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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Oceanography
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Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 4 - Nov 2000
Volume 5, Issue 3 - Aug 2000
Volume 5, Issue 2 - May 2000
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
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Experimental Simulation of Local External Forcing of the Contained Rotating Flow
Yi, Chang-Won ; Na, Jung-Yul ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 2, 2000, Pages 77~85
Simulation of local external forcing and its response in the rotation table experiment has been investigated. Spatially-uniform external forcings have been applied in many experimental studies, however, based on the fact that the north-south distribution of the wind-stress curl and the existence of local maximum of the sea surface heat loss in the northern part of the East Sea, new method of combined effects of local forcings has been employed in separate experiments. Carefully designed local source or sink at the bottom of the cylindrical container can produce horizontal pressure gradient within the Ekman layer, and consequently the interior also attains the same pressure gradient that produces geostrophic interior circulation. In order to keep free surface during the local-surface cooling, a side-wall cooling method is suggested. For the various type of local forcing including the effects local cooling and the periodic change of local wind-stress curl, western-boundary flow in terms of its strength, position of separation from the boundary have been observed.
Characteristics of Long-term Variability of the Net Heat Flux on the Sea Surface in the East Asian Marginal Seas
Lee, Seong-Wook ; Na, Jung-Yul ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 2, 2000, Pages 86~94
In order to extract the spatio-temporal characteristics of long-term variability of the net heat flux on the sea surface in the East Asian marginal seas, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was conducted using data set calculated every 12 hours interval during 1978-1995. Among the first three modes explaining 73% of the total variance, the first mode having high peak at 1 year period indicates high variability area around the Sandong Peninsula and central and northeastern part of the East Sea. In the second mode which has spatial distribution of dipole type at the north and south, the peaks appear at 3.6 year and 2.3 year cycles. Time coefficient of the second EOF is believed to have close relation with the E1 Nino and has out-of-phase variation with NINO3 SST. Lagged correlation between NINO3 SST and time coefficient of the second EOF indicates four month time delay in the NINO3 SST. In the third mode which has opposite sign at the east and west, the periodicity of 6-9 year cycle has relatively clear appearance compared to other two EOFs. Also, high heat loss exceeding 800 W/
in winter time occured at the south part of the Sandong Peninsula and Vladivostok. It reveals more frequent occurrence of about two times at the Sandong Peninsula than Vladivostok. The event is concentrated in January at Vladivostok, but it occurs primarily in December and January at the Sandong Peninsula.
Crustal Characteristics and Structure of the Ulleung Basin, the East Sea (Japan Sea), Inferred from Seismic, Gravity and Magnetic Data
Huh, Sik ; Kim, Han-Jun ; Yoo, Hai-Soo ; Park, Chan-Hong ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 2, 2000, Pages 95~104
Depths to four seismic sequence boundaries and the thickness of each sequence were estimated and mapped based on multi-channel seismic data in the Ulleung Basin. These depth-structure and isopach maps were incorporated into the interpretation of gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. The sediment thickness ranges from 3,000 m to 4,000 m in the central basin, while it reaches 6,000 m locally along the southwestern, western, and southeastern margins. The acoustic basement forms a northeast-southwest elongated depression deeper than 5000 m, and locally deepens up to 7,500 m in the southwestern and western margins. Low gravity anomalies along the western and southern margins are associated with basement depressions with thick sediment as well as the transitional crust between the continental and oceanic crusts. Higher gravity anomalies, dominant in the central Ulleung basin, broaden from southwest toward northeast, are likely due to the shallow mantle and a dense crust. A pair of magnetic elongations in the southeastern and northwestern margins appear to separate the central Ulleung basin from its margin. These magnetic elongations are largely dominated by intrusive or extrusive volcanics which occurred along the rifted margin of the Ulleung basin formed during the basin opening. The crust in the central Ulleung Basin, surrounded by the magnetic elongations, is possibly oceanic as inferred from the seismic velocity. The oceanic crust can be mapped in the central zone where it widens to 120 km from the southwest toward northeast. Bending of the crustal boundary in the southern part of the Ulleung Basin suggests that the Ulleung Basin has been deformed by a collision of the Phillipine plate into the Japan arc.
Summer-Time Behaviour and Flux of Suspended Sediments at the Entrance to Semi-Closed Hampyung Bay, Southwestern Coast of Korea
Lee, Hee-Jun ; Park, Eun-Sun ; Lee, Yeon-Gyu ; Jeong, Kap-Sik ; Chu, Yong-Shik ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 2, 2000, Pages 105~118
Anchored measurements (12.5 hr) of suspended sediment concentration and other hydrodynamic parameters were carried out at two stations located at the entrance to Hampyung Bay in summer (August 1999). Tidal variations in water temperature and salinity were in the range of 26.0-27.9
and 30.9-31.5, respectively, indicating exchange offshore and offshore water mass. Active tidal mixing processes at the entrance appear to destroy the otherwise vertical stratification in temperature and salinity in spite of strong solar heating in summer. On the contrary, suspended sediment concentrations show a marked stratification with increasing concentrations toward bottom layer. Clastic particles in suspended sediments consist mostly of very fine to fine silt (4-16
m) with a poorly-sorted value of 14.7-25.9
m. However, at slack time with less turbulent energy, flocs larger than 40
m are formed by cohesion and inter-collision of particles, resulting in a higher settling velocity. Strong ebb-dominated and weak flood dominated tidal currents, in the southwestern and the northeastern part, respectively, result in a seaward residual flow of -10
at station H1 and a bayward residual flow less than 5.0 cm
at station H2. However, mean concentration of suspended sediments at station H1 is higher at flood (95.0-144.1 mg
) than in ebb (75.8-120.9 mg
). On the contrary, at the station H2, the trend is reversed with higher concentration at the ebb (84.7-158.4 mg
) than that at the flood (53.0-107.9 mg
). As a result, seaward net suspended sediment fluxes (
) are calculated to be -1.7
through the whole water column. However, the stations H1 and H2 show definitely different values of the flux with higher ones in the former than in the latter. Alternatively, depth-integrated net suspended sediment loads (
) for one tidal cycle are also toward the offshore with ranges of 0.37
, at station H1 and H2, respectively. This seaward transport of suspended sediment in summer suggests that summer-time erosion in the Hampyung muddy tidal flats is a rather exceptional phenomenon compared to the general deposition reported for many other tidal flats on the west coast of Korea.
Trace Metals (Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb) in the Shell of the Marine Gastropod, Littorina brevicula on Coastal Area, Korea
Lim, Chae-Ryeol ; Kang, Seong-Gil ; Lee, Chang-Bok ; Koh, Chul-Hwan ; Choi, Man-Sik ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 2, 2000, Pages 119~130
Mn, Zn, Cd and Pb in shells of Littorina brevicula, which lives ubiquitously in intertidal zone around the Korean coast, were analyzed to determine the relationship between metal levels in its shell, ambient seawater and its tissue. Periwinkles and seawater samples were collected from 38 sites along the Korean coast in January 1997. Mn contents in shells of this organism show the range of 7.0
/g (mean 59
/g) and are the lowest in northern east coast but high in western south and west coast. Close relationship between Mn contents in shells and metal levels both in seawater and in tissues indicates that Mn in shell might be incorporated from ambient seawater by a biological process. Although the contents of Cd in shells did not reflect the distribution of total Cd in seawaters and they were very low compared to those in tissues, they followed spatial gradient of contents in tissues. However, the spatial distribution of Zn contents in shells accords neither ambient seawater nor tissues, while it is negatively correlated with the contents of Na in shells. This fact suggests that Zn contents might be controlled by salinity of ambient seawater. On the contrary, Zn contents in highly polluted sites near Onsan Bay show generally higher levels than other sites. The contents of Pb show the range of 0.1
/g (mean 1.01
/g) and the highest in sites near Onsan Bay. Although the spatial distribution of shell Pb does not follow those of tissue, Pb in shells of Littorina brevicula may be controlled both by shell secretion process and by Pb levels in ambient seawater because the contents of Pb in the shell decrease steadily with growth and vary with levels of Pb in ambient seawater.
Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from Kwangyang Bay, South Coast of Korea
Lee, Chang-Bok ; Koh, Chul-Hwan ; Cho, Yeong-Gil ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 2, 2000, Pages 131~140
Heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb) were determined in ninety-one surface sediments collected from Kwangyang Bay, south coast of Korea. The data show that the Fe, Cr, Ni, and Zn distribution in the bay can be described by metal vs. grain size relationship. However, the distribution pattern of Mn, Co, Cu and Pb were found to be changed because they are anthropogenically enriched to sediment. Correlation matrix and R-mode factor analyses revealed that two important factors controlling the distribution of metals in the bay are grain size and anthropogenic input.
Bioecological Characteristics of Coral Habitats around Munseom, Cheju Island, Korea - III. Seasonal and Diel Fluctuations of Gelatinous Zooplankton Biomass
Oh, Bong-Cheol ; Lee, Jun-Back ; Chwa, Jong-Hun ; Koh, You-Bong ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 2, 2000, Pages 141~145
The daily fluctuations of occurrence rate and standing stock of zooplankton, the relationship between dry and wet weights of gelatinous zooplankton, and the size distributions of body length and body weight of zooplankton were investigated in the sea around Cheju Island from September 1996 to August 1997. Mean ratios of wet to dry weights were 66.46 (raging from 47.05 to 84.64) in the gelatinous zooplankton and 10.89 (raging 9.21 to 14.85) in the non-gelatinous zooplankton which consisted of crustaceans such as copepods, decapods, mysids, and ostracods etc. Rarios of gelatinous zooplankton to non-gelatinous zooplankton (G/NG) in wet weight was 0.99 (0.28-2.30), indicating high occurrence rate of gelatinous in the study area. The seasonal and diel fluctuations of the gelatinous zooplankton were very large, and G/NG ratios greatly varied with seasons and dat/night cycles. The size distributions of body length of zooplankton (250-500 urn: 35.5% in maximum), and wet (0.1-0.2 mg: 34.4%) and dry weights (0.025-0.05 mg: 44.8%) showed much difference depending composition of the zooplankton groups. These results show that quantitative estimations of zooplankton produc- tivity only based on wet weight should be corrected to better understand and evaluate marine resources in Korean waters.
Zonation of the Exposed Sandy Beach Macrofauna in Okjukpo, Taechongdo, Korea
Yoon, Sang-Pil ; Hong, Jae-Sang ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 2, 2000, Pages 146~156
Zonation pattern of macro-invertebrate community structure was examined from Okjukpo sandy beach, Taechongdo, Korea. Macrofauna were collected in June 1998 using a can corer from ten stations along one transect. Mean grain size ranged from 1.97 to 2.23
and sediment organic contents ranged from 0.52 to 1.02%. A total of benthic macro-invertebrates comprised 25 species, providing 10,705 individuals and 89.13 g wet weight in biomass. Peracaridean crustaceans such as amphipods and isopods are the most prominant components in this exposed sandy beach. The dominant species were Eohaustorius setulosus (33%), Excirolana chiltoni (26%), Haustorioides koreanus (12%), Platorchestia crassicornis (8%), and Cycladicama cumingii (6%). The zonation patterns by these animals were very similar to those noted by Dahl(1952) and Jo(1990). They are divided into three faunal zones: 1) subterrestrial fringe dominated by a talitrid amphipod Platorchestia crassicornis, 2) midlittoral zone by a cirolanid isopod Excirolana chiltoni, 3) sublittoral fringe by more diverse amphipods communities.
Evolution of sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius Based on DNA Sequences of a Mitochondrial Gene, Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I
Lee, Youn-Ho ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 2, 2000, Pages 157~168
Sea urchin S. intermedius occurring in the Korean east coast is a cold water species that belongs to the family Strongylocentrotidae of Echinoidea. Although it is known that there are nine species in the family, species identification criteria, phylogenetic relationships, time and process of evolution of the family members have not been uncovered clearly. In the present study, I tried to find some clues to such problems for S. intermedius by means of DNA sequences. For this, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), one of the mitochondrial genes that evolve fast and follow maternal inheritance was analyzed. DNA was extracted from the female gonad of S. intermedius, a segment of COI gene amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and finally a total of 1077 base pair sequence of COI obtained by cloning and sequencing the PCR product. The sequence was compared with homologous genes of other sea urchins and echinoderm species. Phylogenetic trees of the COI gene segment revealed that S. intenedius is a sister species of S. purpuratus which lives along the east coast of the Paciflc. With reference to the fossil records of sea urchins and genetic distances in the molecular phylogenies, it is estimated that the two species were separated about 0.89 million years ago when the earth temperature fluctuated significantly. The current disjunct distribution patterns of the two species and the climate change of the earth at the time of separation suggest that speciation might have occurred by vicariance. The COI gene sequence obtained here now can be used as a molecular character which discerns S. intermedius from the other sea urchin species of Strongylocentrotidae.
Spatio-temporal Distributions of Macrobenthic Community on Subtidal Area around Mokpo, Korea
Lee, Jae-Hac ; Choi, Jin-Woo ; Park, Heung-Sik ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 2, 2000, Pages 169~176
This study was carried out to clarify the spatial and temporal patterns of macrobenthic assemblages on the subtidal area around Mokpo, southwest of Korea. A total of 238 species and 663 ind./
were collected. Polychaetes were the most abundant faunal group that comprised 88 species and had a mean density of 389 ind./
. In the semi-enclosed Youngsan River estuarine bay and neighbouring Mokpo Port area were composed of fine sediments with high organic content, and revealed large seasonal variations in the salinity of surface water and bottom dissolved oxygen in contrast to little seasonal changes in those parameters in the outer area. The study area was classified into four station groups by the cluster analysis; the harbor area, the offshore area, and the inner and outer estuarine bay. Two estuarine bay areas showed different species composition; the dominant species of inner bay were Tharyx sp., Poecilochaetus johnsoni, Heteromastus filiformis and other opportunistic species whereas those in the outer bay were Ruditapes philippinarum, Corophium sinense. From the environmental data and species composition of benthic community, the inner bay was characterized to have unstable benthic faunal assemblages, especially under the seasonal disturbance and receiving large amount of organic matter input and intermittant discharge of fresh water. The coastal developments around Mokpo city also seem to have stressed the subtidal communities spatio-temporally.