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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Oceanography
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Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Oct 1997
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Mar 1997
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Ecological Studies on the Man -made Lake Shihwa and Adjacent Coastal Area: Introduction
Huh, Sung-Hoi ; Oh, Im-Sang ;
The Sea, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 49~52
The man-made lake, Shihwa, was constructed in January, 1994 as a part of the 'development project of the Shihwa area'. The lake area was a typical coastal ocean environment before the construction, but after constructing the dikes to block the sea water inflow, the lake is in the process of becoming a freshwater lake, and faces various ecological changes. Due to the polluted water inflow from the neighboring industrial complex and Ansan city, many negative effects appear. In this group study we conducted integrated ecosystem investigations of the lake Shihwa and the adjacent coastal area in order to find out how the ecosystem is controlled by artificial changes of the lake environment. The results are compiled in the following several articles of this issue: Park et ai. (1997), Han et al. (1997). Choi et ai. (1997), Park and Huh (1997), Ryu et at. (1997), Lee et al. (1997).
Biogeochemical Study of Dissolved Organic and Inorganic Compounds under Oxic/Anoxic Environment in Lake Shihwa
Park, Yong-Chul ; Park, Jun-Kun ; Han, Myong-Woo ; Son, Seung-Kyu ; Kim, Moon-Koo ; Huh, Seong-Hoi ;
The Sea, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 53~68
Lake Shihwa, artificially constructed since 1988, shows a typical two-layered system depending on strong haline density stratification. Sill of the water gate at 6 m depth greatly restricts physical mixing with outer seawater and circulation in the lake, and contributes to the enhancement of anoxic environment in the deeper layer. With this enclosed physical environment, Lake Shihwa receives enormous amounts of organics, ammonia, and other pollutants from the neighboring municipal and industrial complexes through six major streams, thus developing biogeochemical differentiation of anoxic to suboxic environment in the high saline bottom water and highly eutrophicated brackish surface water. This study investigated vertical structures, biogeochemical behaviors and processes of various organic and inorganic compounds around oxic-anoxic interface. Nitrite and nitrate rapidly decreased below the pycnocline where about
tons of hypoxic bottom water exist. In this bottom layer, ammonium ranged from 75 to 360
mainly resulting from deamination of dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonification of precipitated organic particles. Despite large amounts of surface water discharge and dilution by outer seawater inflow about
tons from April to August, 1996, bottom layer did not show any improvement of water quality and maintained highly reduced environment. The main reason seems to be imbalance between ineffectiveness of dilution due to shallow depth and large surface area, overloaded POC influx from the eutrophicated surface biological activity, and poor replenishment of oxygen in this artificial lake system. Therefore, as long as current salinity dependent two-layered system maintains with its physical limitations, any improvement of water quality cannot be foreseen in Lake Shihwa.
Benthic Fluxes of Ammonia and Lead in Lake Shihwa
Han, Myong-Woo ; Park, Yong-Chul ; Huh, Sung-Hoi ;
The Sea, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 69~77
A 12-cm long sediment core was collected from a station in Lake Shihwa where high salinity-anoxic deep water is isolated from low salinity-oxic surface water by a strong halocline barrier. Unprecedented concentrations of porewater ammonia and lead are encountered: at 9 cm sediment depth ammonia builds up to 1420
and at 3 cm lead to 1348 nM. As they are stable in anoxic condition, high concentrations of ammonia and lead suggest a development of notorious anoxic condition in the benthic environment of the lake. The degree of pollution of the deep water is likely to be directly proportional to the magnitude of benthic flux, because the deep water is isolated from the surface water by the halocline. Apparent coincidence of the ammonia residence time in the deep water with the elapsing time after the completion of the artificial lake construction, as about three years, suggests that the deep water pollution is being progressed entirely by benthic flux at least with respect to ammonia. The residence time for lead is such a short 20 days that it suggests a rapid return of the bottom water lead, which is originated from porewater by benthic flux, back to sediments probably as metal sulfide phases. The speculation on the return of lead as sulfide phases is likely to be supported by high concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the deep water and by high sinking rate of non-organic particles in Lake Shihwa.
The Study on the Phytoplankton Bloom and Primary Productivity in Lake Shihwa and Adajcent Coastal Areas
Choi, Joong-Ki ; Lee, Eun-Hee ; Noh, Jae-Hoon ; Huh, Sung-Hoi ;
The Sea, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 78~86
To clarify the phytoplankton blooms in Lake Shihwa after the construction of a dyke, a study on the environmental factors, the distribution of chlorophyll-a, phytoplankton standing stocks, dominant species and primary productivity was carried out in Lake Shihwa and adjacent coastal areas from October, 1995 to August, 1996. Lake Shihwa is brackish water with mixing of freshwater from tributaries and the remaining salt water at the bottom. The dense phytoplankton bloom of average value of 168.6
have occurred throughout the year in Lake Shihwa which is eutrophicated by the large input of nutrients from inflowing 5 tributaries and Shihwa Industrial Complex. The major organisms of algal bloom in Lake Shihwa were diatoms, Cyclotella atomus, Nitzschia sp. and Chaetoceros sp. in autumn and winter, and dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and Chrysophyceae in spring and summer. The autumn and winter diatom blooms were limited by the depletion of silicate in the lake. Diatom blooms have occurred in the coastal areas adjacent to Shihwa lake from winter to summer due to the inflow of nutrient rich-water from Lake Shihwa. The primary productivities in the Lake Shihwa ranged from 2,653 mgC
to 9,505 mgC
with an average of 3,972 mgC
. However, most of the high primary production was limited to the shallow euphotic zone due to the inhibition of light penetration. The primary productivities during autumn and winter were limited by the depletion of silicate. Lack of photosynthesis and the decomposition of falling organic matter under the middle of water column accelerated the depletion of dissolved oxygen in the bottom layer.
Ecological Stability of the Shihwa Lake Evaluated by Zooplankton Distribution in the Lake Shihwa and Adjacent Coastal Area
Park, Chul ; Huh, Sung-Hoi ;
The Sea, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 87~91
Ecological stability of the Lake Shihwa, artificially made by the construction of the Shihwa Dike, was evaluated by the species composition and variation in biomass of zooplankton. Species composition and seasonal variation in biomass in the seaside stations were similar to those observed in nearby bays and coastal zone. However, those in the lake sites showed very different patterns. The brackish water copepod, Sinocaianus tenellus, held the first rank in every season (with more than 66% in spring, 98% in summer and fall, and 80% in winter). The species composition was very simple and the biomass (in terms of total individuals
) varied markedly with season up to the order of
magnitude. These results imply that the lake ecosystem made by the construction of Sihwa dike is in very unstable stage probably due to the input of industrial wastes as well as unpredictable variation in salt content caused by irregular control of the watergate of the dike and resultant irregular flow direction of the water through the gate.
Distribution and Growth of Bacteria in the Hypertrophic Lake Shiwha
Choi, Dong-Han ; Kang, Sulk-Won ; Song, Ki-Don ; Huh, Sung-Hoi ; Cho, Byung-Cheol ;
The Sea, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 92~100
Distribution of bacterial abundance and production was investigated during October, 1995-August, 1996 in Lake Shiwha constructed artificially in 1994. Its water column was distinguished by two layers: the brackish surface layer with salinity ranged from 6 to 20‰ and the saline hypoxic/anoxic bottom layer with salinity of 17 to 27‰ Except for samples collected in March, 1996 (on average 13
), chlorophyll a concentration ranged from 27.6 to 249.5
in the euphotic zone, indicating the hypertrophic condition of Lake Shiwha during most of the studied period. In this study, bacterial productions measured by
-thymidine incorporation method were similar to those by
-leucine incorporation method. In hypertrophic, surface waters of Lake Shiwha, bacterial abundance and production ranged from 1.4 to
and from 1.6 to
respectively; 2 to 4 fold and 2 to 30 fold higher than those in eutrophic coastal waters outside of Lake Shiwha, respectively. Turnover times of bacterial community in the surface layer of Lake Shiwha ranged from 0.2 to 8.9 day, indicating that bacteria in the lake seemed to adapt to the hypertrophic condition. In the hypoxic bottom layer, bacterial abundance and production was up to 3 fold and 20 fold lower than those in the surface layer, and showed slow bacterial growth. Significant correlations between the bacterial abundance, production, and community turnover time with water temperature indicate water temperature was the important factor controlling distribution and growth of bacteria. However, during summer season, bacterial production seemed to be regulated by supply of substrates.
Temporal and Spatial Changes in the Species Composition and Abundance of Benthic Polychaetes after the Construction of Shihwa Dike (West Coast of Korea)
Ryu, Jong-Seong ; Choi, Jin-Woo ; Kang, Seong-Gil ; Koh, Chul-Hwan ; Huh, Sung-Hoi ;
The Sea, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 101~109
The present study was carried out to investigate the temporal and spatial changes in species composition and abundance of polychaetes in Lake Shihwa. Macrobenthic fauna were collected from eight sampling surveys performed in March, June, September and December of 1994, March and October of 1995, February and August of 1996, using a modified van Veen grab with 0.1
coverage area. Polychaete worms, the most abundant macrofaunal group, comprised of 1~22 species at each investigation; number of species continuously decreased during the survey period. The mean density of polychaete was
and showed a large fluctuation over time. The variation in abundance was mainly coupled with the domination of Polydora ligni occupying 83% in total density. The next dominant species were Pseudopolydora kempi (mean density of 31
) and Capitella capitata (mean density of 23
). Abundant polychaetes in Lake Shihwa are known to be tolerant to sediment pollution. Ecological indices such as diversity (H') and dominance (D) also indicated that the number of species significantly decreased and a few species predominated in Lake Shihwa after the dike construction. The azoic zone were extended from the upper reach of Lake Shihwa to the vicinity of the dike over time. The reduced number of species, predominance of pollution indicator species and development of an azoic zone reflect severe deterioration of benthic environments in Lake Shihwa.
Changes of Species Composition of Fish in Polluted Lake Shihwa and Adjacent Coastal Area
Lee, Tae-Won ; Moon, Hyung-Tae ; Huh, Sung-Hoi ;
The Sea, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 110~116
Changes of fish species composition were analyzed using seasonal samples collected from Lake Shihwa and adjacent coastal water from October 1995 to August 1996. Pelagic clupeids, Cynoglossus joyneri and Johnius belengerii predominated in abundance in the adjacent coastal water. In the lake, clupeids, gobies and freshwater Carassius carassius were collected in autumn. The clupeids, unable to overwinter in the open water, disappeared after winter. The gobies and C. carassius were also disappeared in spring except a few number of Acanthogobius hasta. A large number of Tridentiger trigonocephalus and Eleotris oxycephala were collected in summer, supposed to move into the lake during the exchange of water in lake and sea water. However, they were all died in the middle of August. The concentration of ammonium-nitrogen was higher than 2 mg/l, which was higher than 50% lethal concentraton in other fishes. Increase in temperature and pH in spring may elevate the toxicity of ammonium to fish. We discussed the effect of the other factors of the polluted water in the lake on the disappearance of fish.
Vertical distributions of dissolved eu and Ni in the central East Sea
Yang, Jae-Sam ;
The Sea, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 117~124
Vertical profiles of dissolved Cu and Ni at the upper 400 m water layer have been determined at two stations in the central East Sea in October 1995. This is the first report on the vertical distribution of trace metals in Korea. Copper concentrations are in the range of 2.1~5.8 nmol/kg and 1.6~2.4 nmol/kg for stations S and N, respectively. The vertical profile of Cu at S is found a scavenging type (i.e., drastic decrease with increasing depth). Concentrations of Ni range from 4.3 to 7.1 nmol/kg and from 3.4 to 5.4 nmol/kg for stations Sand N, respectively. At station S, Ni is best correlated with phosphate, but not at stations N. Such difference between two stations are probably due to their different vertical distribution of water masses. Station S has a strongly stratified water column with 6 distinct water masses, but station N with a well-mixed subsurface water layer extending from 50 to 300 m depth. Extremely low salinity (31.87~31.96 psu) found at the surface water of station S was interpreted as a result of the Yangtze River effluents which were probably fed into the East Sea through the Korea Strait during the late summer. Such seasonal appearance of low salinity in southern part of the East Sea was reported previously. The concentrations of Cu and Ni at two sites are comparable to those reported in the North Pacific. It was found that Ni mostly exist as dissolved phase.
Geochemistry of Heavy Metals and Rare Earth Elements in Core Sediments from the Korea Deep-Sea Environmental Study (KODES)-96 Area, Northeast Equatorial Pacific
Jung, Hoi-Soo ; Park, Sung-Hyun ; Kim, Dong-Seon ; Choi, Man-Sik ; Lee, Kyeong-Young ;
The Sea, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 125~137
To study the vertical variation of heavy metal and Rare Earth Element (REE) contents in deep-sea sediments, eighteen cores were sampled from the Korea Deep-sea Environmental Study (KODES)-96 area in the C-C zone (Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone), northeast equatorial Pacific. Sediment columns can be divided into three units based on sediment colors and geochemical characters; uppermost Unit I with brown color, middle Unit II with pale brown color and smaller Ni/Cu ratio than the ratio in Unit I, and lowermost Unit III with dark (brown) colors and higher contents of Mn, Ni, Cu, and REEs than those in Unit I and II. Unit II can be divided more into two layers of upper Unit IIa and lower Unit IIb. Unit IIb is characterized by high contents of Cu, 3+REEs (REEs except Ce), smectite, and severely deteriorated fossil tests. Unit III can also be divided into two units; upper Unit IIIa with dark brown color, and lower Unit IIIb with black color and enriched Mn and Fe. The KODES area was located near from the East Pacific Rise (EPR) When Unit III Sediments were deposited, considering the hiatus between Unit II and III (Quaternary-Tertiary boundary) and the spreading rate (10 cm/yr) and direction (north southern west) of the Pacific plate from the EPR. High contents of Mn and Fe in Unit IIIb may be related with hydrothermal influence from the EPR. Meanwhile, Unit IIb (about 2~3 Ma) and Unit III (11~30 Ma) layers were probably formed near (or under) the equatorial high productivity zone, and accordingly received a lot of organic materials. As a result, Cu and 3+REEs, closely associated with organic materials, are enriched in smectite and/or Ca-P composites (fish bone debrise, biogenic apatite) after decomposition and reprecipitation on the sea floor. Higher contents of Cu and 3+REEs in Unit IIb and III are suggested to be the result of abundant supply of organic substances in the equatorial high productivity zone.
Late Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Tidal Deposits In the Hampyung Bay, southwest coast of Korea
Park, Yong-Ahn ; Lim, Dhong-Il ; Choi, Jin-Yong ; Lee, Young-Gil ;
The Sea, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 138~150
The late Quaternary stratigraphy of the tidal deposits in the Hampyung Bay, southwestern coast of Korea comprises 1) Unit III (nonmarine fluvial coarse-grained sediments), 2) Unit II (late Pleistocene tidal deposits), and 3) Unit I (late Holocene fine-grained tidal deposits) in ascending order. The basements of the Hampyung Bay is composed of granitic rocks and basic dyke rocks. These three units are of unconformally bounded sedimentary sequences. The sequence boundary between Unit I and Unit II, in particular, seems to be significant suggesting erosional surface and exposed to the air under the cold climate during the LGM. The uppermost stratigraphic sequence (Unit I) is a common tidal deposit formed under the transgression to highstand sea-level during the middle to late Holocene.
Chemical Fluxes at the Sediment-Water Interface Below Marine Fish Cages on the Coastal Waters off Tong-Young, South Coast of Korea
Shim, Jeong-Hee ; Kang, Young-Chul ; Choi, Jin-Woo ;
The Sea, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 151~159
Benthic respiration and chemical fluxes were measured at the sediment-water interface underlying the marine fish cages floating on the open coastal waters off Tong-Young, the South Coast of Korea. The effects of cage farming on coastal benthic environment and on mass balance of organic carbon in the benthic boundary layer under the marine fish cages are addressed. In a growing season of caged fishes of June, 1995, benthic chambers and sediment traps were deployed on the sediment-water interfaces of the two sites chosen for this study: 1) Cage Site, directly underlying the fish cages of the farm at 18 m water depth, and 2) Control Site, about 100 m away from the farm at 32 m water depth. Benthic respiration rates and chemical fluxes were calculated from the evolution of dissolved oxygen and chemicals in the chamber water, and mass balance of organic carbon in the benthic boundary layer was constructed based on the vertical flux of particulate organic matter (POM) and chemical fluxes out of the sediment. High organic dumping (6400 mg C
) and high benthic respiration (230 mmol
) were observed at the Cage Site. Equivalent to 40% of vertical flux of organic carbon into the Cage Site seemed to be decomposed concurrently and released back to overlying waters (2400 mg C
). Consequently, up to 4000 mg C
of organic carbon could be buried into the farm sediment (equivalent to 60% of organic carbon flux into the Cage Site). At the Control Site, relatively less input of organic carbon (4000 mg C
) and low benthic respiration rate (75 mmol
) were observed despite short distance away from the cages. The influence of cage farming on benthic chemical fluxes might be restricted and concentrated in the sea bottom just below the fish cages in spite of massive organic dumping and high current regime around the fish cage farm.