Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Oceanography
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Nov 2007
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Aug 2007
Volume 12, Issue 2 - May 2007
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
Variations of the Wind-generated Wave Characteristics around the Kyung-gi Bay, Korea
Kang, Ki-Ryong ; Hyun, Yu-Kyung ; Lee, Sang-Ryong ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 4, 2007, Pages 251~261
The wind-wave interaction around the Kyung-gi Bay, Korea, was studied using the observed data from ocean buoy at DeuckJeuck-Do from Jan. to Dec., 2005, and from waverider data at KeuckYeulBee-Do on Mar. 19-26 and May 23-28, 2005. Wind-driven surface waves and wave-driven wind speed decrease were estimated from the ocean buoy data, and the characteristics of wave spectrum response were also investigated from the waverider data for the wave developing and calm stages of sea surface, including the time series of spectrum pattern change, frequency trend of the maximum energy level and spectrum slope for the equilibrium state range. The wind speed difference between before and after considering the wave effect was about
) for the wind speed range
) for the wind speed range
. Correlation coefficient between wind and wave height was increased from 0.71 to 0.75 after the wave effect considered on the observed wind speed. When surface waves were generated by wind, the initial waves were short waves about 4-5 sec in period and become in gradual longer period waves about 9-10 sec. For the developed wave, the frequency of maximum energy was showed a constant value taking 6-7 hours to reach at the state. The spectrum slope for the equilibrium state range varied with an amplitude in the initial stage of wave developing, however it finally became a constant value 4.11. Linear correlation between the frictional velocity and wave spectrum for each frequency showed a trend of higher correlation coefficient at the frequency of the maximum energy level. In average, the correlation coefficients were 0.80 and 0.82 for the frequencies 0.30 Hz and 0.35 Hz, respectively.
Diurnal and Tidal Variation in the Abundance of the Macro- and Megabenthic Assemblages in Jangbong Tidal Flat, Incheon, Korea
Seo, In-Soo ; Hong, Jae-Sang ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 4, 2007, Pages 262~272
Diurnal and tidal variation in the abundance of the macro- and megabenthic assemblages were studied in the macrotidal flat, Incheon, Korea. The samples were collected by modified otter trawl during 8-9, June 2000. The macro- and megabenthic assemblages comprised a total of 60 species, including 6,309 individuals and 67,835.5 gWWt. As a result, the abundance pattern showed two different categories relating to diel and tidal cycles. First, the diel pattern of these assemblages was subdivided into 3 groups. 1) Diurnal species such as Hexagrammos otakii, Thryssa baelama, Loligo beka, Metapenaeus joyneri. 2) Nocturnal species such as Cynoglossus joyneri, Sebastes schlegeli, Charybdis japonica, Crangon affinis, Trachysalambria curvirostris, Metapenaeopsis dalei. 3)Other species showing no obvious pattern with Johnius grypotus, Platycephalus indicus, Repomucenus richardsonii. However, based on the result of Mann-Whitney U-test, diel patterns of macro- and megabenthos did not reveal any significant differences. Second, tidal variation in the macro- and megabenthic assemblages was significant between ebb and flood tides. Total macro- and megafaunal species number, abundance and biomass were higher in ebb tide
than in flood tide
. As a consequence, the macro- and megabenthic assemblages were clearly influenced by tides but their diel variations were not significantly different.
-derived Sedimentation Rates in the Southwestern East Sea
Han, Jeong-Hee ; Choi, Man-Sik ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 4, 2007, Pages 273~279
In order to estimate the sedimentation rates of continental shelf and slope of Ulleung Basin in the Southwestern East Sea,
were simultaneously measured by a well-type high purity germanium(HPGe) gamma detector.
was used to determine whether the sediment were affected by bioturbation or not, and to judge the accuracy of estimated sedimentation rates. The estimated sedimentation rates decreased exponentially from slope to basin - 0.6 cm/yr in the continental shelf,
cm/yr in the slope, and below 0.2 cm/yr in the margin of Ulleung basin. From our and other research results, we suggest followings about sediment transport of the study area. The sediment particles were transported by coastal current from south to north through the Korea Straight. And much of them were accumulated in the shelf area. And then, the rest of sediment particles were deposited in the lower slope and the southwest margin of the basin. Also the excess
profiles indicate that the depositional processes in the study area may have been very complicate.
The Effect of Anticyclonic Eddy on Nutrients and Chlorophyll During Spring and Summer in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea
Kim, Dong-Seon ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Shim, Jeong-Hee ; Yoo, Sin-Jae ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 4, 2007, Pages 280~286
In order to find out the effects of the anticyclonic eddy on the distribution of nutrients and chlorophyll concentrations in the Ulleung Basin during spring and summer, we measured temperature, salinity, nutrients, and chlorophyll from the surface to 200 m water depth at five stations in July 2005 and April 2006. In spring, surface mixed layer was very deep inside the eddy, about 200 m, but it was relatively shallow outside the eddy, about
m. Inside of the eddy, nutrients in the surface waters were sufficient by supply from the deep layer, whereas outside of the eddy, they were fairly depleted due to the stratification in the surface layer. In spring, chlorophyll concentrations were relatively low inside of the eddy due to the deeper surface mixed layer compared with the euphotic depth, and the depth-integrated chlorophyll concentrations outside of the eddy were twice as much as those inside of the eddy. In summer, nutrients in the surface waters were completely depleted at all stations due to the well stratification in the surface layer. The typical distribution pattern of subsurface chlorophyll maximum was observed at all stations, and the depth-integrated chlorophyll concentrations inside of the eddy were almost twice as much as those outside of the eddy. The anticyclonic eddy appearing in the Ulleung Basin every year significantly affects the phytoplankton biomass, with the opposing effects in spring and summer; in spring, the anticyclonic eddy suppresses phytoplankton growth, but in summer, it enhances the phytoplankton biomass.
Characteristics of Benthic Environment and Polychaete Communities of Gamak Bay, Korea
Yoon, Sang-Pil ; Jung, Rae-Hong ; Kim, Youn-Jung ; Kim, Seong-Soo ; Lee, Jae-Seong ; Park, Jong-Soo ; Lee, Won-Chan ; Choi, Woo-Jung ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 4, 2007, Pages 287~304
This study was carried out to investigate spatio-temporal variations of benthic environment and macrobenthic polychaete communities in Gamak Bay where excessive organic matters from untreated sewage effluents and fish and shellfish farming activities have been accumulated in certain regions. Such environmental variables as sediment composition, organic content, acid volatile sulfide and dissolved oxygen content etc. were measured and polychaete specimens were taken in September 1999 and February 2000. In September 1999, organic contents were up to three times higher in the northwestern part of the bay and the area closed to Gukdong harbor than in the rest of the bay. In particular, benthic environment of the northwestern part of the bay was extremely deteriorated by the occurrence of hypoxia and highly concentrated sulfide. Of 28 stations investigated in summer, 5 stations located in the northwestern part were azoic. In the rest of the stations, a total of 119 polychaete species were sampled with a mean density of 900
. While species richness was higher in the entrance and central part of the bay where water exchanges with open sea were relatively active, density was higher in the moderately enriched stations neighbouring Gukdong harbor and fish farms where such potential indicators of organic pollution as Aphelochaeta monilaris, Lumbrineris longifolia were largely dominant. In February 2000, a total of 81 polychaete species appeared with a mean density of 2,802
from 12 stations sampled in winter. Azoic areas were recolonized by Capitella capitata, Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata and Dipolydora socialis which showed maximum density in the innermost station. On the other hand, the rest of the stations were dominated by Euchone alicaudata and Praxillella affinis. The configuration of the stations sampled in summer and winter on the multidimensional scaling plots reflected the position of each stations within the bay in which there were great differences in organic content, sulfide concentration and oxygen content rather than in sediment composition. Therefore, heterogeneities in polychaete community structure in Gamak Bay were primarily influenced by the degree of the disturbance depending on the position within the bay.
The Characteristics on the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Phytoplankton in the Western Jinhae Bay, Korea
Yoo, Man-Ho ; Song, Tae-Yoon ; Kim, Eeu-Soo ; Choi, Joong-Ki ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 4, 2007, Pages 305~314
We studied spatial and temporal distributions of the phytoplankton and their relationships to physico-chemical environmental factors in the western Jinhae Bay, Korea from November 2003 to August 2004. In most cases, physico-chemical environmental factors showed homogeneous distribution. The phytoplankton communities were composed of mainly diatoms and dinoflagellates, and their standing crops ranged from
(with a mean value of
). The bloom of phytoplankton was observed in Gohyun Port in the summer. Seasonal variation of phytoplankton standing crops was higher in winter and summer than in spring and autumn. The dominant species were Skeletonema costatum, Akashiwo sanguinea, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Dactyliosolen sp., Leptocylindrus danicus, cryptomonads and etc. Especially, S. costatum was predominant in the summer and A. sanguinea (spring and autumn), Pseudo-nitzschia sp. (summer), Guinardia striata (spring), unidentified flagellates (summer) and cryptomonads (spring) appeared to be an opportunistic species. Concentrations of Chl a ranged from
(with a mean value of
). The results of the canonical correspondence analysis implies the study area was grouped into the 2 water masses (inner and outer waters of Gohyun Port) and inner waters had higher abundance and Chl a concentration than outer waters. Also, phytoplankton sanding crops were related with temperature, DO and nutrients (
, TN, TP and etc.) in inner waters. Inner water-mass of Gohyun Port expanded between Gacho Is. and Chilchon Is. during the winter.
Sources Identification of Anthropogenic Pb in Ulleung Basin Sediments using Stable Pb Isotope Ratios, East/Japan Sea
Choi, Man-Sik ; Uoo, Jun-Sik ; Kim, Dong-Seon ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 4, 2007, Pages 315~327
This study investigated temporal and spatial variation of Pb and stable Pb isotopes accumulated in Ulleung Basin core sediments (4) using MC ICP/MS in order to identify the sources of anthropogenic Pb in the East/Japan Sea. Leached (1M HCl) Pb concentration and isotope ratios (
) were nearly constant during 300 yrs past than 1930, but increased up to twice in concentration and as much as 3.41% (1.70%) after 2000. On the other hand, residual Pb concentrations were nearly constant for past 400 yrs. The accumulation rates of anthropogenic Pb in the basin area were in the range of
, which were similar levels to total atmospheric Pb deposition fluxes from 1990s to the present. In the slope area, more increase of anthropogenic Pb accumulation than the levels expected from mass accumulation rate could be found after the middle of 1990s. From the detailed evaluation for the temporal and spatial variation of accumulation rate and isotope ratios of anthropogenic Pb, we proposed probable sources and pathways of anthropogenic Pb. Pb emmision by coal burning from the China and Korea initiated the accumulation of anthropogenic Pb in the sediments of East/Japan Sea from 1930s. The accumulation of Pb increased by the addition of anti-nocking agents from both countries untill the beginning of 1990s, but from the middle of 1990s to the present, the phase-out of gasoline additives and the rapid increase of coal burning from the China maintained the atmospheric Pb levels in the Ulleung basin nearly similar to before. However, the local sources within this basin might take an important role in the rapid increase of anthropogenic Pb accumulation in slope areas from the middle of 1990s.
Sedimentary Characters of the Core Sediments and Their Stratigraphy Using
Ratio in the Korea Plateau, East Sea
Kim, Jin-Kyoung ; Woo, Kyung-Sik ; Yoon, Seok-Hoon ; Suk, Bong-Chool ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 4, 2007, Pages 328~336
A piston core (587 cm long) was recovered from the upper slope of a seamount in the Korea Plateau. Three episodes of sedimentation were identified based on sedimentary facies, grain size distribution, carbonate constituents and initial
ratio of carbonates. The lower part of the core, Unit I-a (core depth
) is composed of shallow marine carbonate sediments the deposited by storm surges, and is about
(Middle Miocene) based on
initial ratio. This suggests that the depositional environment was relatively shallow enough to be influenced by storm activities. Unit I-b (core depth
) is mostly composed of turbidites, and Sr isotope ages of bivalves and planktonic formaminifera are about
, respectively. This indicates that the Korea Plateau maintained shallow water condition until 11 Ma, and began to subside since then. However, planktonic foraminifera were deposited after 11 Ma and redeposited as turbidites as a mixture of planktonic foraminifera and older shallow marine carbonates about 6 Ma ago. Unit II (core depth
) is composed of pelagic sediments, and the Sr isotope age is younger than 1 Ma, thus the time gap is about 5 Ma at the unconformity. About 1 Ma ago, the Korea Plateau subsided down to a water depth of about 600 m. The sampling locality was intermittently influenced by debris flows and/or turbidity currents along the slope, resulting the deposition of re-transported coarse shallow marine and volcaniclastic sediments.
Changes in Mesozooplankton Community Around the Rainy Season in Asan Bay, Korea
Lee, Doo-Byoul ; Park, Chul ; Yang, Sung-Ryull ; Shin, Yong-Sik ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 4, 2007, Pages 337~348
Characteristics in distributions of T, S, nutrients, chlorophyll
concentrations and meso-zooplankton abundances and the relations among these parameters were investigated with the data collected in Asan Bay around the rainy season from May 24 till August 25, 2006 at about 10 days interval. Freshwater input during the rainy season clearly affected the distributions of zooplankton and phytoplankton (chlorophyll
). Freshwater discharge resulted in high nutrients decreased zooplankton abundances. On the contrary, chlorophyll
concentrations increased at the end of the rainy season. It seemed that the increase of chlorophyll
concentrations was the result of the decreased zooplankton and enriched nutrients caused by freshwater discharges. Seawater temperatures were certainly the reason for the zooplankton succession. However, overall abundance of zooplankton and abundances of some zooplankton such as Noctiluca scintillans, Acartia pacifica, and Sagitta crassa seemed to be influenced by lowered salinity caused by heavy rain rather than seawater temperatures.
Biogeochemical Organic Carbon Cycles in the Intertidal Sandy Sediment of Nakdong Estuary
Lee, Jae-Seong ; Park, Mi-Ok ; An, Soon-Mo ; Kim, Seong-Gil ; Kim, Seong-Soo ; Jung, Rae-Hong ; Park, Jong-Soo ; Jin, Hyun-Gook ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 4, 2007, Pages 349~358
In order to understand biogeochemical cycles of organic carbon in the permeable intertidal sandy sediments of the Nakdong estuary, we estimated the organic carbon production and consumption rates both in situ and in the laboratory. The Chl-a content of the sediment and the nutrient concentrations in below surface pore water in the sandy sediment were lower than in the muddy sediment. The sediment oxygen consumption rates were relatively high, especially when compared with rates reported from other coastal muddy sediments with higher organic carbon contents. This implied that both the organic carbon degradation and material transport in the sandy sediment were enhanced by advection-related process. The simple mass balance estimation of organic carbon fluxes showed that the major sources of carbon in the sediment would originate from benthic microalgae and detrital organic carbon derived from salt marsh. The daily natural biocatalzed filtration, extrapolated from filtration rates and the total area of the Nakdong estuary, was one order higher than the maximum capability of sewage plants in Busan metropolitan city. This implies that the sandy sediment contributes greatly to biogeochemical purification in the area, and is important for the re-distribution of materials in the coastal environment.
Endoparasitic Dinoflagellates, Amoebophrya spp. and their Host Dinoflagellates in Jinhae Bay, Korea
Park, Jong-Gyu ; Hur, Hyun-Jung ; Coats, D. Wayne ; Yih, Won-Ho ; Ha, Na ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 4, 2007, Pages 359~369
Amoebophrya is an obligate endoparasitic eukaryotic dinoflagellate infecting host species and eventually killing them within a short period. Because of its host specificity and significant impacts on population dynamics of host species, it has long been proposed to be a potential biological agent for controlling harmful algal bloom (HAB). For several decades, the difficulties of culturing host - parasite systems have been a great obstacle to further research on the biology of Amoebophrya but recent success of several culture systems reactivates this research field. In this study, as a preliminary work for understanding the impacts of Amoebophrya on the population dynamics of host species, semimonthly occurrence of infected host dinoflagellates by Amoebophrya spp. had been observed in Jinhae Bay for two years and with a host - parasite system cultivated, host specificity of Amoebophrya spp. on several dinoflagellates was tested. Amoebophrya spp. were observed in the cellular organelle and cytoplasm of several species including Akashiwo sanguinea, Ceratium fusus, Dinophysis acuminata, Heterocapsa triquetra, Oblea sp., Prorocentrum minimum, P. triestinum, Scrippsiella spinifera, and S. trochoidea. Among them two host - parasite systems for an athecate dinoflagellate, A. sanguinea, and for a thecate dinoflagellate, H. triquetra, had been able to be successfully established as laboratary cultures. Cross-infection tests for 6 species of dinoflagellates in which Amoebophrya was observed or had been reported to exist confirmed high preference for host species of the parasite. Through the continuous research on Amoebophrya occurring in Korean coastal waters, we need to maintain various host - parasite culture systems, which will be very helpful for understanding its ecological role in marine food webs and for applying the species to biologically control harmful algal blooms.
Distribution and Community Structure of Phytoplankton in the Southeast Coastal Waters During Summer 2006
Lim, Weol-Ae ; Lee, Young-Sik ; Lee, Sam-Geun ; Lee, Jae-Young ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 4, 2007, Pages 370~379
Short-term variations of phytoplankton community structure in the southeast coastal waters of Korea from July to September in 2006 were investigated with data set of phytoplankton, chemical and physical water properties, and meterological data. A total of 11 sampling sites of 4 different depths (surface, 5 m, 10 m, and bottom) were visited on July 11-14, July 24-26, August 7-10, August 21-24 and September 5-8. We identified 151 species in 63 genera of phytoplankton in which diatoms were the most diverse group composed of 92 species in 37 genera. Dinoflagellates were the second diverse group of 52 species in 22 genera. The other groups include 7 species in 4 genera including Raphidophytes, and Euglenophyta. After rainy season, excessive nutrients from adjacent streams to the stratified water column proliferates Chaetoceros group in July. But biomass of phytoplankton and nutrient concentrations were decreased during the period of a drought in August. However, Chaetoceros was the most dominant genera in all depths of the first, second, third and fifth cruises, except the 4th cruise on August 21-24 when dominant group were dinoflagellates including Gymnodinium spp. and Cochlodinium polykrikoides. The characteristic of phytoplankton community and environment condition during summer 2006 can be summarized as: 1) low concentration of nutrients caused by a long lasting drought in August 2) no summer outbreak of C. polykrikoides because the strength of offshore waters was weak than other years, and 3) Chaetoceros spp. was the dominant species despite short period appearance of dinoflagellates.
Isotopic Determination of Food Sources of Benthic Invertebrates in Two Different Macroalgal Habitats in the Korean Coasts
Kang, Chang-Keun ; Choy, Eun-Jung ; Song, Haeng-Seop ; Park, Hyun-Je ; Soe, In-Soo ; Jo, Q-Tae ; Lee, Kun-Seop ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 4, 2007, Pages 380~389
Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were analyzed in suspended particulate organic matter, macroalgae and macrobenthic invertebrates in order to determine the importance of primary organic matter sources in supporting food webs of rocky subtidal and intertidal macroalgal beds in the Korean coasts. Investigations were conducted at the inter tidal sites within Gwangyang bay, a semi-enclosed and eutrophicated bay, and the subtidal sites of the east coast, a relatively oligotrophic and open environment, in May and June 2005. Water-column suspension feeders showed more negative
values than those of the other feeding guilds, indicating trophic linkage with phytoplankton and thereby association with pelagic food chains. In contrast, animals of the other feeding guilds, including interface suspension feeders, herbivores, deposit feeders, omnivores and predators, displayed relatively less negative
values than those of the water-column suspension feeders and similar with that of macroalgae, indicating exclusive use of macroalgae-derived organic matter and association with benthic food chains. Most the macrobenthic species were considered to form strong trophic links with benthic food chains. In addition, the distribution of higher
values in macrobenthic consumers and macroalgae at the intertidal sites of Gwangyang Bay than those at the subtidal sites of the east coast suggests that anthropogenic nutrients may enhance the macroalgal production at the intertidal sites and in turn be incorporated into the particular littoral food web in Gwangyag Bay. These results confirm the dominant role of macroalgae in supporting rocky subtidal and intertidal food webs in the Korean coasts.
Mixing of Sea Waters in the Northern Part of the East China Sea in Summer
Jang, Sung-Tae ; Lee, Jae-Hak ; Hong, Chang-Su ;
The Sea, volume 12, issue 4, 2007, Pages 390~399
In order to investigate the mixing of sea waters on the continental shelf in the northern East China Sea, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute conducted hydrographic surveys including turbulence measurements using the R/V Eardo in August 2005 and August 2006. The turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates based on velocity shear measurements are estimated to be
W/kg in the surface layer, bottom layer, and lower thermocline, respectively. The data sets suggest that surface layer water is being constantly mixed by winds. High dissipation rate in the lower thermocline seems to be caused by internal waves. The bottom layer with high dissipation rate also shows high turbidity, indicating the effect of tidal stirring turbulence. The vertical eddy diffusivities are
near the bottom, and these high values appear to arise from both the low stability and high turbulent mixing.