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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Oceanography
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Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Nov 2007
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Aug 2007
Volume 12, Issue 2 - May 2007
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
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Interaction between Invertebrate Grazers and Seaweeds in the East Coast of Korea
Yoo, J.W. ; Kim, H.J. ; Lee, H.J. ; Lee, C.G. ; Kim, C.S. ; Hong, J.S. ; Hong, J.P. ; Kim, D.S. ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 125~132
We estimated the distribution of predator-prey interaction strengths for 12 species of herbivores (including amphipods, isopods, gastropods, and sea urchins) and made a regression model that may be applicable to other species. Laboratory experiments were used to determine per capita grazing rate (PCGR; g seaweeds/individual/day). Relationship between the biomass of individual grazers and fourth-root transformed PCGR was fitted to power curve (
, r=0.8864). This finding supported that the grazing efficiency was not even as individual grazers increase in size (biomass). Therefore, the biomass-normalized PCGR was estimated and revealed that smaller size herbivores were more effective grazers. Grazing impact considering density of each taxon was calculated. The sea hare Aplysia kurodai had greatest grazing impact on the seaweed bed and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus and S. intermedius were ranked in descending order of the impact. The amount of seaweed grazed by the amphipod Elasmopus sp. (>4,000
) and Jassa falcata (>2,000
) were 3.435 and
respectively. The combined grazing amount of herbivores was
in the seaweed bed. Although sea hare and sea urchin had strong impacts on seaweeds, the effects of dense, smaller species could not be seen as negligible. Surprisingly, the calculated grazing potential of sea urchins with a mean density of 3
exceeded the mean production of seaweed cultured in domestic coastal waters in Korea (ca., 5 ton/ha). Small crustaceans were also expected to consume up to 16% of the seaweed production if their densities were rising under weak predation conditions. Considering that the population density of herbivores are strongly controlled by fish, human interference like overfishing may have strong negative effects on persistence of seaweeds communities.
Development of Finite Element Method for the Extended Boussinesq Equations
Woo, Seung-Buhm ; Choi, Young-Kwang ; Yoon, Byung-Il ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 133~141
A finite element model is developed for the extended Boussinesq equations that is capable of simulating the dynamics of long and short waves. Galerkin weighted residual method and the introduction of auxiliary variables for 3rd spatial derivative terms in the governing equations are used for the model development. The Adams-Bashforth-Moulton Predictor Corrector scheme is used as a time integration scheme for the extended Boussinesq finite element model so that the truncation error would not produce any non-physical dispersion or dissipation. This developed model is applied to the problems of solitary wave propagation. Predicted results is compared to available analytical solutions and laboratory measurements. A good agreement is observed.
Characteristics of Snapping Shrimp Sound Observed in the Korean Coast of the Yellow Sea
Kim, Bong-Chae ; Kim, Byoung-Nam ; Shin, Chang-Woong ; Kim, Cheol-Soo ; Choi, Bok-Kyoung ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 142~146
Ambient noise was measured for 3 hours on May, 2001 at a site of 20 m water depth in the Korean coast of the Yellow Sea. During the measurement, the strong underwater sound assuming by marine life was continually observed. The spectrum level of this sound was very high compared to that of underwater ambient noise over the frequency range from 1 to 20 kHz. Therefore, this underwater sound can continually affect the ambient noise level. In this study, the source of the underwater sound was investigated. The snapping shrimp was estimated as reliable source. It was confirmed through comparison with experimental results described in previously literatures. It was also confirmed through analysis of snapping shrimp sound measured under laboratory conditions.
Change of Blooming Pattern and Population Dynamics of Phytoplankton in Masan Bay, Korea
Lee, Ju-Yun ; Han, Myung-Soo ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 147~158
To clarify the bloom pattern and species succession in phytoplankton community, the population dynamics with the determination of physico-chemical factors have been studies in Masan Bay, the south sea of Korea, for the periods November 2003-October 2004. Concentration of
was always higher than that of
, which was similar level as compared to other costal areas.
concentration was lower than those in other coastal areas but similar to oligotrophic environments. Thus, phosphate seems the limiting nutrient rather than nitrogen.
concentration was also low as compared to other costal areas. Si:P ratio was low from autumn to winter, suggesting silicate and/or phosphate limitation during this period. The cell density of phytoplankton was high in winter 2003 and early autumn 2004. The carbon biomass was high in winter 2003 and summer 2004. And chlorophyll-a concentration was high in late autumn 2003 and summer 2004. Among 78 species of phytoplankton found in the bay during the investigated period, dominant species were two diatoms of Cylindrotheca closterium, Skeletonema costatum, and three dinoflagellates of Heterocapsa triquetra, Prorocentrum minimum, P. triestinum, and one raphidophyte of Heterosigma akashiwo. P. minimum dominated from late autumn to winter, but it was replaced by H. triquetra in late winter. P. triestinum dominated from late spring to early summer. Simultaneously, H. akashiwo cell density steadily increased, and it became dominant with C. closterium in late summer. With decreasing of H. akashiwo and C. closterium, S. costatum became the most dominant species in autumn. The canonical analyses showed that total phytoplankton cell density related to diatom cell density and it was affected by temperature, and concentrations of
. The carbon bio-mass and
concentration related to diatom- and dinoflagellate cell densities and these were affected by flagellate cell density, salinity, and concentrations of
. Last six years monitoring data in Masan city obtained from Korean Meteorological Agency indicates gradual increase in air temperature. And the precipitation decreased especially in spring season. The winter bloom found in 2003 may be caused by the increase in the temperature and this bloom subsequently induced the nutrients depletion, which continued until next spring probably due to no precipitation. Therefore, the spring bloom, which had been usually observed in the bay, might disappear in 2004.
Impact of Fish Farming on Macrobenthic Polychaete Communities
Jung, Rae-Hong ; Yoon, Sang-Pil ; Kwon, Jung-No ; Lee, Jae-Seong ; Lee, Won-Chan ; Koo, Jun-Ho ; Kim, Youn-Jung ; Oh, Hyun-Taik ; Hong, Sok-Jin ; Park, Sung-Eun ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 159~169
Excessive input of organic matters from fish cage farms to the coastal waters has been considered as one of the major factors disturbing their benthic ecosystem. Sediment samples were taken from around the two fish cage zones (A and B) in Tongyeong coast in June and August 2003, to evaluate the ecological impacts of fish cage farming activity on the macrobenthic polychaete communities. Polychaete accounted for
of the total macrofauna individuals from each of the sampling stations. The number of species, abundance, diversity and dominant species of polychaete were rapidly changed with the distance from the fish cages. Within 10 m from the fish cages, Capitella capitata, which is a bio-indicator for the highly enriched sediments, was a dominant species and the lowest diversity was recorded. In particular, the maximum density (
) of C. capitata was found at Farm A where fish cages were more densely established within a semi-enclosed bay system. The sampling zone between 10 m and 15 m showed a rapid decrease of C. capitata with a rapid increase of the numbers of species, implying that this zone may be an ecotone point from a highly to a slightly enriched area. In the sampling zone between 15 m and 60 m, a transitional zone, which represents slightly enriched condition before normal one, was observed with additional increase and maintenance of the number of species and density of polychaete. In addition, the potential bio-indicators of organic enrichment, such as Lumbrineris longifolia and Aphelochaeta monilaris were the predominant species in the sampling zone. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordination plots and k-dominance curves confirmed the above results on the gradual changes in the macrobenthic polychaete communities. Our findings suggest that the magnitude of impact of fish cage farming activity on polychaete communities is probably governed by a distance from fish cage, density of fish cage and geomorphological characteristics around fish cage farm.
Long-term Predictability for El Nino/La Nina using PNU/CME CGCM
Jeong, Hye-In ; Ahn, Joong-Bae ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 170~177
In this study, the long-term predictability of El Nino and La Nina events of Pusan National University Coupled General Circulation Model(PNU/CME CGCM) developed from a Research and Development Grant funded by Korea Meteorology Administration(KMA) was examined in terms of the correlation coefficients of the sea surface temperature between the model and observation and skill scores at the tropical Pacific. For the purpose, long-term global climate was hindcasted using PNU/CME CGCM for 12 months starting from April, July, October and January(APR RUN, JUL RUN, OCT RUN and JAN RUN, respectively) of each and every years between 1979 and 2004. Each 12-month hindcast consisted of 5 ensemble members. Relatively high correlation was maintained throughout the 12-month lead hindcasts at the equatorial Pacific for the four RUNs starting at different months. It is found that the predictability of our CGCM in forecasting equatorial SST anomalies is more pronounced within 6-month of lead time, in particular. For the assessment of model capability in predicting El Nino and La Nina, various skill scores such as Hit rates and False Alarm rate are calculated. According to the results, PNU/CME CGCM has a good predictability in forecasting warm and cold events, in spite of relatively poor capability in predicting normal state of equatorial Pacific. The predictability of our CGCM was also compared with those of other CGCMs participating DEMETER project. The comparative analysis also illustrated that our CGCM has reasonable long-term predictability comparable to the DEMETER participating CGCMs. As a conclusion, PNU/CME CGCM can predict El Nino and La Nina events at least 12 months ahead in terms of NIino 3.4 SST anomaly, showing much better predictability within 6-month of leading time.
Importance of the Mixotrophic Ciliate Myrionecta rubra in Marine Ecosystems
Myung, Geum-Og ; Kim, Hyung-Seop ; Jang, Keon-Gang ; Park, Jong-Woo ; Yih, Won-Ho ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 178~185
Myrionecta rubra Jankowski 1976(=Mesodinium rubrum Lohmann 1908), a mixotrophic ciliate, is very common and often causes recurrent red tides in diverse marine environments. Since the report on the first laboratory strain of this species in 2000, papers on its novel ecological role and evolutionary importance have been high lighted. This review paper is prepared to promote the de novo recognition M. rubra as a marine mixotrophic species. M. rubra is a ciliate which is able to photosynthesize using plastids originated from cryptophyte (including Teleaulax sp. and Geminigera sp.) prey cells (i.e. kleptoplastidic ciliate). Recently, novel bacterivory of M. rubra was firstly reported. Thus, the nutritional modes of M. rubra include photosynthesis, bacterivory, and algivory. In turn, M. rubra was reported as the prey species of metazoan predators such as calanoid copepods, mysids, larvae of ctenophore and anchovy, and spats of bivalves. In addition, it was reported that dinoflagellate Dinophysis causing diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is one among the predators of M. rubra. Thus, M. rubra, a marine mixotrophic ciliate, may play a pivotal role as a common linking ciliate for the flow of energy and organic material in pelagic food webs.
Spatio-temporal Variation of Intertidal Microphytobenthos in the Nakdong Estuary
Du, Guoying ; Chung, Ik-Kyo ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 186~190
The species composition and the biomass of intertidal microphytobenthos (MPB) were investigated at four sites in the Nakdong Estuary from Feb. to Dec. 2006. The chlorophyll (chl)
concentration showed a positive correlation with MPB abundance, and depth profiles showed similar patterns: high at the surface, rapidly decreasing within 4 cm from the surface, and slowly decreasing thereafter. A MANOVA analysis revealed that the chl
concentration varied significantly not only with depth, month, and site, but also with combinations of these factors. Among the four investigated sites, site D (Baekhabdeung) showed a seasonal biomass variation trend distinct from those of the other sites: higher in summer, decreased in autumn and with sustained low values until winter. As indicated, the other sites contrastingly showed low biomasses in summer, after which the biomasses continuously increased, with some variation among the sites. A cluster analysis of species composition indicated that sites near to each other and with similar sediment structures had closer similarities in the same seasons. The species of genus Amphora and Navicula were dominant at the four sites throughout the study period.
Change in Fish Species Composition in the Saemangeum Reservoir after the Construction of Dike in 2006-2007
Lee, Tae-Won ; Hwang, Hak-Bin ; Hwang, Sun-Wan ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 191~199
Seasonal variation in species composition of fish in the Saemangeum Reservoir was determined using seasonal samples collected by an otter trawl from April 2006 to February 2007 after the dike construction, and compared with the data obtained during the dike construction in 2001-2002. A total of 35 species, 8,960 individuals and 53,084.4 g of fish were collected during the study. Of the fish collected, brackish and coastal fishes such as Konosirus punctatus, Synechogobius hasta and Repomucenus lunatus, and migrant fishes such as Engraulis japonicus and Scomberomorus niphonius predominated in abundance accounting for 95% in the total number of individuals. Fish species composition and abundance showed a similar seasonal trend to those in the other western coastal waters of Korea. The resident species were mainly collected in spring and in autumn. The number of species and biomass were high in summer by the large amount of catch of migrating species. Catch was low in winter and only 2 species were collected. A brackish and coastal fish, K. punctatus and two migrant fishes, E. japonicus and S. niphonius were abundantly collected after the dike construction. However, the dominant fishes during the dike construction such as Leiognathus nuchalis, Neosalanx jordani and Chaeturichthys stigmatias were rarely collected. Fish density was
during the dike construction, and increased 6 times in the number of individuals (
) and 3 times in biomass (
) after the dike construction. Annual species richness (R) and species diversity (H') decreased from R=0.0160 and H'=2.47 during the dike construction in 2001-2002 to R=0.0038 and H'=1.11 after dike construction in 2006-2006, respectively. These changes seemed to be related to the reduction of the saline area and degradation of water quality in Semangeum Reservoir after the dike construction.
Summer Dynamics of Phytoplankton Taxonomic Composition in a Coastal Estuarine System of Asan Bay
Yi, Hyang-Hwa ; Shin, Yong-Sik ; Yang, Sung-Ryull ; Park, Chul ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 200~210
Phytoplankton community was investigated in Asan Bay, South Korea. Samples were collected at 5 stations along Asan Bay axis during wet season from June to August, 2006. In June and July, salinity decreased especially at inside stations. Nutrients were high in June and July, however, decreased in August. We observed the community of phytoplankton including diatoms(62.8%), dinoflagellates(17.3%), cryptophytes(14.8%), euglenophytes(1.0%), cyanophytes (0.9%), chlorophytes(0.4%), and some of unidentified taxa(2.8%) during summer 2006 in Asan Bay. In June, dinoflagellates (mainly Prorocentrum sp.(29.6%)) were dominated, accounting for about 43.5% of total cell number, whereas in July and August diatoms (mainly Leptocylindrus sp.(21.4%), Chaetoceros sp.(27.6%)) were dominated occupying 69.1% and 89.9%, respectively. The results suggest that freshwater inputs affected phytoplankton community in the Asan Bay ecosystem.
Spatial Distribution of Macrozoobenthos During Spring Season in the Estuarine Sandy Tidal Flat of Masan Bay, Korea
Seo, Jin-Young ; An, Soon-Mo ; Choi, Jin-Woo ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 211~218
In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of macrozoobenthos in the estuarine sandy flat, the Bongam tidal flat located in Masan Bay during March, 2004. A total 13 species were identified at 12 stations within the tidal flat. The mean density was
, and mean biomass was
. Dominant species in the Bongam tidal flat were all polychaetes: Prionospio japonicus (
, 57.8%) and Polydora ligni (
, 19.4%) of spionoid polychaete, and Neanthes succinea (
, 16.9%) of nereid polychaete. The most dominant species, P. japonicus distributed evenly all stations in the tidal flat. But N. succinea showed high density at the upper area of the tidal flat. Species diversity index (H') was in the range of 0.6 to 1.2 which is relatively low due to the prominent of P. japonicus and few species richness at each station. The study area was divided into two station groups (group A and B) based on the cluster analysis and MDS ordination, and the spatial distribution of macrozoobenthos on the Bongam tidal flat seemed to be in the influence of exposure duration from tidal levels and specific geological topography.
Current Structure and Variability in Gwangyang Bay in Spring 2006
Lee, Jae-Chul ; Kim, Jeong-Chang ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 219~224
Two monitoring buoys equipped with ADCP were deployed at the deepest positions along the trough of the central Gwangyang Bay in spring 2006 in order to study the circulation in the bay. Northward velocity is commonly dominant at both stations located in the eastern part of the channel, which supports the cyclonic circulation accompanied by the southward flow in the western part. The southern station has a distinct two-layer structure with current reversal at 14 m depth and increasing northward velocity in the lower layer to 36 m depth close to the bottom. At the northern station the northward flow becomes accelerated due to the decrease in the cross-sectional area and this northward current is dominant even in the upper layer. In the modal structure from the EOF analysis, the first mode has 74% of total variance at the northern station whereas it is 67% but the baroclinic portion increases at the southern station. The typical northward velocity is about 10 cm/s which is associated with the cyclonic circulation. Subtidal variability due to the local wind effect is negligible, but the nonlocal response associated with offshore Ekman flux by the zonal wind is found during strong wind events.
Analysis of Genetic Variation in the Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Gene of Euplotes Ciliates for Developing Species Diagnostic Molecular Marker
Kim, Sun-Young ; Kim, Se-Joo ; Min, Gi-Sik ; Yang, Eun-Jin ; Yoo, Man-Ho ; Choi, Joong-Ki ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 225~233
To verify which loop regions of 18S rRNA gene are suitable as species-specific genetic markers in ciliates, we analyzed the genetic variation of 18S rRNA gene among 9 Euplotes species (Hypotrichia : Ciliophora). In our result, no inter-specific variation was detected from V1, V3 and V5 regions, and the length of V7 and V8 are 44 bp and 79 bp, respectively, which are too short to make genetic marker. In contrast, V2 and V4 may be good candidate segments of species-specific diagnostic molecular markers because these two regions are most variable (
) and showed good inter-specific phylogeny. Furthermore, the sequences of V2 and V4 are 123 bp and 306 bp, respectively in length which are enough to make species-specific marker.
Overview of Tidal Phase-lag References Used in Korea
Byun, Do-Seong ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 234~238
Three different tidal phase-lag references have been used by the tidal research community of Korea: Greek kappa (k), Local standard time zone (
) phase-lag (g) and Greenwich phase-lag (G). This ununified tidal information system may induce confusion in understanding tidal characteristics and their variability and impede the development of tidal knowledge in Korea. In this study we closely explore the three phase-lag reference definition with respect to their mutual conversion. We also identify an incorrect phase-lag reference definition used in previous works and discuss what has led to this misunderstanding.
Implications of Deep Nitrite in the Ulleung Basin
Lee, Tong-Sup ; Kim, Il-Nam ; Kang, Dong-Jin ; Kim, Dong-Seon ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 239~243
Presence of bottom water nitrite in the Ulleung Basin was remarkable because it is totally unexpected phenomenon at such an oxygen-rich environment. Yet no scientific explanation was set forward. Of several plausible explanations, following the Ockham's suggestion, a leaching of nitrite as an intermediate product of denitrification in the top sediment at the slope is most agreeable to given environmental settings. There seems no complementary process to make up the loss of N in the Ulleung Basin, which seems contribute to the characteristically low N:P ratio in the deep waters. If warming proceeds that weakens the thermohaline circulation, a current biological pump may stall and the phytoplankton assemblage might replaced drastically. If so this will pause an utmost challenge to the ecosystem of the East/Japan Sea. Still there remains a contradictory sedimentary signature that requests further explanation regarding the N (or organic C)-cycle such as extraordinarily high organic carbon content despite abundant oxidants in the overlying waters.
Dissolved Methane Measurements in Seawater and Sediment Porewater Using Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometer (MIMS) System
An, Soon-Mo ; Kwon, Ji-Nam ; Lim, Jea-Hyun ; Park, Yun-Jung ; Kang, Dong-Jin ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 3, 2007, Pages 244~250
Membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS) has been used to accurately quantify dissolved gases in liquid samples. In this study, the MIMS system was applied to measure dissolved methane in seawater and sediment porewater. To evaluate the accuracy of the measurement, liquid samples saturated with different methane partial pressure were prepared and the methane concentrations were quantified with the MIMS system. The measured values correspond well with the expected values calculated from solubility constants. The standard error of the measurements were
of the mean values. The distribution of dissolved methane concentration in seawater of the South Sea of Korea revealed that the physical parameters primarily control the methane concentration in sea water. The MIMS system was effective to resolve the small dissolved methane difference among water masses. The probe type inlet in MIMS system was proven to be effective to measure porewater methane concentration.