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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Minimum Safe Distance between Two Vessels in Confined Waters
Lee, Chun-Ki ; Moon, Serng-Bae ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 561~565
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.561
This paper is mainly concerned with the interaction effects between two vessels and sidewall with a mound. Experimental study on hydrodynamic forces between ship and sidewall with a mound was already shown in the previous paper, measured by varying the distances between ship and sidewall. The ship maneuvering simulation was conducted to find out the minimum safe distance between vessels, which is needed to avoid sea accident in confined waters. From the inspection of this investigation, it indicates the following result. When and if one vessel passes the other vessel through the proximity of sidewall with a mound, the spacing between two vessels is needed for the velocity ratio of 1.2, compared to the case of 1.5. Also, for the case of ship-size estimation, the ship maneuvering motion is more affected by interaction effects for the overtaken small vessel, compared to the overtaking large vessel.
The Effects of Slow Steaming on the Liners' Operating Strategy
Woo, Jong-Kyun ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 567~575
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.567
In recent times, an obvious strategy in liner shipping markets that has come to the fore is slow steaming. Nowadays, most liner shipping companies have decelerated the voyage speed to 15-18 knots on major routes, and some leading liner shipping companies have a plan to reduce it to below 15 knots. Slow steaming is helpful in reducing the operating cost and the amount of greenhouse-gas emissions on a single vessel with lower fuel consumption. However, it also creates various negative effects such as the opportunity cost, additional fixed costs and an in-transit inventory cost on a loop. Hence, the net operating cost on a loop is changing dynamically due to the changes of voyage speed based on various slow steaming effects. The aim of this study is to analyze the slow steaming effects in the liner shipping, and to find the best voyage speed that minimizes the operating cost on a loop. Moreover, this study suggests the recommendable strategy for liner shipping companies. To achieve the aim of this study, a simulation model has been designed using System Dynamics.
Experimental Results of Ship-To-Ship Lightering Operations Applied Velocity Information GPS
Yoo, Yun-Ja ; Pedersen, Egil ; Kouguchi, Nobuyoshi ; Song, Chae-Uk ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 577~583
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.577
A ship-to-ship (STS) lightering operation takes place in order to transfer cargo (e.g. crude oil or petroleum products) between an ocean-going ship and a service ship alongside it. Instrumental measurements to accurately determine the relative speeds and distances during the approach between the vessels would benefit the operational safety and efficiency. A velocity information GPS (VI-GPS) system, which uses the instantaneous velocity measures from carrier-phase Doppler measurement, has been applied in a field observation onboard a service ship (Aframax tanker) approaching a ship-to-be-lightered (VLCC) in open waters. This article proposes to apply VI-GPS as the input sensor to a guidance and decision-support system aiming to provide accurate velocity information to the officer in charge of an STS operation. A method for precise velocity measurement using VI-GPS was described and the measurement results were compared each other with the results of Voyage Data Recorder (VDR) and VI-GPS that showed the concept of a guidance and decision-support system applying VI-GPS with the field test results during STS operations. Also, it turned out that VI-GPS has sufficient accuracy to serve as an input sensor from the field test results.
A Study on the Speed Performance of a Medium Patrol Boat using CFD
Park, Dong-Woo ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 585~591
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.585
The primary objective of the current work is to predict speed performance of the medium patrol boat over
employing experimental materials based on the CFD before model tests. In other words, the predicted brake powers according to ship speeds are assessed satisfying the main engine capacity. The subject ships are selected the two different stern hull forms. The flow computation are conducted considering free surface and dynamic trim using a commercial CFD code(STAR-CCM+). The resistances of the bare-hull are obtained from CFD. Wave patterns, pressures and limiting streamlines on the hull and velocity distribution in the propeller plane for the two hull forms are compared using CFD. The effective powers of the object ships are assessed based on CFD. Resistance increase according to the attached appendages and quasi-propulsive efficiency are employed the experimental datas. Speed performance prediction method concerning high speed vessels like a medium patrol boat is developed employing CFD and experimental data.
Application of Real Time Currents Prediction in Ship Speed Correction of Sea Trial Test
Lee, Moonjin ; Lee, Han-Jin ; Shin, Myung-Soo ; Jung, Soo-Won ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 593~600
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.593
Information supporting system which is based on real-time prediction of currents to be applicable to the sea trial test of ship is developed. In the system, the spatial distribution of currents at specific time and the trends of variability of currents occurring at specific sites are also given as valuable information for sea trial test of ship. In addition, the system has a capability to connect with a GPS which provides information including speed loss of the ship caused by currents on the way of voyage. With information from the sea trial test, the system is also capable of delivering optimum time and pathways by considering calculated speed loss of ship at specific time and its pathway. Having information described as above, the real-time current prediction system supports and provides functions of not only running the test in an efficient way but also providing valuable information which is encouraged to be used during the test by installing at the ship.
Harmful Materials treatment in Shipboard sewage by SBR process with BM
Kim, In-Soo ; Lee, Eon-Sung ; Ha, Shin-Young ; Jeong, Kyoung-Chul ; Koh, Sung-Cheol ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 601~606
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.601
Lab scale experiment study was carried out for biological treatment process development in shipboard. SBR(Sequence Batch Reactor) process with BM(Beneficial Microorganisms) was investigated for practical application on shipboard sewage treatment. From the results it was suggested that SBR process with BM might be a suitable process in terms of harmful materials removal. By adding BM to SBR system, the useful species of microorganisms and EPS(Extracellar Polymetric Substances) in sludge was increased. It was found that the biodegrability and harmful organic compounds like VOCs and harmful inorganic compounds like heavy metals. was reduced over 70%. As far as reclamation water is considered, this process is very advantageous to special environments such as cruise ships, because the method of adding BM makes it unnecessary to add other facilities on the SBR system.
Research Trends in Global Cruise Industry Using Keyword Network Analysis
Jhang, Se-Eun ; Lee, Su-Ho ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 607~614
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.607
This article aims to explore and discuss research trends in global cruise industry using keyword network analysis. We visualize keyword networks in each of four groups of 1982-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2009, 2010-2014 based on the top 20 keyword nodes' degree centrality and betweenness centrality which are selected among four centrality measurements, comparing them with frequency order. The article shows that keyword frequency collected from 240 articles published in international journals is subject to Zipf's law and nodes degree distribution also exhibits power law. We try to find out research trends in global cruise industry to change some important keywords diachronically, visualizing several networks focusing on the top two keywords, cruise and tourism, belonging to all the four year groups, with high degree and betweenness centrality values. Interestingly enough, a new node, China, connecting the top most keywords, appears in the most recent period of 2010-2014 when China has emerged as one of the rapid development countries in global cruise industry. Therefore keyword network analysis used in this article will be useful to understand research trends in global cruise industry because of increase and decrease of numbers of network types in different year groups and the visual connection between important nodes in giant components.
A Study on Occupational Stress of the VTS Operators
Kim, Yu-Sun ; Park, Young-Soo ; Jo, So-Hyun ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 615~621
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.615
VTS operators may suffer from acute, chronic, or traumatic stress caused by their workload and working environments associated with task or combination of task. This study intended to measure the level of VTS operator' stress and find out factors influencing it by understanding their characteristics during carrying out their task. For this purpose, analyzed the data collected through conducting survey on VTS operators as the Korea Occupational Stress(KOSS) and Psychological Well-being Index(PWI). As a result, VTS operators are experiencing higher level of psychological stress than the national average. And the factors to cause VTS operators' occupational stress can be summarized as follows; working environment factors, shift work especially night duty, workload, etc. This study provides the fundamental information for understanding human factors of VTS operator' occupational stress.
A Study on Wearable GPS Antenna Integrated into Garment
Park, Dong-Kook ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 623~627
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.623
In recent years, wireless communication technologies in human body have received an increasing attention and the research on an antenna that can be worn also has been actively conducted. In this paper, an wearable antenna that can receive GPS signal frequency is proposed. The antenna was manufactured by using a copper polyester fabric with thickness of 0.08mm as a radiator and a ground plate, and a goatskin with thickness of 0.7mm as dielectric substrate. Cutting edges placed in diagonal direction of square patch in order to obtain a circular polarization characteristic, and the conductive cloth and leather was laminated by using a conductive epoxy. First, goatskin dielectric constant was obtained through the simulation and measurement of resonance frequency of the three square patch antennas with different size. On the basis of the results, an antenna operating in the GPS band was designed and the performance of the antenna was validated by making the experiment. The change of the characteristic of the antenna that is located on the shoulder parts of the clothing and wearing person were measured. And it was confirmed that the reception sensitivity has a similar level as compared to the commercially produced ceramic GPS antenna.
Considerations in Establishing a Decision-Making process for Korea's Places of Refuge
Lee, Chang-Hyun ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 629~636
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.629
To minimize secondary damages from marine environment pollution resulting from marine accidents, International Maritime Organization(IMO) adopted "Guidelines on Places of Refuge(POR) for ships in need of assistance" as Resolution A.949(23) in it is 23rd General Assembly in 2003 and recommends Parties to the Organization designate PoR. This resolution suggests that they establish a "Decision-Making process" so as to provide reasonable PoR when disabled ships request use of PoR. Korea has not been performed introduce a PoR system in the country. Therefore, there is no decision-making process to deal with ships which need PoR. When Korea implements the PoR system in the future, the nation should establish a Decision-Making process to provide reasonable PoR in case ships in need of assistance request for PoR. In order to present what should be considered in the process of establishing a Decision-Making process for PoR in Korea in the future, in this study presents matters which should be considered in the process of founding PoR Decision-Making processes. When Korea tries to conduct POR system so that other countries' PoR Decision-Making process and the relating process of IMO and REMPEC (Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea) were investigated and analyzed. In addition, in times of marine accident in Korea's sea areas, Korea's action manuals for marine accident which regulates management for an accident is analyzed and articles will be presented to be taken into account during establishing final PoR Decision-Making process.
A Study on Exploring Purification Management Indicators of Depositied Waste in Coastal Waters
Kim, Sang-Goo ; Moon, Yu-Seok ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 637~643
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.637
This study aims to explore a set of indicators to be used for purification management. by estimating the total quantity of depositied waste in coastal waters, Through 3 rounds of Delphi technique, this study sorts out the following 5 variables to be used as major indicators determining priorities for purification in coastal areas: the ratio of re-deposition after collection, the area where fishing gear are lost, the total quantity of depositied waste of each coastal water, the total quantity of deposited waste in the past, and the quantity of depositied waste by unit area. Although the fact that the delphi surveys were done only on 27 specialists limits its external validity, this study will serve as a base for in-depth studies with more expanded panels that will provide better indicators for purification management in coastal waters of Korea.
A Basic Study on Implementing Optimal Function of Motion Sensor for Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm System
Jeong, Tae-Gweon ; Bae, Dong-Hyuk ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 645~653
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.645
A Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm System (hereafter 'BNWAS') is to monitor and detect if an officer of watch(hereafter 'OOW') keeps a sharp lookout on the bridge. The careless lookout of an OOW could lead to marine accidents. For this reason on June 5th, 2009, IMO decided that a ship is equipped with a BNWAS. However, an existing BNWAS gives the OOW a lot of inconvenience and stress in its operation. It requires that the OOW should press reset buttons to confirm their alert watch on the bridge at every three to twelve minute. Many OOWs have complained that at some circumstances they cannot focus on their bridge activities including watch-keeping due to a lots of resetting inputs of BNWAS. Accordingly, IMO has allowed the use of a motion sensor as a resetting device. The motion sensor detects the movements of human body on the bridge and subsequently sends reset signals directly to BNWAS automatically. As a result, OOWs can work uninterrupted. However, some of classification societies and flag authorities have a slightly different stance on the use of motion sensor as a resetting method for BNWAS. The reason is that the motion sensor may trigger false reset signals caused by the motion of objects on the bridge, especially a slight movement such as toss and turn of human body which can extend the period of careless watch. As a basic study to minimize the false reset signals, this paper proposes a simple configuration of BNWAS, which consists of only three motion sensors associated with 'AND' and 'OR' logic gates. Additionally, several considerations are also proposed for the implementation of motion sensors. This study found that the proposed configuration which consists of three motion sensors is better than an existing one by reducing false reset signals caused by a slight movement of human body in one's sleep. The proposed configuration in this paper filters false reset signals and is simple to be implemented on existing vessels. In addition, it can be easily installed just by a basic electrical knowledge.
Stabilization of Heavy Metals in Contaminated Marine Sediment using Bentonite
Shin, Woo-Seok ; Na, Kyu-Ri ; Kim, Young-Kee ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 655~661
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.655
In this study, stabilization treatment of heavy metals such as Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn in contaminated marine sediment was achieved using bentonite. Stabilization experiment was accomplished by wet-curing with bentonite for 150 days. From the sequential extraction results of heavy metals, it was observed that the easily extractable fraction (exchangeable, carbonate, and oxides forms) of Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn in a treated sediment decreased to 8.5%, 5.6%, 19.2%, and 28.2%, respectively, compared with untreated sediment. Moreover, the TCLP(Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) results evaluating efficiency of extraction reduction of heavy metals showed that extraction of heavy metals reduced drastically to 95.7%, 96.8%, 99.2%, 85.9% for Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn by stabilization when compared to untreated sediment. From these results, we can confirm that bentonite as a capping material exhibits good stabilization of heavy metals in contaminated marine sediment.
Study on Public Awareness of establishing Marine Protected Areas - Case Study of Guimaras Province, Philippines using Contingent Valuation Method
Kim, Tae-Goun ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 663~672
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.663
In Korea and the Philippines, as well as all over the world, with the recognition of the importance of marine ecological resources, the marine protected areas(MPA) have been established and managed to protect and preserve these resources. While the number of marine protected areas for marine ecological resources protection has been increased, there is main problem that the most of MPAs do not achieve their intended management objectives. the effective management. Because of the positive and negative impacts on local communities and fishermen as direct stockholders, there has been ongoing debate on the pros and cons of implementing MPAs. Accordingly, this research conducted a case study of establishing Marine Protected Areas in Guimaras, Philippines because Philippines fisheries code of 1998 (Republic Act 8550), which is enacted to manage, conserve and protect fishery resources, obliged local governments to designate no less than 15% of jurisdictional municipal water as fisheries resource protection areas for a long time. To do this, a dichotomous-choice contingent-valuation survey was conducted in the two municipalities of Guimaras, Philippines to investigate public opinion in debates over MPAs and to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for MPAs to protect and conserve marine habitats for fishery resources. Because of the expected economic costs by prohibiting fishing activities within the establishing newMPA, 58.7% of respondents thought the costs should be compensated, but 91.4% respondents voted in favor of increasing MPAs for fisheries resources as a protective measure. Finally, with Contingent Valuation Method(CVM), the aggregate mean WTP (375.5ha) of San Lorenzo and Sibunag residents in Guimaras Province, Philippines for establishing the additional MPA in their municipality waters was estimated to $1,046,791. Therefore, these findings could be used as a valuable data for establishing effective management plan of MPAs in Korea.
Marina Development Impact on the Tranquility of Small Coast Harbor
Lee, Dong-Hyun ; Lee, Joong-Woo ; An, Hyo-Jae ; Kim, Kang-Min ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 673~681
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.673
Due to the increased demand for safety and security requirements on the port infrastructure, the harbor tranquility is one of the important parameter in the mooring basin of harbor. It relates keenly to berthing/unberthing and cargo handling works but also it is an important indicator to get the minimum water area as the safe refuge. Hupo harbor is a national coastal harbor located in east coast of Korea and a development plan for a new marina near the entrance is being carried out including berth layouts, breakwater extensions, 300m marina berths, dredging and land reclamation works. The new plan will impact on calmness of the existing port. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze in complex the variation of wave height and direction caused by wave refraction, diffraction, shoaling and reflection from the incident waves from outside the harbor. In order to check the calmness inside a harbor, the numerical models are being used currently need fundamental reviews according to the difference of results which depend on their respective features. In this study, hence, it was introduced the validity of numerical models by comparing the computational results with the hydraulic model experiment. The current investigations contribute to the existing development recommendations and provide further solutions for port planning.
Experimental Investigation on the Embedding Motion and Holding Power of Anchor According to Initial Position
Lee, Sang-Min ; Lee, Jin-A ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 683~688
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.683
The vessel should prevent dragging anchor against the external forces by utilizing the anchor and secure the stability of it. A fundamental understanding on the embedding motion and holding power of the anchor is necessary to perform the safe operating of anchor work. In this study, the embedding motion and holding power of the anchor according to an initial position in an experimental tank of 6m long in sand are tested by using two types of different anchor models(ASS and AC-14), which are generally applied to the commercial vessel nowadays. The anchor flukes seem to rotate and to be embedded into soil up to the maximum depth and maintaining a constant depth in case of the same direction and perpendicular to the towing direction, regardless of the form of an anchor. In case of the opposite direction to the towing direction, it is noted that the coefficient of holding power becomes smaller than the other initial positions.
A Study on Minimum Number of Ship-handling Simulation Required for Evaluating Vessel's Proximity Measure
Jeong, Tae-Gweon ; Pan, Bao-Feng ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 689~694
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.689
The Korean government has introduced and enforced maritime traffic safety assessment to secure traffic safety since 2010. The maritime traffic safety assessment is needed by law to design a new port or modify an existing one. According to Korea Maritime Safety Act, in the assessment the propriety of marine traffic system consists of the safety of channel transit and berthing/unberthing maneuver, safety of mooring, and safety of marine traffic flow. The safety of channel transit and berthing/unberthing maneuver can be evaluated only by ship-handling simulation. The ship-handling simulation is carried out by sea pilots working with the port concerned. The vessel's proximity measure is an important factor to evaluate traffic safety. The proximity measure is composed of vessel's closest distance to channel boundary and probability of grounding/collision. What is more, the probability of grounding becomes important. According to central limit theorem, a sample has a normal distribution on condition that its size is more than 30. However, more than 30 simulation runs bring about the increase of assessment period and difficulty of employing sea pilots. Therefore this paper is to find out minimum sample size for evaluating vessel's proximity. First sample sets of size of 3, 5, 7, 9 etc. are selected randomly on the basis of normal distribution. And then KS test for goodness of fit and t-test for confidence interval are applied to each sample set. Finally this paper decides the minimum sample size. As a result this paper suggests the minimum sample size of 5, that is, the simulation of more than five times.
Analytical Study on the Peak Stage of Typhoons
Seol, Dong-Il ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 695~700
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.695
This paper analyzed the peak stage of typhoons by using 10 years(2002~2011) data. The main purpose of this research is to provide the characteristic and tendency of peak stage of typhoons for navigators of ship. The research results show that typhoons of maximum wind speed 20~29m/ s and 40~49m/s account for 25% and 24% of whole typhoon, respectively. Ultra Typhoon of maximum wind speed 50m/ s and over accounts for 24% of whole typhoon. Peak stage mean arrival time from tropical depression and tropical storm are 3.6 days and 2.1 days, respectively. Duration time of peak stage is within 2 days and mean duration time of peak stage is 31hours. Latitudes and longitudes that mainly appears peak stage are at
. This dangerous sea area has the oceanic environmental characteristic that Taiwan and Philippines are locate west side and a vast the North Pacific occupy east side. Navigators of ship in this dangerous sea area keep strict watch. Ultra Typhoons occur most frequently in September. Peak stage of Ultra Typhoon also appears at
An Influence Analysis of Port Hinterlands on Container Cargo Volumes of Incheon Port Using System Dynamics
Kim, Young-Kuk ; Jeon, Jun-Woo ; Yeo, Gi-Tae ;
Journal of Navigation and Port Research, volume 38, issue 6, 2014, Pages 701~708
DOI : 10.5394/KINPR.2014.38.6.701
This study is aimed to obtain the influence of port hinterlands on container cargo volumes of Incheon port using System Dynamics(SD). Also, macro economic index such as exchange rates(US dollar), balance of current account, capital balance, Japan trade, China trade, export unit value index, import unit value index, total turnover of Incheon port were used as the factors that influence container cargo volumes of Incheon port. Moreover micro index regarding port hinterlands' operating companies such as total sales, rental fee, number of employees were introduced in the simulation model. In order to measure accuracy of the simulation, this study implemented MAPE analysis. And after the implementation, the simulation was decided as a much more accurate model because MAPE value was calculated to be within 10%. This study respectively examined factors using the sensitivity analysis. As a result, in terms of the effects on cargo volume in Incheon Port, the factor named 'cargo volumes of port hinterlands' operating companies' is most significant. And increasing the rental fee of hinterland was resulted in decreasing the cargo volumes of Incheon port.