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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Oceanography
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Nov 2013
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Aug 2013
Volume 18, Issue 2 - May 2013
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
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Time-series Variation of Sea Surface Salinity in the Southwestern East Sea
Jeong, Hee-Dong ; Kim, Sang-Woo ; Lim, Jin-Wook ; Choi, Yong-Kyu ; Park, Jong-Hwa ;
The Sea, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 163~177
DOI : 10.7850/jkso.2013.18.4.163
An instrumented ferry made two transects per day across two current systems which are the North Korean Cold Current and the East Korean Warm Current over the years 2012-2013 from Gangneung to Ulleungdo in the southwestern East Sea. Seawater properties of these transects were measured with high spatial and temporal resolution for an extended period of time. Here the salinity records from the transects with the oceanographic observation data from East Sea Fisheries Institute of NFRDI, AVISO daily current chart and GOCI Chlorophyll-a image in 2012 and 2013 are used to study the time-series variation of salinity at the surface. The high salinity section with the range of 33.15~34.12 occurred on the transect mainly in the middle of eddy, and western boundary of strong northward current from June to October. We can found low salinity waters in both sides of the high salinity section. It is estimated that the western low salinity waters with the range of 30.58~33.20 accompanied by southward current were derived from the NKCC and the eastern waters with the range of 31.30~33.24 accompanied by northward current were derived from the Tsushima Surface Water. The lowest salinity of NKCC is confirmed in this study as 30.36. It is found that the western waters below 33.00 extended extremely toward the east about 110 km area from Gangneung and toward the south around Jukbyon coastal area as a 5~10 m layer. We can find its volume of low saline waters transport is not neglectable compared with that of Tsushima Current region in the western part of the East Sea. In this study we named it as the North Korean Low Saline Surface Water in summer.
Exploration of Submarine Spring Along the Coastal Areas of Busan Metropolitan City
Lee, Yong-Woo ; Khim, Boo-Keun ; Kim, Sunghan ;
The Sea, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 178~185
DOI : 10.7850/jkso.2013.18.4.178
We measured salinity and
concentration to explore submarine spring along the coastal areas (Mundongri, Icheon-ri, Jukseong-ri, Daebyeon-ri, Yeonhwa-ri, and Dadae-po) including Ilkwang Bay of Busan Metropolitan City in 2009 and 2010. Before field observation, we selected the potential and possible locations of submarine spring based on the lineament distribution and rose diagram analysis. Salinity and radon concentration were measured within the 1~2 km from the coastal lines. Radon activity decreased gradually from onshore to offshore. Vertical profiles of salinity at some stations showed lateral transport of water mass characterized by low salinity. Vertical profiles of salinity in the Ilkwang Bay, which is a unique bay in the south-eastern coastal area of Busan Metropolitan City, also showed the occurrence of low salinity in the bottom seawater. Our results suggest the possible occurrence of submarine discharge of fresh groundwater in the coastal areas around Busan Metropolitan City. In the future, intensive research should be conducted for the exploration methods of submarine spring as well for the possible utility of submarine groundwater as alternative water resources.
Concentrations and Distribution Patterns of PCDDs, PCDFs, DL-PCBs, PBDEs in Sediments from Ulsan Bay
Baek, Seung-Hong ; Lee, In-Seok ; Choi, Minkyu ; Lee, Boo-Han ; Hwang, Dong-Woon ; Kim, Sook-Yang ; Choi, Hee-Gu ;
The Sea, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 186~194
DOI : 10.7850/jkso.2013.18.4.186
We investigated the concentrations and distribution patterns of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans(PCDD/Fs), 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls(DL-PCBs) and 24 polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs) in sediments from Ulsan Bay in Korea. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs, and PBDEs in 33 sediment samples ranged from 0.11 to 4.86(
dry weight(dw), 0.06 to 44.2(
dw, and 2.81 to 63.8(
dw, respectively. DL-PCBs had dominant contributions(mean, 88%) of total TEQ concentrations in sediment. The concentrations of target compounds in inner locations were higher than those in outer locations in Ulsan Bay (p<0.05). The dominant contribution of highly chlorinated DD/Fs in sediment was associated with combustion process from industrial complexes. Distribution pattern of DL-PCBs was similar with those of commercial PCB products. BDE209 was a dominant congener in sediment, suggesting high use amount of commercial deca-BDE product in surrounding areas.
Effect of an Offshore Fish Culture System on the Benthic Polychaete Community
Jung, Rae-Hong ; Yoon, Sang-Pil ; Kim, Youn-Jung ; Lee, Won-Chan ; Hong, Sok Jin ; Park, Sung-Eun ; Oh, Hyung Taik ;
The Sea, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 195~205
DOI : 10.7850/jkso.2013.18.4.195
Excessive input of organic matters from fish cage farming has been considered as one of the major factors disturbing benthic ecosystem, especially in semi-enclosed coastal waters. Recently offshore aquaculture in the vicinity of Jeju-do has been introduced to minimize that kind of negative impact. This study was conducted to investigate the ecological impacts of offshore aquaculture on the macrobenthic polychaete communities. A total of ten sampling works were carried out for 28 months, spanning from 10 days after starting giving feed to 3 months after stopping giving feed. During the study period, mean current velocity was quite strong with the range of 50 cm/s to 70 cm/s. TOC of surface sediment was constantly low. Significant changes in polychaete community were detected just three months after starting giving feed, which were the increase of the number of species and density at all stations. Up to 18 months after the start of farming, the amount of feed provided played an important role in the fluctuation of the number of species and density, especially at 0 m and 10 m stations. After reducing the amount of feed provided, dominance of some opportunistic species within 10 m distance from fish cages still lasted to the end of aquaculture. However, opportunistic species disappeared 3 months after the end of farming, which indicated the sign of recovery from the disturbance. From these results, the amount of food input and the period of cultivation were critical factors disturbing polychaete community and ensuing changes in this offshore and oligotrophic waters as well. In addition, study on the changes of polychaete community structure before and after fish farming showed more detailed changes in benthic ecological state than geochemical approach did.
Food Habits of the Glass eel Anguilla japonica in the West Coast Estuaries of Korean Peninsula Determined by Using C and N Stable Isotopes
Kim, Jeong Bae ; Lee, Won-Chan ; Kim, Dae-Jung ; Seong, Ki Baik ; Choi, Hee-Gu ; Choi, Woo-Jeung ; Hwang, Hak Bin ; Hong, Sokjin ; Kim, Hyung Chul ; Park, Sung-Eun ; Shim, Jeong Hee ; Kang, Chang-Keun ;
The Sea, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 206~213
DOI : 10.7850/jkso.2013.18.4.206
Glass eels (Anguilla japonica) are caught in the west coast of Korea on their migratory route from the breeding grounds in the Mariana Trench along the North Equatorial Current and the Kuroshio Current. To identify the food source of natural glass eels, we analyzed the stable C and N isotopes of glass eels caught in April 2012 and investigated possible food sources in the survey area. In particular, with respect to the stable C and N isotopes of particulate organic matter, we extended the surveying area to the northern parts of East China Sea as well as the west coast of Korea. The stable C and N isotope ratios of the glass eels caught in the west coast were found to be
‰, respectively. The stable C and N isotope ratios of the particulate organic matter in the west coast of Korea, in which the glass eels are assumed to eat the particulate organic matter as food source, were estimated to be
‰, respectively. Similar data were obtained from the northern part of the East China Sea,
‰. The stable isotope ratios showed values differing from the stepwise increasing rates up the food web in natural aquatic ecosystem, showing that particulate organic matter in the west coast of Korea and East China Sea was not served as the glass eels food source. This result suggested that the glass eels caught in the west coast might not assimilate nutrition from the marine environment during long migration.
Temporal and Spatial Variability of Phytoplankton Communities in the Nakdong River Estuary and Coastal Area, 2011-2012
Chung, Mi Hee ; Youn, Seok-Hyun ;
The Sea, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 214~226
DOI : 10.7850/jkso.2013.18.4.214
To understand the changing patterns in phytoplankton communities, we conducted 12 surveys along the Nakdong River, its estuary, and adjacent coastal areas between January 2011 and October 2012 (during the period of barrage construction and sediment dredging). Monthly precipitation ranged from 0 to 502 mm during the survey period, and salinity ranged between 0.1 psu and 0.3 psu in the Nakdong River, regardless of the depth, indicating no seawater influence, while salinity showed large seasonal fluctuations in the estuarine and coastal station, ranging from 0.1 psu to 34.8 psu. A total of 402 phytoplankton species were identified, 178 species from the river and 331 species from the estuary and coastal areas. Phytoplankton standing crop increased in 2012 compared to that in 2011, and was found to be highest in the river, followed by the estuary and coastal areas. Among the top 20 species in frequency of occurrence and dominance, Stephanodiscus spp., Aulacoseira granulata, and Aulacoseira granulata var. angustissima and Pseudo-nitzschia spp. were important species along the river-estuary-coastal areas. Diatoms were the major taxonomic group inhabiting the Nakdong river-estuary-coastal areas. A comparison of seasonal dominant phytoplankton species revealed a slight decrease over the years, from 13 species in 2011 to 10 species in 2012. However, no significant difference was found in the diversity of phytoplankton species between the two survey years, although lightly greater diversity was observed in the coastal areas than in the river and estuary. Cluster analysis with community composition data revealed that the community structure varied significantly in 2011 depending on the time of survey, while in 2012, it hardly showed any variation and was simpler. An increase in the phytoplankton standing crop, fewer dominant species, and simpler community structure in 2012 compared to those in 2011 are probably due to the rapid environmental changes along the Nakdong River. To investigate these ecological relationships, it is necessary to conduct further studies focusing on integrated analyses of biocenosis, including phytoplankton with respect to the changes in nutrient distribution, variation of freshwater discharge, and effect area of freshwater in the Nakdong estuary and adjacent coastal areas.
Species Composition of Fishes in Eelgrass Bed of Minyang in Tongyeong, Korea
Kim, Jun-Sop ; Choi, Jung-Yoon ; Lee, Yu-Jin ; Gwak, Woo-Seok ;
The Sea, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 227~233
DOI : 10.7850/jkso.2013.18.4.227
A total of 25 species, 3,880 individuals and 3,145.1 g of fishes were collected by a surf net from the eelgrass bed in Minyang. Most fishes collected in the eelgrass bed belong mainly to small fish species or juveniles. The dominant fish species were Gymnogobius heptacanthus, Rudarius ercodes, Pholis nebulosa, Chaenogobius gulosus, and Gymnogobius castaneus which accounted for 89.1% of total number of individuals collected. The number of individuals and biomass were higher from June to September when the water temperature was high. However, both the number of individuals and species showed the lowest from January and February. Highest species diversity index (H`) was observed in April, 2012.
An Oceanic Current Map of the East Sea for Science Textbooks Based on Scientific Knowledge Acquired from Oceanic Measurements
Park, Kyung-Ae ; Park, Ji-Eun ; Choi, Byoung-Ju ; Byun, Do-Seong ; Lee, Eun-Il ;
The Sea, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 234~265
DOI : 10.7850/jkso.2013.18.4.234
Oceanic current maps in the secondary school science and earth science textbooks have played an important role in piquing students`s inquisitiveness and interests in the ocean. Such maps can provide students with important opportunities to learn about oceanic currents relevant to abrupt climate change and global energy balance issues. Nevertheless, serious and diverse errors in these secondary school oceanic current maps have been discovered upon comparison with up-to-date scientific knowledge concerning oceanic currents. This study presents the fundamental methods and strategies for constructing such maps error-free, through the unification of the diverse current maps currently in the textbooks. In order to do so, we analyzed the maps found in 27 different textbooks and compared them with other up-to-date maps found in scientific journals, and developed a mapping technique for extracting digitalized quantitative information on warm and cold currents in the East Sea. We devised analysis items for the current visualization in relation to the branching features of the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) in the Korea Strait. These analysis items include: its nearshore and offshore branches, the northern limit and distance from the coast of the East Korea Warm Current, outflow features of the TWC near the Tsugaru and Soya Straits and their returning currents, and flow patterns of the Liman Cold Current and the North Korea Cold Current. The first draft of the current map was constructed based upon the scientific knowledge and input of oceanographers based on oceanic in-situ measurements, and was corrected with the help of a questionnaire survey to the members of an oceanographic society. In addition, diverse comments have been collected from a special session of the 2013 spring meeting of the Korean Oceanographic Society to assist in the construction of an accurate current map of the East Sea which has been corrected repeatedly through in-depth discussions with oceanographers. Finally, we have obtained constructive comments and evaluations of the interim version of the current map from several well-known ocean current experts and incorporated their input to complete the map`s final version. To avoid errors in the production of oceanic current maps in future textbooks, we provide the geolocation information (latitude and longitude) of the currents by digitalizing the map. This study is expected to be the first step towards the completion of an oceanographic current map suitable for secondary school textbooks, and to encourage oceanographers to take more interest in oceanic education.
The Impact of the Oceanic Biological Pump on Atmospheric CO
and Its Link to Climate Change
Kwon, Eun Young ; Cho, Yang-Ki ;
The Sea, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 266~276
DOI : 10.7850/jkso.2013.18.4.266
The ocean is the largest reservoir of carbon in the climate system. Atmospheric
is efficiently transferred to the deep ocean by a process called the biological carbon pump: photosynthetic fixation of
at the sea surface and remineralization of sinking organic carbon at depths are main causes for the vertical contrast of carbon in the ocean. The sequestered carbon to the deep ocean returns to the sea surface by ocean circulation. Part of the upwelled
leaks into the atmosphere through air-sea gas exchange. It has been suggested that the air-sea partitioning of carbon has varied in concert with the glacial-interglacial climate variations, due partly to changes in ocean circulation. In this review paper, we briefly summarize key concepts of the oceanic carbon pump. We also discuss the response of the air-sea carbon partitioning to change in ocean circulation in the context of the glacial-interglacial climate change.