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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Oceanography
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Volume & Issues
Volume 1, Issue 2 - Oct 1996
Volume 1, Issue 1 - Apr 1996
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Late Quaternary stratigraphy and sea-level change in the tidal flat of Gomso Bay, West Coast of Korea
The Sea, volume 1, issue 2, 1996, Pages 59~72
The stratigraphy of the Gomso-Bay tidal flat consists of basement, preHolocene oxidized unit, and Holocene tidal sequence in ascending order. The oxidized unit is a yellowish brown stiff mud of the last stadial (or subglacial) stage before 12,000 yr B.P. This yellowish brown preHolocene unit does not contain any marine fossils, but contains plant roots, plant fragments, and also vertical and horizontal microfractures indicating soil-formation when exposed. It is regarded as interfluve deposits. The Holocene tidal sequence is composed of lower mud facies (upper-flat muds), upper sand and muddy sand facies (middle to lower-flat sands). This coarsening-upward and retrograding pattern of Holocene tidal deposits reflects a Holocene sea-level rise. The plots of
14/C-age versus depth of dated samples (peats and shells) show that the sea level of 7,000 yr B.P. was located about 6.5 m below the present mean sea level, and the sea levels of 4,000 yr B.P. and 2,000 yr B.P. were also situated about 3 m and 2.5 m below the present mean sea level, respectively.
Macrozoobenthic community in the deep sea soft-bottom of the KODOS 96-1 area, northeastern Pacific Ocean
The Sea, volume 1, issue 2, 1996, Pages 73~79
This study was conducted to investigate the faunal composition and distribution patterns of macrobenthic community in the deep sea sediments of the KODOS area, the northeastern Pacific Ocean during May 1996. Benthic animals were collected at 25 stations using a spade type box corer. Sediments were sieved through -.3 mm mesh screen. A total of 17 faunal groups in 9 phyla and 363 specimens were identified. Nematoda was the most abundant faunal group which accounted for 30.0% of total abundance. Other dominant faunal groups were foraminiferans (25.1%), harpacticoids (10.2%), xenophyophores (5.2%), and polychaetes (4.7%), Polychaeta was a typically dominant component of macrobenthic community in the study area except traditionally recognized meiofauna taxa. Mean occurrence number of faunal taxa was ca. 6 per 0.01 m
2/, and mean density was estimated as 1,288 indiv./m
2/. The abundance of whole fauna and that of each faunal group was highest at the surface layer of sediment, and decreased monotonously along the sediment depth; 98% of faunal abundance was found within 10 cm depth layer.
Welcoming Address for the 30th Anniversary of the Korean Society of Oceanography
The Sea, volume 1, issue 2, 1996, Pages 80~81
Distinguished guest and participants, ladies and gentleman! It is a great honor and pleasure for me to have this opportunity of behalf of the Ocenographic Society of Korea commemorating its 30th Anniversary. As the chairman of Organizing Committee for this International Ocean Science Symposium, I would like to extend my sincerer welcome to all of you for being with us here today. The Korean seas are very interesting and unique in oceanographic sense. The East, Yellow and East China Seas form the western marginal seats of the Northwest Pacific. The Korean seas are along the pathway for the mineral dust and air pollutants transported from Asia to the central North Pacific. The Yellow and East China Seas and East Sea are completely different in their oceanographic characteristics. The Yellow and East China Seas are a broad continental shelf with depths less than 200 m. Its hydrography is strongly influenced by vast amounts of freshwater discharge form the Changjiang and Huang Ho. The circulation of the seas are to be influenced by the tides, and prevailing northerly winter monsoon wind, river discharge in wet summer monsoon, and the intrusion of the Kuroshio. The sediment inputs from the two large rivers are equivalent to the world largest Ganges Bramaputra Rivers in puts. The Yellow and East China Seas are stratified in summer and well mixed in water which dictates a large phytoplankton bloom in spring. The East Sea is a semi-enclosed basin reaching more than 3,000 m deep. Overall circulation is locally driven by winds, thermal and freshwater forcing and by inflow at Korea Strait with outflow at Tsugaru and Soya Straits. Tides are weak in the East Sea. The East Sea experiences significant variation of Corilois parameter. A western boundary current, the East Korea Warm Current flows northward form Korea Strait a confluence with the southward-flowing North Korean Cold Current. Another branch of the inflow follows more nearly the shelf edge along Honshu. In subsurface flow, low salinity water of northern origin is seen to underthrust the East Korean Coastal Current and is found along the Korean coast nearly to Korea Strait. In the geological sense, the Korean seas are also unique. The Yellow Sea is a shallow, post-glacially submerged epiconinental sea bound on the east by a long stretch of ria-type coast. The Yellow Sea floor is rather flat and progressively deepens toward the southeast to form the Okinawa Trough. The Korean coast in the Yellow Sea is one of the muddy coasts in the world. The East Sea is characterized by a narrow shelf with a straight coastline. The East Sea deepens abruptly forming a number of deep basins between ridges and surrounding margins that are related to the rifting on a back-arc basin associated with the subduction of the Pacific Plate. This interesting and unique features of the Korean seas have begun to unravel in the second half of the 20th century. Our research capability has been initiated in 1966 by formation of Korean Oceanographic Society, and started formal college education in 1968, and establishing ocean research institute in 1973, and later strengthen by launching ocean-going research vessels in 1992. International cooperation focused on the Korean seas are also increasing recently.
Congratulation Address for the 30th Anniversary of the Korean Society of Oceanography: Briefing to China-Korea Joint Ocean Research Center
The Sea, volume 1, issue 2, 1996, Pages 82~84
Dear President, Extunguished guest, Ladies and Gentleman. It is a great honor to be with you to celebrate the 30 anniversary of the Korean Society of Oceanography. First of all, let me on the behalf of the China Society of Oceanography extend our warm congratulations to the Korea Society of Oceanography. Since the diplomatic relationship between China and Korea was established, scientific and technical gressed rapidly. The most important milestone is the signing of the China-Korea agreement for science and technique cooperation in oceanography and followed by the establishment of the China-Korea Joint Ocean Research Center. Please let me take a minute to introduce the center here. During the visit of Korean president Kim to China, he suggested the establishment of a joint entity for marine research cooperation. It called an active response from Chinese side. In October, 1994 Authorities of the Ministry of Science and Technology, Korea and the State Oceanic Administration, China shouldered together and discussed the establishment of the China-Korea Joint Ocean Research Center. Then, less than one year of cooperative work, all the preparations were made, and the China-Korea Joint Ocean Research Center was established on May 12, 1995 in Qindgao. In the beginning of 1996 Korean deputy director functionary took his office, and the center made a good progress as follows. 1. Providing a chance to the oceanographers and oceanic institutes of the two nations keep in touch and creating atmosphere for specific cooperations. 2. Organizing, coordinating and handing the practised cooperation programs. Under the frame of the China-Korea agreement for marine science and technique, through a series of discussions of administrative authorities of the two countries the main subjects of the cooperation and their prior order were determined as follows. "Water circulation and material flux in the Yellow sea", the most basic question interested by the most of oceanographers, was started in May, 1996. At present, the first two cruises were successfully conducted and the cooperative research is in progress. As the director of the China-Korea Joint Ocean Research Center, I heartily hope that more programs on the Yellow Sea would start recently. Our center will do our best to provide oceanographers the best condition for the joint researches. 3. China-Korea cooperation should not limit to pure oceanographic programs, but should extend to the management of the scientific organizations. The latter, at least as a manager of an institute, is more important. Under KORDI's kind hospitality, the first chinese delegation consisted of the managements staff visited Korean in March, 1996. It would deepen mutual-understanding and friendship in administrative level. 4. The first scientific meeting which is organized by the center and named "A Symposium on the Yellow Sea Research" will be held on 11-13 November of this year in Qingdao. Marine science needs cooperation and exchange, Yellow Sea is our common subject, I hope all of you would attend this wonderful meeting.
Keynote Address for International Ocean Science Symposium; Strategy and Goal for Ocean Researches in the 21st Century
The Sea, volume 1, issue 2, 1996, Pages 85~86
Chairman of the Korean Society of Oceanography, distinguished participating members of KOS, ladies and gentlemen, First of all, I am very pleased to transmit to you all the sincere expression of congratulations to you all the sincere expression of congratulations for the 30th Anniversary of the Korean Society of Oceanography on behalf of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, its Secretariat and myself. The birth of KSO only 30 years ago and the fast growth in its activities during this period looks to me to be very remarkable. I think one of the most important actions of the KSO on its creation was to urge the Korean Government to open a Department of Oceanography in Universities, which was realized through the Seoul National University in 1968. This action was already promising the rapid growth of oceanography in Korea, lead by the members of KSO, which are now mainly composed of graduates of these departments. The creation of the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries in the Korean Government is the latest proof of KSO activities, and also represented by the papers and reports of its members. Considering the rapid development of the Korean economy and industry, this growth may not be so surprising. Nevertheless, the recent improvement of Korea's capacity in Ocean research characterized especially by the acquisition of highy sophisticated research vessels and instruments seems to be really extraordinary. This improvement has enabled you to go further and deeper to the open ocean. During the twenty-ninth Session of the IOC Executive Council which was held in Paris last month, the Head of the Korean Delegation, Dr. Park, proposed to IOC to co-operate with KOICA in a training programme for Coastal and Marine Environmental Management in the Asian-Pacific region, essentially in IOC-WESTPAC region. I was so pleased and encouraged by this proposition because I am sure that this will greatly enhance the capacity building in developing countries in this region, as well as Korea. What's the meaning of all this\ulcorner I think it is the successful beginning of the 'Globalization" of Korean oceanography, as desired by the President Kim Young-Sam. Mr. Chairman, distinguished members of KSO, ladies and gentlemen, I am very pleased to find that this conference has been organized in two different sessions: one devoted to future strategy in view of promoting ocean research during the next century, and the other one as a forum of scientific results in various fields of oceanology. This way of organizing a conference must ensure a balance between the two different subjects, including ocean research and its prominent states directly from their first-class managers in ocean research. Also, I am sure that the exchange of scientific knowledge among the members during the session will contribute in making a firm basis on which you can jump to the next century with great confidence. Let me take this occasion to briefly analyze the actual trend of oceanography at international and regional levels prior to introducing you to the strategy of IOC. Now, as in the past, the assessment of marine resources is one of the most important issues in ocean science. However, we now put strong emphasis on making sustainable management of resources by employing an environmentally sound way of exploitation, more than in the past. Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the oceanographers of the world
Partnerships ― A Key to Ocean Research in the 21st Century
The Sea, volume 1, issue 2, 1996, Pages 87~92
As we move into the 21st century a number of exciting challenges and opportunities await the ocean sciences. Coupled with this are a growing number of responsibilities faced by our discipline. It is clear from the tremendous advances that have taken place in oceanography over the last several decades that ocean research is becoming increasingly relevant to society and to concerns of our citizens relative to economic and social issues. When this is coupled to a rapidly changing global political scene, including decreased military interest in open ocean issues and increased concern about operations in coastal areas, a dramatic opportunity to develop new relationships is presented to us. To take advantage of these opportunities we are beginning to forge fresh and innovative partnerships in the United States between academic oceanography, federal agencies that support research, and private industry, The objective of this paper is to describe the development and status of these new partnerships and encourage similar developments in other areas of the world.
Preparing the 21st Century: the French plan in marine science and technology
The Sea, volume 1, issue 2, 1996, Pages 93~104
Oceanography originated from the first deep-sea soundings completed in 1858 for the purpose of laying the first telegraph cable between Europe and the United States of America. Shortly after, the first oceanographic research works were conducted; let's mention more particularly Challenger scientific expedition, Prince Albert of Monaco cruises and those performed by Alexander Agazziz in the United States of America. All these studies aimed at answering the two great questions the scientific community was then faced with: down to what depth can life be found\ulcorner Are abyssal depths a shelter for species of the secondary era\ulcorner The first expeditions caused an international craze of the occidental countries, which contributed to creating, at the beginning of the XXth century, the first marine stations, in the United States and in Europe. Until the second world war oceanography was above all turned on biology and coastal works. The point mainly consisted in drawing up an inventory of the marine animals and develop studies so as to improve Fisheries industry. Keeping within this scope, in 1923 France established in Vietnam the first oceanographic institute of south-east Asia. The outbreak of submarine acoustics and the works conducted during the second world war towards the landing of the allied forces contributed to revive the interest for oceanography. In 1957 and 1958, scientists from many countries were involved in an international unprecedented research programme which was going to radically modify our acquirements. It is known as the International Geophysics Year. This grand international programme enabled to establish the first map of the sea floor, with its ridges and faults. On account of these discoveries, both French and American launch some new programmes dedicated to marine technology. The French programme bears on building two new bathyscaphs: FNRS III, then Archimede which will set up a record by diving 9,545 m in Kuril Trench, North of Japan. Also as a consequence of the International Geophysics Year, several countries amongst which France, each start building a fleet of civilian oceanographic vessels. The further step in marine technology, with the first boreholes by great depths completed by Glomar Challenger, is a milestone for the 60's. It thus becomes possible to understand the history of the ocean floor and validate the recent theory of plates tectonic which revolutionizes our knowledge as regards Geology. The research studies conducted in France on marine geosciences have made great strides thanks to Xavier Le Pichon, one of the founders of the above mentioned theory. The most recent technological revolution as a matter of oceanography was achieved in 1978, with the launching of the American oceanographic satellite, Seasat. Owing to its capabilities of survey over vast oceanic zones whatever the weather, satellite is the tool privileged for global studies, at regional or planetary scale. As regards France the use of such an expensive tool can only be justified on the grounds of European research policy― which is the case of ERS 1 and ERS 2 satellites ―, or in the frame of cooperations such as that conducted with the United States on Topex-Poseidon project. Acquiring this technology met the needs of the ever growing scientific community. During the years following the International Geophysics Year, the junior scientists were all assigned to fundamental research works, in university laboratories and at the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). At the end of the 60's, many events― such as the discovery of significant oilfields, the uncertainty about raw material resources, food or water to face population explosion― led to consider the possibility of exploiting the ocean resources. Several countries thus created bodies of applied research which are now renowned, for instance the NOAA (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration), the JAMSTEC (Japan Marine Science and Technology Centre), the KORDI(Korean Research and Development Institute), and of course IFREMER(French Research Institute for the exploitation of the sea) whose works complete the more fundamental research works conducted by university teams. During the last thirty years the French scientific community grew fifteen times bigger, going up from around 200 to 3,000 scientists.
Canadian Ocean Research: The Next Decade
The Sea, volume 1, issue 2, 1996, Pages 105~109
Canada is a maritime nation. It has the world's longest coastline and second largest continental shelf. Canada's coast, if stretched, would circle the earth six times at the Equator. The 200 mile Exclusive Fishing Zone represents 32% of Canada's total territory. This maritime area is the size of continental Australia and eight times the size of Texas. Many major cities are coastal ports or are located on the St. Lawrence Seaway, the world's longest and heavily-used waterway. Much of Canada's trade goods are transported by water. Weather and climate are driven by ocean processes, determine the location and success of our important fishing, agriculture and forestry industries. Canada's fishing industry continues to be a major exporter of fisheries products and the mainstay of hundreds of small communities in coastal areas. Offshore oil and gas production, and the associated spill hazards, particularly in ice-infested waters, pose new environmental threats to our coastal areas. All these facts, and many others which for the sake of brevity we will not mention, lead to the necessity of a strong and credible ocean research activity in Canada.
Role of the Biological Oceanography in the Global Ocean Environmental Issue in the 21st Century
The Sea, volume 1, issue 2, 1996, Pages 112~114
I am highly honored by being invited to the 30th anniversary Symposium of the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO). I would like to express my sincere thanks to the KSO for this invitation, and on behalf of all the members of the Oceanographic Society of Japan and the Plankton Society of Japan, to offer our congratulations to the KSO for the 30th anniversary. In honor of the occasion, I would like to remark on role of the oceanography in global environmental issues in the coming century. However, a talk covering whole spectrum of the oceanography would be desultory, so, since my major field is biology, I will focus my talk on the biological oceanography.
Strategy and Goal for Ocean Sciences in the 21st Century
The Sea, volume 1, issue 2, 1996, Pages 115~119
With the emergence of 'New Ocean Order' toward the 21st century, the role of ocean has been emphasized in various aspects of the global politics, such as 'UN Convention on the Law of the Sea' and 'Agenda 21'. In this regard, the coming century imposes a lot of important tasks on ocean sciences. The ultimate goals of such tasks would be to achieve in-depth understanding of the ocean processes employing advanced technology and to apply the accumulated knowledge of ocean sciences to the welfare of human-being.