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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Association for Research In Science Education
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Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Aug 2016
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Selecting the target year
The Characteristics of Group and Classroom Discussions in the Scientific Modeling of the Particulate Model of Matter
Yang, Chanho ; Kim, SooHyun ; Jo, Minjin ; Noh, Taehee ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 361~369
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.3.0361
In this study, we investigated the characteristics of group discussion and classroom discussion in the scientific modeling of the particulate model of matter. 7th graders in Seoul participated in this study. We implemented science instructions based on the GEM cycle of scientific modeling. We analyzed the differences between group discussion and classroom discussion in three steps: exploring thoughts, comparing thoughts, and drawing conclusions. We also looked into the level of argumentations of the students in the modeling activities. The analysis of the results indicated that students generated a group model by extracting commonalities from each model of their group members, and then they evaluated and modified the group model by comparing the differences among the models in classroom discussion. The main step involved in group discussion was 'exploring thoughts', whereas in classroom discussion it was 'comparing thoughts'. Although the levels of argumentation among the students were generally low, most students participated with enthusiasm, as they expressed their interest and had positive perception in the modeling activities. As a result, the modeling activities were found to have positive influences on concept development. Some suggestions to implement the modeling activities in science teaching effectively were discussed.
Science High School Students' Shift in Scientific Practice and Perception Through the R&E Participation: on the Perspective of Legitimate Peripheral Participation in the Community of Practice
Lee, Minjoo ; Kim, Heui-Baik ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 371~387
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.3.0371
Learning at the elbow of scientist is a well-known educational approach to improve students' understanding of science and scientific practice. This study, in the perspective of legitimate peripheral participation in a community of practice, explores how students' scientific practice and perception could be shifted through R&E program with the development of participation. Data from participant observation for 18 months and in-depth interviews were analyzed based on constant comparative method to extract common characteristics of students' participation and major shifts in their scientific practices and perceptions. Students' development of participation was categorized into three stages: legitimate, peripheral, and full participation. In the stage of peripheral participation, students perceived themselves as mere students and showed passive engagement. They just followed the directions of researchers and didn't know what they should be doing. But through continuous participation, students showed enhanced engagement like voluntary article reading, role assignments, and establishing norms in a community of practice with the reference of scientists'. In this stage of transitional participation, students also showed a deepened perception on everyday life of scientist and the community of scientist. And finally in the stage of full participation, students showed responsibility and ownership on research and continuous efforts to refine their research. They recognized themselves as beginning scientists. With these findings, this paper highlighted the dynamic processes of students' development of scientific practices and identity through R&E participation. It also suggests implications for research programs for education, especially for students who have already articulated a science-related career but still have only foggy notions about science.
Scoring Korean Written Responses Using English-Based Automated Computer Scoring Models and Machine Translation: A Case of Natural Selection Concept Test
Ha, Minsu ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 389~397
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.3.0389
This study aims to test the efficacy of English-based automated computer scoring models and machine translation to score Korean college students' written responses on natural selection concept items. To this end, I collected 128 pre-service biology teachers' written responses on four-item instrument (total 512 written responses). The machine translation software (i.e., Google Translate) translated both original responses and spell-corrected responses. The presence/absence of five scientific ideas and three
ideas in both translated responses were judged by the automated computer scoring models (i.e., EvoGrader). The computer-scored results (4096 predictions) were compared with expert-scored results. The results illustrated that no significant differences in both average scores and statistical results using average scores was found between the computer-scored result and experts-scored result. The Pearson correlation coefficients of composite scores for each student between computer scoring and experts scoring were 0.848 for scientific ideas and 0.776 for
ideas. The inter-rater reliability indices (Cohen kappa) between computer scoring and experts scoring for linguistically simple concepts (e.g., variation, competition, and limited resources) were over 0.8. These findings reveal that the English-based automated computer scoring models and machine translation can be a promising method in scoring Korean college students' written responses on natural selection concept items.
Development and Management of the Advanced STEAM Teacher Training Program
Hahn, Insik ; Hwang, Shinyoung ; Yoo, Jungsook ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 399~411
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.3.0399
The purpose of this study is to investigate implications for future STEAM education by analyzing the surveys by the in-service teachers who participated in the Advanced STEAM Teacher Training Program(ASTTP) for raising interests and understanding of science and technology and nurturing STEAM literacy and problem-solving ability of students. ASTTP was developed for promoting 'teacher competence for STEAM.' ASTTP is a 60-hour program(4 credits), which includes offline intensive course of 38 hours, online training course of 12 hours, a course of implementation at schools for 5 hours, and a workshop for 5 hours (based on the 2014 program). For the offline intensive course, teachers take various professional development classes and activities, such as open-laboratory tours, advanced experiments, mentoring programs, and team projects as well as lectures on diverse disciplines. For the online course, teachers take online classes freely while they are encouraged to work with other teachers in groups. After taking both online and offline courses, the teachers are required to implement their STEAM lesson plans in their classrooms. Finally at the workshop, some selected teachers share how successfully they have implemented STEAM education. About 700 teachers have successfully taken the program from 2012 to 2014. Based on the surveys by the teachers, the program has been modified and improved. Our analysis shows increased professional development in STEAM education for the participating teachers. This study can provide some implication and helpful insights for people who need to develop and manage teacher training programs for STEAM education and other education programs in general.
Discussions About the Three Aspects of Scientific Literacy: Focus on Integrative Understanding, Settlement in Curriculum, and Civic Education
Park, Jongwon ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 413~422
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.3.0413
There have been many discussions about scientific literacy (SL), which caused many science educators concern for many years. This paper focuses on three aspects about SL. First, there are various opinions, and components or types of SL. Second, it has been pointed out that the reconciliation between curriculum focusing on SL and curriculum focusing on scientific knowledge system is difficult. Third, the level of SL of citizens who learned science in schools is not so high. Related to these aspects, this paper suggests three recommendations. First, the paper suggests three dimensional model of SL and some examples of its application. Second, elementary and middle school focus on SL in their science curriculum and high school focuses on scientific knowledge system in the curriculum for preparing for future jobs. Third, we need to give efforts to lifelong science eduction for citizens' SL as well as school teachings for SL. In the conclusion section, it is described what aspects should be additionally considered for the discussions and recommendations about three aspects of SL.
An Analysis of Preservice Earth Science Teachers' Mental Models about Coriolis Force Concept
Kim, Eunju ; Lee, Hyundong ; Lee, Hyonyong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 423~434
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.3.0423
The purpose of this study is to investigate preservice earth science teachers' mental models through applications of Coriolis force experiment apparatus. After the root of preconception was examined by face to face interviews based on the questionnaire, five preservice earth science teachers were finally selected for this study. The mental models about concept of Coriolis force was classified into naive mental model, static unstable mental model, dynamic unstable mental model, and scientific mental model through the result of individual interviews and their drawings. According to the mental model analysis about Coriolis' force conception, students C and M showed naive mental model about concept of Coriolis force before experiment. After the experiment, student M's model changed to static unstable mental model. Student C's model improved to dynamic unstable mental model. In adiition, students D and O's model improved from static unstable mental model to dynamic unstable mental model. In the case of student B, the dynamic unstable mental model was maintained after the experiment, however, student B's preconception changed to scientific concept. It turned out that a change occurred from low mental model level to integrated mental model after the application of the developed Coriolis' force experiment apparatus. According to the results, national curriculum is similar to static unstable mental model and the result of developed Coriolis' force experiment apparatus is similar to dynamic unstable mental model. It is suggested that it become the theoretical foundation to develop more comfortable and advanced Coriolis force experiment apparatus by improving the experiment apparatus.
Analysis on the Mismatch between Instructional Design and Teaching Practice of Pre-service Science Teachers in Teaching Practicum
Jung, Juwon ; Lee, Bongwoo ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 435~443
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.3.0435
The purpose of this study is to analyze the mismatch between instructional design and teaching practice of pre-service science teachers and to investigate the cause of these mismatches. Twenty pre-service science teachers took part in teaching practicum for four weeks from Apr. 2015 to May 2015 and we analyzed their lesson plans and videos of these lessons. After that, we interviewed the pre-service science teachers in order to know the cause of these mismatches and additional informations. The main findings are as follows. First, in the introductory stage, we found more mismatch in the "attention and motivation stimulation" area than any other area. Many pre-service science teachers corrected their 'motivation practice' in different forms. Second, we found out that the most mismatch occurred in the evolving stage. Many pre-service science teachers added learning contents in "learning content presentation" area. Third, in the closing stage, many pre-service science teachers omitted the "leaning content summary" area in the lack of time. Fourth, the number of mismatches by internal factors is similar of by external factors. The mismatches by external factors were mainly by feedback of guidance teacher and change by students' response. In addition, we discussed the implications related to reflective mentoring program, importance of guidance teacher, importance of time management etc.
An Analysis of the Relationship of Grit, Interest, Task-Commitment, Self-Regulation Ability, and Science Achievement of High School Students
Mun, Kongju ; Ham, Eun Hye ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 445~455
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.3.0445
The purpose of this study is to identify the structural relationship among students' grit, interest, self-regulation ability, task-commitment and achievement within science learning. Our concern is understanding how grit is related to the other non-cognitive variables, i.e., interest, self-regulation ability, and task-commitment, which are widely known as significant predictors of science achievement. Based on literature review, we evaluated two hypothetical models in the frame of structural equation modeling as follows: first, grit was assumed to mediate relations of interest and self-regulation ability, and interest and task-commitment. Second, grit was assumed to have a direct effect on self-regulation ability and task-commitment independent of interest. In both models, grit was assumed to be indirectly associated with science achievement. A total number of 180 high school students (77 boys, 103 girls) participated in surveys on grit, interest, self-regulation ability, and task-commitment and reported their science test scores on mid-term/final exams. Results revealed that students' grit and interest were indirectly associated with their science achievement with the mediation of their self-regulation and task-commitment. We also found that task-commitment was highly correlated with interest and self-regulation. Furthermore, we found different patterns of correlations within the five variables between female and male students. From these results, we suggested that researchers need to investigate whether students' grit and task-commitment can explain their interest decreasing as they move to higher grade levels, how teachers can help students to maintain their interest in learning science from early childhood, and relationships of these non-cognitive variables and science achievement.
Exploration on the Features and Possibility of Self-Study in Science Education Research: Based on the Theoretical Background and Previous Researches
Jo, Kwanghee ; Kim, Heekyong ; Choi, Jaehyeok ; Joung, Yong Jae ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 457~470
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.3.0457
We investigated the conceptual and methodological characteristics of self-study as an innovational way with reflective research methods and explored the possibility of application of self-study in the field of science education by reviewing previous researches done in foreign countries. The results show that Self-study in education means the study of self, self-practice, self-thought, and so on in the teaching and learning context. It is a kind of new research method to pursue the improvement of teaching and learning practice with integrated perspectives on the context of instruction, identities of members, their beliefs and values, innovation agenda for better education, etc. This can be attained by collective and critical reflection in doing research. Most previous articles on the methodology of self-study suggested that the self-study should be more than just daily journals written only by her/him self. To do self-study in the academic way, they requested interaction with critical and cooperative colleagues, multiple but strict qualitative research methods, and participants' efforts for making better practice in instruction. Similar features to the above are found in the previous 14 self-study papers related to science education done in foreign countries. Based on the results, we concluded that self-study could be applied usefully into the field of science education in Korea. This paper could contribute to stimulation in the innovation of science instruction in a more practical way by increasing the attention to self-study and provoking its practice in Korea.
Understanding the Role of Wonderment Questions Related to Activation of Conceptual Resources in Scientific Model Construction: Focusing on Students' Epistemological Framing and Positional Framing
Lee, Cha-Eun ; Kim, Heui-Baik ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 471~483
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.3.0471
The purpose of this study is to explore how students' epistemological framing and positional framing affect the role of wonderment questions related to the activation of conceptual resources and to investigate what contexts affect students' framings during scientific model construction. Four students were selected as focus group and they participated in collaborative scientific model construction of mechanisms relating to urination. According to the results, one student whose framings were "understanding phenomena" and "facilitator" asked wonderment questions, but the others whose framings were "classroom game" and "non-respondent" were not able to activate their conceptual resources. However, they were able to activate their conceptual resources when they shared the epistemological framing of "understanding phenomena" and shifted between the positional framings of "facilitator" and "respondent." Although they were able to activate their conceptual resources, these activated resources were not able to contribute to their model when they shifted to the framings of "classroom game" and "receiver." In contrast, when students constantly shared an "understanding phenomena" framing and dynamically shifted between the framings of "facilitator" and "respondent," they were able to activate various conceptual resources and develop their group model. The students' framings were affected by the contexts. These included: when students were confronted with cognitive difficulties and were not provided proper scaffolding; when the teacher played the role of answer provider and guided the activity with correctness; when there were several possible explanatory models that students could choose from; and when the teacher played the role of thought facilitator. This study contributes to supporting teaching and learning environments for productive scientific model construction.
Analysis and Comparison of Views of Nature Between East Asia and the Western World and its Meaning
Lee, Yumi ; Son, Yeon-A ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 485~498
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.3.0485
In this study, the views and the meaning of nature between the Western world and East Asia were compared through literature analysis. In the West, it is recognized that nature and human beings are separate. Nature is understood as regular and rational. They, therefore, take the view of particle and mechanical theory. In East Asia, it is thought that nature and humans interact with each other, and take an attitude of compromise and tolerance. Since nature is recognized as an ever-changing being, they, therefore, take the position of wave theory. Scientific knowledge and concepts are accepted depending on the personal view of nature. In Korea, science education follows the view of modern western science without considering the personal pattern of cognition, though students can have various views of nature. The attitude is needed regarding the various viewpoints as rich resources in science and science education.
The Application of Science Education Lecture for Pre-Service Teacher Using Teaching-Learning Method Based on Flipped Learning
Jeon, Young-ju ; Yoon, Ma-byong ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 499~507
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.3.0499
A flipped learning class was held in an attempt to overcome the limits of lecture-type classes in pre-service science teacher training and to provide a student-oriented education suitable for digital native generation. The principles of teaching-learning in flipped learning were applied to the general ADDIE model to design the class; learning materials were developed accordingly. The developed flipped learning materials and class design were verified for their validity using an expert panel's Delphi method and validity test, in which the validity was verified with 0.75 CVR. The developed flipped learning materials were applied to the theory of science education and the instructional effectiveness was analyzed. The results suggest that the students' motivation to study, interest, and confidence in learning increased; however, their satisfaction in class decreased by 30% as compared to the lecture-type class and their self-confidence in the improvement of their academic achievement was not sufficient. In order for a flipped learning class to be successful, the class should be small in size, which would ensure appropriate teacher-student communication and individualized learning; also, the students' burden of learning should be reduced and accessibility to video materials for pre-class learning should be reinforced.
Examining the Validity of History-of-Science-Based Evolution Concept Assessment and Exploring Conceptual Progressions by Contexts
Ha, Minsu ;
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 509~517
DOI : 10.14697/jkase.2016.36.3.0509
Previous studies have investigated the similarity between the development of evolutionary explanations and students' conceptual developments on evolution. However, the validity and reliability of the assessment method reflecting the similarity have not been quantitatively examined yet. In addition, no study has examined the conceptual progressions of evolution concept based on contexts although literature has addressed the contextual difference of evolutionary explanation in the history of science. This study examined the validity and reliability of history-of-science-based evolution concept assessment using ordered multiple choice (OMC) methods and Rasch analysis and explored conceptual progression by three contexts (e.g., human, animal, and plant). The evolution concept assessment developed by Ha (2007) was used to examine 1711 elementary, middle, and high school students, and pre- and in-service science teachers' (biology majors and non-majors) evolution concepts. Internal consistency reliability and item response fitness of the OMC method that provide 0- to 4-point scores to creationism, teleology, intentionality, use/disuse, and natural selection respectively met the benchmark based on the Cronbach alpha and MNSQ indices of Rasch analysis. The level of elementary and middle school students' evolution concepts were located between intentionality and use/disuse while the level of high school and non-biology science teachers' evolution concepts were located between use/disuse and natural selection. The conceptual progressions of evolution concepts were differentiated according to three contexts. This study provided the quantitative evidence for the similarity between the development of evolutionary explanations and students' conceptual developments on evolution and suggest new analysis methods (i.e., OMC) of evolution concept assessment.