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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Oceanography
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Nov 2014
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Aug 2014
Volume 19, Issue 2 - May 2014
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Calculation of Surface Heat Flux in the Southeastern Yellow Sea Using Ocean Buoy Data
Kim, Sun-Bok ; Chang, Kyung-Il ;
The Sea, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 169~179
DOI : 10.7850/jkso.2014.19.3.169
Monthly mean surface heat fluxes in the southeastern Yellow Sea are calculated using directly observed airsea variables from an ocean buoy station including short- and longwave radiations, and COARE 3.0 bulk flux algorithm. The calculated monthly mean heat fluxes are then compared with previous estimates of climatological monthly mean surface heat fluxes near the buoy location. Sea surface receives heat through net shortwave radiation (
) and loses heat as net longwave radiation (
), sensible heat flux (
), and latent heat flux (
is the largest contribution to the total heat loss of about 51 %, and
account for 34% and 15% of the total heat loss, respectively. Net heat flux (
) shows maximum in May (
shows its annual maximum, and minimum in December (
) when the heat loss terms show their annual minimum values. Annual mean
is estimated to be
, which is negligibly small considering instrument errors (maximum of
). In the previous estimates, summertime incoming radiations (
) are underestimated by about
, and wintertime heat losses due to
are overestimated by about
, respectively. Consequently, as compared to
from the present study, the amount of net heat gain during the period of net oceanic heat gain between April and August is underestimated, while the ocean's net heat loss in winter is overestimated in other studies. The difference in
is as large as
in December and January. Analysis of long-term reanalysis product (MERRA) indicates that the difference in the monthly mean heat fluxes between the present and previous studies is not due to the temporal variability of fluxes but due to inaccurate data used for the calculation of the heat fluxes. This study suggests that caution should be exercised in using the climatological monthly mean surface heat fluxes documented previously for various research and numerical modeling purposes.
Estimation of the Freshwater Advection Speed by Improvement of ADCP Post-Processing Method Near the Surface at the Yeongsan Estuary
Shin, Hyun-Jung ; Kang, Kiryong ; Lee, Guan-Hong ;
The Sea, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 180~190
DOI : 10.7850/jkso.2014.19.3.180
It has been customary to exclude top 10-20% of velocity profiles in the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurement due to side lobe effects at the boundary. To better understand the mixing in the Yeongsan estuary, the freshwater advection speed (FAS) was recovered from highly contaminated ADCP data near the surface. The velocity profiles were measured by using ADCP at two stations in the Yeongsan estuary during August 2011: one was located in front of the Yeongsan estuarine dam and the other was deployed near Goha Island. The FAS was recovered from the ADCP data set by applying rigorous post-processing methods and compared with the sediment advection speed (SAS). The SAS was determined by the peak time difference of suspended sediment concentration between two stations in the channel, divided by the distance of two stations. The FAS and the SAS showed very similar value when the freshwater discharge was greater than
ton and the SAS was a bit greater when the freshwater discharge was smaller. Since the FAS was on average about 0.8 m/s greater than the velocity at 0.8 of water depth from the bottom, the net discharge, estimated with recovered FAS and integrated over water depth and tidal cycle, was directed seaward during the high discharge contrary to the onshore direction of the net discharge estimated with 0.8 of water depth from the bottom. Moreover, the velocity shear and Richardson number changed when the FAS was used. Thus, the importance of the true FAS is appreciated in the investigation of the surface layer stability. If currents, temperature and salinity were observed for longer time in the future, it could be possible to more accurately understand the formation and decay of stratification as well as the suspended sediment transport processes.
Marine Algal Flora and Community Structure in Subtidal Zone of Wangdol-Cho on the East Coast of Korea
Kwon, Chun Jung ; Choi, Chang Geun ;
The Sea, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 191~201
DOI : 10.7850/jkso.2014.19.3.191
Marine algal flora and community structure were investigated seasonally at three sites in subtidal zone of Wangdol-cho on the east coast of Korea from May 2012 to August 2013. A total of 122 species were collected and identified, including 12 green algae, 29 brown algae, and 81 red algae. Of these, 38 species were found throughout the survey period. Average seaweed biomass was 472.19-1,198.77 g wet wt.
in spring, 68.99-631.14 g wet wt.
in summer, 200.91-401.20 g wet wt.
in autumn, and 53.61-922.32 g wet wt.
in winter. The vertical distribution based on biomass were Grateloupia lanceolata, Acrosorium venulosum, Lomentaria catenata - Undaria pinnatifida, Dictyopteris pacifica, Sargassum horneri, Ecklonia cava - Desmarestia viridis, E. cava, S. horneri from upper to lower subtidal zone. The flora was classified into six functional groups: filamentous form (34.43%), coarsely branched form (25.41%), sheet form (24.59%), thick leather form (9.71%), crustose form (5.74%) and jointed calcareous form (0.82%). The C/P, R/P and (R+C)/P values reflecting the flora characteristics were 0.41, 2.79 and 3.21, respectively. Also, diversity index (H') and dominance index (DI) indicate that the algal community and environmental condition of Wangdol-cho is stable. We recommend that Wangdol-cho subtidal zone should be more protected from human activities such as turbulence and eutrophication in order to maintain species diversity and abundance of algae.
Status and Prospect of Unmanned, Global Ocean Observations Network
Nam, Sunghyun ; Kim, Yun-Bae ; Park, Jong Jin ; Chang, Kyung-Il ;
The Sea, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 202~214
DOI : 10.7850/jkso.2014.19.3.202
We introduce status and prospect of increasingly utilizing, unmanned, global ocean observing systems, and the global network to integrate, coordinate, and manage the systems. Platforms of the ocean observing system are diversified in order to resolve/monitor the variability occurring at multiple scales in both three-dimensional space and time. Here purpose, development history, and current status of the systems in two kinds - mobile (surface drifter, subsurface float, underwater glider) and fixed platforms (surface and subsurface moorings, bottom mounts), are examined and the increased future uses to produce synergies are envisioned. Simultaneous use of various mobile and fixed platforms is suggested to more effectively design the observing system, with an example of the NSF-funded OOI (Ocean Observations Initiative) program. Efforts are suggested 1) to fill the data gap existing in the deep sea and the Southern Ocean, and toward 2) new global network for oceanic boundary currents, 3) new technologies for existing and new sensors including biogeochemical, acoustic, and optical sensors, 3) data standardization, and 4) sensor calibration and data quality control.
Distribution of the Common Squid Todarodes pacificus Paralavae in the Southern Coastal Waters in the East Sea in August and September 2013
Kim, Yoon-Ha ; Moon, Chang-Ho ; Lee, Chung Il ;
The Sea, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 215~222
DOI : 10.7850/jkso.2014.19.3.215
Paralarvae of the common squid, Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup were sampled with the bongo net (diameter: 60 cm, mesh:
) by using oblique tow method with the oceanographic research vessel (Tamgu 12) at 21 stations along the southwestern coastal waters of the East Sea in August and September, 2013. Paralarvae were collected 16 ind./
in August and 7 ind./
in September at approximately, and bottom depth was from 70 m to 500 m. Mantle length of paralarvae was from 1.7 to 6.0 mm. Paralavae were distributed mainly in offshore stations in August and near by Cape Janggi in September. Optimum embryo survival temperature (
) was formed shallower than 35 m depth for almost stations where paralarvae were existed, and survival temperature (
) for embryo stage was located shallower than 75 m.