Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Oceanography
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 3, Issue 4 - Nov 1998
Volume 3, Issue 3 - Aug 1998
Volume 3, Issue 2 - May 1998
Volume 3, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Origin of Anomalously Low Saline Tsushima Current Water Using
Lee, Tong-Sup ; Kim, Ki-Hyun ;
The Sea, volume 3, issue 4, 1998, Pages 175~182
Recently it is reported that anomalously low saline surface waters (salinity < 32) occurred at the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea-Japan Sea, during early September to November 1996. Apparent source of such a low saline watermass seems remotely linked to the Changjiang Dilute Water (CDW), which expands to the vicinity of Cheju Island during a flood season. Based on the assumption that waters passing through the Western Channel of the Korea Strait are formed by a mixing of Kuroshio Water and CDW, simplified two end-member mixing model using
as a conservative tracer is applied to calculate the contribution of each end member for the formation of low saline surface seawater. Model calculations show CDW contributes
in September 1996 (S=32.17) and
in February 1997 (S=34.53) in the formation of surface water flowing into the Western Channel of the Korea Strait. Although results arc deduced from a simplified model with limited data, this study demonstrates that Changjiang discharge is clearly traceable to the interior of the East Sea-Japan Sea in fall season. Undergoing Three Valley Dam construction in the Changjiang River would invoke inevitable changes in the nature and discharge of CDW and its impacts on the marine environment might be significant in the northern East China Sea and even in the Ulleng Basin for coming decades.
Long-Term Observation of Temperature in the Coastal Waters Adjacent to the Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant
Chung, Jong-Yul ; Kang, Hyoun-Woo ; Shin, Young-Jae ; Kim, Kye-Young ; Jun, Ho-Kyung ;
The Sea, volume 3, issue 4, 1998, Pages 183~192
The long-term observation of temperature in the coastal waters adjacent to the Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant has been carried out from November 10, 1996 to August 22, 1997, for approximately 280 days using a real-time temperature measurement buoy system. The sea-surface temperature was measured at every 10 minute using 10 buoys. The vertical structure of temperature was investigated near the outlet of the plant with two thermistor chains equipped with 10 sensors at 1 m interval The monthly averaged temperature was the lowest with spatial average of
in February and was the highest in August with spatial average of
. The extremely low temperature was frequently observed between June and August, which seems to be the consequence of the intrusion of cold water near the southeastern coast of Korea. Distributions of the daily and hourly averaged temperature show that the highest temperature always occurred near the outlet of the plant and the warm-water patch moved along the north-south direction with the semidiurnal period. The semidiurnal fluctuation of temperature was also observed near the surface of the vertical profiles. The spectral analysis of temperature between February and April 1997 shows that the semidiurnal components prevailed near the outlet. It is likely that the semidiurnal components were due to the prevailing semidiurnal tide in this region. In August 1997, the diurnal components were dominant at the surface water of all stations except Station 12, which suggests that the warm water from the outlet of the plant has less effects in summer on the surrounding waters than the strong solar radiation.
Eutrophication and Seasonal Variation of Water Quality in Masan-Jinhae Bay
Cho, Kyung-Je ; Choi, Man-Young ; Kwak, Seung-Kook ; Im, Sung-Ho ; Kim, Dae-Yun ; Park, Jong-Gyu ; Kim, Young-Eui ;
The Sea, volume 3, issue 4, 1998, Pages 193~202
Water quality of Masan-Jinhae Bay was monitored from January 1996 to August 1997. The monitoring focused on the spatial and vertical gradients and seasonal changes of eutrophication parameters such as nutrients, DO and water transparency. Flagellate phytoplanktons persistently bloomed from April to October with monospecific or mixed algal blooms and dynamic algal successions were observed in this area. Algal blooms were highly correlated with salinity drops and made the water less transparent. Stratification of oxygen content was persistent through summer and oligo-oxygenation was developed in the bottom waters. Nutrient gradients were consistently maintained through the depth in summer and through spatial distribution from inner Masan Bay to outer Jinhae Bay in winter. Except the rainfall seasons, water quality was under the influence of the waste waters discharged from watershed around the Masan Bay. The waste waters would act as the primary factor for the water quality deterioration of the bay. Literature data for eutrophication were gathered and analyzed to review the water quality trends of the Masan and Jinhae bays since 1970. Annual mean COD and phosphate concentration consistently increased from 1975 to 1990 and decreased or dropped after 1991. The sediment of inner part of Masan Bay was dredged from 1991 to 1994 as a decontamination process and it is assumed that the dredging has weakened more or less the deterioration trend of the water quality of the bay.
Chemical Environment of Ocean Dumping Site in the Yellow Sea
Park, Yong-Chul ; Lee, Hyo-Jin ; Son, Ju-Won ; Son, Seung-Kyu ;
The Sea, volume 3, issue 4, 1998, Pages 203~213
To investigate impacts of waste disposal on the marine environment for 9 years since dumping activity commenced in the Yellow Sea, chemical analysis of seawater has been done in and around the ocean dumping site. Results show that biogeochemical changes have occurred locally in the dumping area compared with the reference area, resulting in low dissolved oxygen saturation, low pH, and high accumulation of nutrients in the bottom layer. According to cluster analysis, chemical environment of the study area can be largely divided into surface layer and bottom layer, and again the bottom layer can be divided into that of dumping area where nutrients are accumulated and that of reference area. Low pH, low dissolved oxygen, high COD and accumulation of nutrients mainly characterize the dumping area. Average concentration of total inorganic nitrogen in the bottom layer below the thermocline has increased from
, 250% accumulation in the dumping area since 1988. Therefore, the present results clearly show that the dumping site of Yellow Sea has received excessive sewage input beyond the environmental assimilatory capacity during the last decade. It may result in serious aggravation of seawater quality and basic ecosystem, and devastation of overall fishing grounds of Yellow Sea in the near future.
Diagenesis of the Carbonate Rocks of the Seamounts In the Federated States of Micronesia, Central Pacific
Woo, Kyung-Sik ; Choi, Yoon-Ji ; Lee, Kyeong-Yong ; Kang, Jung-Keuk ; Park, Byong-Kwong ;
The Sea, volume 3, issue 4, 1998, Pages 214~227
This study was carried out to investigate the composition and diagenesis of the carbonate rocks from the seamounts in the Federated States of Micronesia, Central Pacific. Most of the samples were dredged from the water depth of about 1000-3000 m mainly in Chuuk Island, Hunter Bank, Caroline Ridge and Yap Trench. The carbonate rocks are either pelagic sediment mainly of planktonic foraminifera or shallow-marine sediment of corals, calcareous algae, mollusks and echinoderms. The rocks are altered texturally and chemically, except for those from the Hunter Bank and Yap A. The presence of shallow-marine cements suggests that the carbonate sediment has been subsided or reworked to the present water depth after deposition in shallow-marine environments. The texture of the carbonate sediment is reminiscent of meteoric diagenesis; however, the stable carbon isotopic composition of the altered rock samples shows affinity with that of sea water and the oxygen isotopic values are slightly enriched or same as compared to those of unaltered samples. These stable isotopic data suggest that the carbonate sediment of the study area has been diagenetically altered in the present deep-marine environment.
Beach Profile Estimation Using a Photogrammetry
Kim, Baeck-Oon ; Park, Yong-Ahn ; Oh, Im-Sang ; Khim, Boo-Keun ; Choi, Kyung-Sik ;
The Sea, volume 3, issue 4, 1998, Pages 228~233
This study presents a close-range photogrammetry that is applicable to beach profile estimation using a non-metric camera. Based on the analysis of oblique video image in which the video camera was installed on a horizontal plane and the field of view was fixed, a new equation to analyze a photograph was developed considering the following aspects: (1) camera is allowed to be rotated about its optical axis and (2) a simple error model is adopted to correct lens distortion and other systematic errors associated with the non-metric camera, which improves accuracy of non-metric imageries. To test the modified technique, photographs of the beach were taken near the Donghae City in February, 1998. In addition, beach profiles were surveyed with conventional dumpy level and surveying staff. RMS error between the estimated and measured beach profiles is less than 10 cm in elevation.
Study of Environmental Stability of the East Sea by Foraminiferal Distribution
Shin, Im-Chul ; Yi, Hi-Il ;
The Sea, volume 3, issue 4, 1998, Pages 234~248
Seven box cores from the disposal areas located in the southern part of the East Sea (Stations Band B') and in the offshore to the east of Pusan (Stations J and J'), and from their surrounding areas (Stations J2, J6 and H) were collected to investigate the effect of dumped wastes on the foraminiferal assemblages. The species diversity indices [S, H(S), E] of foraminifera and the total number of foraminifera show significant differences between the ocean waste disposal areas and their adjacent areas. Ocean waste disposal areas located in southern part of the East Sea (Stations Band B') show not only smaller number of foraminifera species but also lower values of coarse fraction content in the sediment and the number of benthic and planktonic foraminifera than the surrounding areas. Another ocean disposal area located offshore Pusan (Station J') contains abnormally greater number of planktonic (approximately 300 000 individuals/lO g dried sediment) and benthic (approximately 300, 000 individuals/10 g dried sediment) foraminifera compared to those of the adjacent areas. The waste dumped at Station J' probably acts as a nutrient causing the greater number of foraminifera. Station J shows low species diversity indices [S, H(S)]. The number of benthic foraminifera decreases from the surface to the downcore at Station J, which indicates that Station J is under stress. However, Stations J', J2 and J6 are under stable conditions as evidenced by the greater species diversity indices [S, H(S)] compared to other stations. No foraminifera were found with biological disease or abnormal chambers, which commonly occur in extremely stressed environment, in both the ocean disposal and adjacent areas. The organic matter decay of the wastes dumped in the study areas has not made the bottom water corrosive.
The Microalgal Attachment and its Growth on the Artificial Surfaces Immersed in Seawater: I. Attachment and Micro-succession
Shim, Jae-Hyung ; Kang, Jung-Hoon ; Cho, Byung-Cheol ; Kim, Woong-Seo ;
The Sea, volume 3, issue 4, 1998, Pages 249~260
To understand the attachment of micro algae and their subsequent growths on artificial surfaces immersed in seawater, the relationship between attachment of diatoms on the immersed artificial substrates and species pool in the surrounding water was investigated. We used acryl slides for the study of diatom attachment and examined the surrounding water samples collected in Incheon Harbour from July 1995 to February 1997. Variations of species composition and abundances by exposure time in seawater were investigated during the early phase of biofilm formation on various substrates, e.g. glass, acryl, titanium, copper and antifouling paint-treated slides. Immigration rates of diatoms to acryl slides during spring and winter were significantly correlated with the abundance of benthic diatoms in surrounding water (
=0.78, p<0.01, n=42), suggesting that immigration rates were affected by variations of benthic diatom abundances in surrounding water. Immigration coefficient of monoraphid diatoms was 5 times higher than that of biraphid diatoms, but relative abundance of monoraphid diatoms was 3 times lower than that of biraphid diatoms on acryl slides in spring. In winter, immigration coefficient and relative abundance of centric diatoms were higher compared to other raphe forms. These results suggest that the attachment of diatoms seems to be caused by the abundance and immigration coefficients of benthic diatoms in surrounding water. Pennate diatoms predominantly attached to all artificial surfaces throughout all experimental periods. Interestingly, centric diatoms predominantly attached to all artificial surfaces in winter. Hantzschia virgata, Licmophora abbreviata and Melosira nummuloides appeared dominantly on antifouling paint-treated slides, probably being tolerant of the antifouling paint. During incubations, the abundance of attached diatoms increased exponentially on glass, titanium and acryl slides with exposure time. The maximum abundance was highest on glass slide, followed by acryl, titanium, copper and antifouling paint-treated slides. The growth rates of attached diatom community on all artificial surfaces were higher at temperature of
than that of
. The growth rate of attached diatoms on glass slide was generally higher compared to other slides during the study period. Dominant morphotypes of observed species with exposure time in seawater were prostrate form Amphora coffeaeformis, fan shape Synedra tabulata, stalk type Licmophora paradoxa and chain type M. nummuloides. A micro-succession in the attached microalgal community was observed. The composition of dominant species seems to be the result of species-specific response to gradually limited space with development of microalgal film.
Benthic Polychaetous Community in Northern Kyeonggi Bay in December 1995
Shin, H.C. ; Koh, C.H. ;
The Sea, volume 3, issue 4, 1998, Pages 261~270
This study was carried out in order to investigate the distribution and species composition of benthic polychaetous community in northern Kyeonggi Bay in September 1995. Mean density of benthic animals was 557 indiv./
. Benthic polychaetes were the most dominant faunal group, comprising 60 species with a mean density of 488 indiv./
. Benthic polychaetes were most abundant in Yumha Channel centering on Incheon Harbor, whereas relatively poor in the intertidal zones fringing Yongjong Island and Songdo area, and in the offshore main channel. The most dominant polychaete was Heteromastus filiformis (47.3% of polychaetous community), followed by Nephtys palybranchia, Tharyx sp., Sternaspis scutata and so on. Kyeonggi Bay could be divided into 4 regions from cluster analysis based on the dominant species composition: offsea/channel region, Incheon Harbor, intertidal zone of Yongjong Island, and intertidal zone of Songdo area. Highest species number and diversity index (H') were recorded at offsea/channel region, whereas highest faunal density at Incheon Harbor. Incheon Harbor was characterized by high abundance of H. filiformis. Compared with the previous studies carried out in Kyeonggi Bay, faunal density and species number have little changed for the recent 10 years. Dominant species was different between each study, but has been among opportunistic species of small-sized polychaetes belonging to capitellids, cirratulids or spionids. These results indicate that Kyeonggi Bay has been organically polluted steadily; specifically, this study reveals that Incheon Harbor has been the center of pollution and that the benthic community in the outer sea off Sihwa dike has become unstable.
An Effect of Pre-attached Bacteria on Attachment of Diatoms to Artificial Surf aces Immersed in Seawater
Kang, Jung-Hoon ; Cho, Byung-Cheol ; Shim, Jae-Hyung ; Choi, Joong-Ki ;
The Sea, volume 3, issue 4, 1998, Pages 271~275
Controversial observations on the effect of pre-attached bacteria on the attachment of diatoms to artificial surfaces immersed in seawater have been made. Furthermore, it is not known whether or not pre-attached bacteria on artificial surfaces influence attachment of diatoms in natural seawater. In this study, we used various surfaces to which marine bacteria were pre-attached for different incubation periods. In the first experiment, glass slides were initially attached by marine natural bacteria with different exposure time (0-133 hr) and then immersed into seawater for a certain time period. The attachment of diatoms was not affected by the abundance of pre-attached bacteria (p > 0.05). The maximum abundance of attached diatoms was found on control surfaces, and the minimum abundance on surfaces where attached bacterial abundance was highest. In the second experiment, glass slides and acryl slides, either attached by marine natural bacteria for 6 days or coated by agar, were immersed in seawater. Untreated slides were also employed. On the surfaces of acryl slides with the most abundant attached bacteria (
), abundances of attached diatoms were less than those on untreated slides. On the surfaces of glass slides with bacterial abundance of
, however, abundances of attached diatoms were not different from those of untreated slides. On the agar-coated slides, the immigration rate and immigration coefficient were on average > 2 folds compared to other surfaces, indicating high rates of diatom attachment on mucilage simulated surfaces. Therefore, it seems that pre-attachment of bacteria is not prerequisite for the attachment of diatoms on artificial surfaces.