-containing questions using the existing analysis frame, analysis/survey on good cases and cases needing supplement through consultation with a science education expert, two teachers, etc. The result shows that among types of character roles, motivation and material provision are more used than experiment guide, experiment, and observation results. Result of analyzing in-textbook characters by field shows that life sphere is more used than free exploration, energy, material, and earth. Result of analyzing question types shows the order of expanding, anticipatory, transferable and personal questions and there were no reminiscent and evaluative questions. Based on the result of this study, indications on how to use in-science textbook characters more efficiently and developmentally are needed.
Validation of Learning Progressions for Earth's Motion and Solar System in Elementary grades: Focusing on Construct Validity and Consequential Validity
Lee, Kiyoung ; Maeng, Seungho ; Park, Young-Shin ; Lee, Jeong-A ; Oh, Hyunseok ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 1, 2016, Pages 177~190
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.1.0177
The purpose of this study is to validate learning progressions for Earth's motion and solar system from two different perspectives of validity. One is construct validity, that is whether a hypothetical pathway derived from our study of LPs is supported by empirical evidence of children's substantive development. The other is consequential validity, which refers to the impact of LP-based adaptive instruction on children's improved learning outcomes. For this purpose, 373 fifth-grade students and 17 teachers from six elementary schools in Seoul, Kangwon province, and Gwangju participated. We designed LP-based adaptive instruction modules delving into the unit of 'Solar system and stars.' We also employed 13 ordered multiple-choice items and analyzed the transitions of children's achievement levels based on the results of pre-test and post-test. For testing construct validity, 64 % of children in the experimental group showed improvement according to the hypothetical pathways. Rasch analysis also supports this results. For testing consequential validity, the analysis of covariance between experimental and control groups revealed that the improvement of experimental group is significantly higher than the control group (F=30.819, p=0.000), and positive transitions of children's achievement level in the experimental group are more dominant than in the control group. In addition, the findings of applying Rasch model reveal that the improvement of students' ability in the experimental group is significantly higher than that of the control group (F=11.632, p=0.001).