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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Oceanography
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Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 4 - Nov 2000
Volume 5, Issue 3 - Aug 2000
Volume 5, Issue 2 - May 2000
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
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The South Sea Circulation of Korea: Two-dimensional Barotrophic Model
Chang, Kyung-Il ; Park, Kyeong ; Suk, Moon-Sik ; Kim, Choong-Ki ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 4, 2000, Pages 257~266
A vertically-averaged, two-dimensional version of the Princeton Ocean Model has been applied to the South Sea to simulate the circulation driven by tides and inflows/outflows across open boundaries. To incorporate both forcing properly, a two-step modeling approach is adopted, in which the tidal circulation is first simulated by specifying the tides along the open boundaries, and then both the calculated tidal currents and the observed steady mean currents are prescribed across the open boundaries. Model results show that the steady, subtidal circulation of the South Sea is different from the residual circulation due to tidal rectification, and subtidal currents become locally as strong as tidal currents. The Cheju Current entering the model domain across the Cheju Strait flows eastward in general while shifting onshore or offshore areas following local isobaths. The Tsushima Current entering across the southern boundary reaches farther to the north in the eastern vicinity of Cheju-Do as compared to that entering across other parts of the southern boundary. The Tsushima Current turns to the east, merges with the Cheju Current, and both the Cheju and Tsushima Current exit to the East Sea through the western channel of the Korea Strait. An intensification of the outflow occurs over the deep trough adjacent to the Tsushima Island, which appears to be due to the formation of the frictional boundary layer in order to remove excess positive relative vorticity generated by an increase in the layer thickness. The circulation driven by both the tidal and inflows/outflows is different from that driven by each forcing separately in coastal areas, which implies that both forcings should be considered simultaneously in the simulation of more realistic coastal circulation.
Comparison of Sea Level Data from TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimeter and in-situ Tide Gauges in the East Asian Marginal Seas
Youn, Yong-Hoon ; Kim, Ki-Hyun ; Park, Young-Hyang ; Oh, Im-Sang ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 4, 2000, Pages 267~275
In an effort to assess the reliability of satellite altimeter system, we conducted a comparative analysis of sea level data that were collected using the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) altimeter and the 10 tide gauge (TG) stations in the satellite passing track. The analysis was made using data sets collected from marginal sea regions surrounding the Korean Peninsula at T/P cycles of 2 to 230, which correspond to October 1992 to December 1998. Because of strong tidal activity in the study area, treatment of tidal errors is a very critical step in data processing. Hence in the computation of dynamic heights from the Tn data, we adapted the procedures of Park and Gamberoni (1995) to reduce errors associated with it. When these T/P data were treated, the alias periods of M
, and K
constitutions were found at 62.1, 58.7, and 173 days. The compatibility of the T/P and TG data sets were examined at various filtering periods. The results indicate that the low-frequency signal of Tn data can be interpreted more safely with longer filtering periods (such as up to the maximum selected values of 200 days). When RMS errors for 200-day low-pass filter period was compared among the whole 10 tidal stations, the values spanned in the range of 2.8 to 6.7 cm. The results of correlation analysis at this filtering period also showed a strong agreement between the Tn and TG data sets over the whole stations investigated (e.g., P values consistently less than 0.0001). According to our analysis, we conclude that the analysis of surface sea level using satellite altimeter data can be made safely and reasonably long filtering periods such as 200 days.
Distribution of Organic Carbon, Organic Nitrogen, and Heavy Metals in Lake Shihwa Sediments
Kang, Jeong-Won ; Hang, Dae-Byuk ; Park, Yong-Ahn ; Choi, Jung-Hoon ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 4, 2000, Pages 276~284
Distributions of organic carbon (Co
), organic nitrogen (N
), and heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn) were investigated in Lake Shihwa sediments. Surface and core samples were collected in April and September, 1997 and March, 1998 for the study. The results show that these components contents are variable with sampling timeand station. In surface sediments, both Co
have similar distribution pattern in which their high contents found in stations located near the land, indicating that the streams and industrial wastes seem to act as point sources. The C
contents are linearly related with those of heavy metals. It appears, therefore, that the distribution of heavy metals may be partly controlled by a complex interplay of biogenic, terrestial, and anthropogenic factors. The C/N ratios from three stations are in the range of 3-32, with an average of 13.2. Vertical profiles of heavy metals in sediment cores are similar to those of C
. Copper content of sediments is enriched compared to that of reported value before dike construction, but Zn and Mn are not deposited considerably. Especially, Pb content show less variable. Currently, anthropogenic effects of industrial complex may not reached to drainage gate area where heavy metal contents are comparable with those adjacent to coastal sediments.
Distributions and Pollution History of Heavy Metals in Nakdong Estuary Sediments
Cho, Jin-Hyung ; Park, Nam-Joon ; Kim, Kee-Hyun ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 4, 2000, Pages 285~294
In order to determine the horizontal and vertical distributions of metals and prospect the recent metal pollution history in Nakdong Estuary, we took surface and core sediments. Maximum value of organic matter occurs at the upstream site located 4 km from Nakdong barrage, and the concentration of trace metals (Zn, Cu, and Pb etc.) decrease seaward in the estuary. The sedimentation rates, based on
Cs activities, were 0.34 cm/yr in inside of barrage (core 1) and 0.25 cm/yr in Changrim (core 4). Sediment mixing layer does not exist in core 1, where anoxic condition is known to be prevail. The topmost sediment layer of core 4 (<3.5 cm) is severely mixed. At sites 1 and 4, concentrations of Cu slowly increased during the period of 1920-1970, rapidly increased during 1970-1990, and followed by slight decrease after 1990. Zn contents increased in early 1960s and peaked in 1993, and followed by decrease after 1990s. Pb has increased continuously since early 1970s. At the downstream of the barrage, Cu and Zn have increased in the topmost layer. The trend of increase of Cu is evident after 1950 (11 cm in sediment depth). Overall trend of heavy metal concentration clearly indicates the pollution has been increasing after the construction of the barrage.
Water Column Structure and Dispersal Pattern of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) in a floating ice-dominated fjord, Marian Cove, Antarctica during Austral Summer
Yoo, Kyu-Cheul ; Yoon, Hoo-Il ; Kang, Cheon-Yun ; Kim, Boo-Keun ; Oh, Jae-Kyung ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 4, 2000, Pages 295~304
Vertical measurement of CTDT at about 30 min intervals and spatial surface temperature, salinity, and concentration of suspended particulate matters were conducted to elucidate the character of water column and the dispersal pattern in a floating ice-dominated fjord, Marian Cove, West Antarctica. Marian Cove showed two distinct water layers in terms of turbidity; 1) cold, fresh, and turbid surface plume in the upper 2 m,2) warm, saline, and relatively clean Maxwell Bay inflow between 15-45 m in water depth. Thermal melting of Maxwell Bay inflow and tidewater glacier/floating ices developed the surface mixed layer and the activity of floating ices cause Maxwell Bay inflow to be unstable. Due to the unstable water column, the development of Maxwell Bay inflow and subsequent surface plume are not influenced by tidal frequency. Coastal current generated by strong northwesterly wind may extend warm, saline, and turbid surface plume into the central part of the cove along the northern coast via the western coast of Weaver Peninsula. Terrigenous sediments of meltwaters from the glaciated ice cliffs near the corner of tidewater glacier and some coasts enter into the cove and their dispersion depends upon the hydrographic regimes (tide, wind, wave etc.). At the period of spring tide, the strong wind stress with the northwesterly wind direction reserve suspended sediment-fed surface plume and so allow the possibility of deposition of terrigenous sediments within the basin of cove.
Occurrence of Diatom in the Late Quaternary Sediments of the Northeastern East Sea (Sea of Japan) and its Paleoceanographic Changes
Shin, Y.N. ; Ikehara, K. ; Yoon, H.I. ; Kim, Y. ; Woo, K.S. ; Khim, B.K. ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 4, 2000, Pages 305~319
A total of 50 diatom species and 1 subspecies belonging to 31 genera except Chaetoceros resting spores were identified in the 45 sediments subsampled from a gravity core GH98-1223 collected from the western Hokkaido Island located in the northeastern East Sea (Sea of Japan). The most dominant species is Thalassionema nitzschioides (Grunow) Hustedt, ranging 29 to 59% of the total assemblages, and most species including Denticulopsis seminae (Simonsen and Kanaya) Simonsen and Pseudoeunotia doliolus (Wallich) Grunow were less than 5% in average. Frequencies of cold-water species are generally higher than those of warm-water species and the vertical distribution of cold-water species was largely opposite to that of warm-water species in spite of ecological habitat difference. Frequency of cold-water species, D. seminae is reverse to that of P. doliolus, an indicator of the Tsushima Warm Current, which is consistent with diatom temperature value (T
value). The variation of T
values shows that the upper part of core with greater-than-average T
values represents postglacial warming trend. These T
values clearly demonstrate that the study area located in the northern part of the East Sea is gradually influenced by Tsushima Warm Current. In addition, the zig-zag variation in the lower part reflects the unstable seawater for diatom habitat. Chaetoceros resting spores indicating productivity and upwelling was 5.3 to 40%, with maximum peak at 80 cm. Chaetoceros resting spores/Chaetoceros vegetative cells, an indicator of relative amounts of biogenic material in the sediments was high at the upper 80 cm level, corresponding to the change of T
values. On the basis of diatom assemblages, the northeastern part of East Sea has experienced the effects of Tsushima Warm Current during the postglacial period of Holocene, which is similar to the modem climatic environment. However, the variation of P. doliolus reflects that the intensity of Tsushima Warm Current has been oscillated in the East Sea.
A Study on Geotechnical Properties of Deep-Sea Sediments, NE Equatorial Paciflc of KODOS Area
Kim, Ki-Hyun ; Moon, Jai-Woon ; Lee, Kyeong-Yong ; Son, Seung-Kyu ; Oh, Jae-Kyung ; Chi, Sang-Bum ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 4, 2000, Pages 320~334
Deep-sea surface sediment were analyzed for their geotechnical properties, and the sediment samples were collected with a multiple-corer from 31 stations along the track line (131
N) in the northeast equatorial Paciflc. Most of the sediments from the northern part (8-12
N) showed typical properties of siliceous sediments, whereas the southern part (5-6
N) showed calcareous characteristics due to high biogenic carbonate productivity in the surface waters, where its water depth was shallower than the carbonate compensation depth (CCD: 4,400 m). Geotechnical properties changed sharply at the boundary of 7
N. Calcareous sediments from the southern part had low water contents, low porosity, low shear strength, high bulk density and high specific grain density, whereas siliceous sediments from the northern part attained high water content, high porosity, high shear strength, low bulk density and low specific grain density. Higher sediment activities were observed in the northern sediment samples than the southern sediment samples. The core samples of the northern sediments were divided into a semi-liquid upper layer and a consolidated lower layer with a boundary at 5-8 cm. These sediment samples showed a rapid increasing pattern along the downcore in original shear strength when an opposite trend was observed in the southern samples. The results showed that sediment variabilities in geotechnical properties between the northern and southern parts such as productivities of surface water, grain solubility due to water depth variation, sedimentation rate, erosion and redistribution of sediment, and combined sedimentary processes were distinctly different along the latitude.
Physical properties of Southeastern Yellow Sea Mud (SEYSM): Comparison with the East Sea and the South Sea mudbelts of Korea
Kim, Dae-Choul ; Kim, Shin-Jeong ; Seo, Young-Kyo ; Jung, Ja-Hun ; Kim, Yang-Eun ; Kim, Gil-Young ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 4, 2000, Pages 335~345
Physical and acoustic properties of the Southeastern Yellow Sea Mud (SEYSM) of Korea were studied by using 10 piston cores. The data were also compared with mudbelt sediments in the South Sea and the East Sea (southeastern inner shelf) of Korea. The sediments were mainly composed of homogeneous silt. Sandy mud and mud were minor components. The major source of sediment in the study area is probably the Keum River. Finegrained sediments discharged from the river are transported southward by coastal current, resulting in a gradual southward increase in porosity and a decrease in wet bulk density and sound velocity. The mean grain size especially appears to be the most important variable to determine the physical properties and velocity. The variations of physical properties with burial depth are dependent more strongly on sediment texture (especially, silt content) than compaction and/or consolidation. Correlations between the physical properties and the sediment texture show slight deviations from those of the East Sea and the South Sea of Korea in spite of similar pattern within the limiting values. This is probably due to the differences in silt contents, sedimentary environments, mineral compositions, and gas contents.
Distributional Pattern of Macrobenthic Invertebrates on the Shallow Subtidal Sandy Bottoms near Kangrung, East Coast of Korea
Je, Jong-Geel ; Lee, Jae-Hac ; Lim, Hyun-Sik ; Choi, Jin-Woo ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 4, 2000, Pages 346~356
This study was carried out to investigate the distribution pattern of macrobenthos in the subtidal sandy bottoms of the east coast of Korea, and seasonal samplings were performed from April 1993 to February 1994. The species number of macrobenthos was in the range from 70 in winter to 109 in spring season. Polychaete worms were the most dominant faunal group in species richness and abundance, but mollusks showed the highest biomass. The mean density of macrobenthos fluctuated from 631 individuals/m
in autumn to 1,995 individuals/m
in summer. The major macrofauna in abundance were polychaetes, Spiophanes bombyx which occurred all seasons with top rank and Prionospio sp. and a mollusk, Alvenius ojianus, and crustaceans, Wecomedon sp. and Urothoidae spp. were also numerically dominant macrobenthic fauna. The macrobenthos in the study area were classified into two assemblages by water depth. However, they showed a different community structure near small rivers in autumn and winter seasons.
The Estimation of Water Mass Mixing Ratio by Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes in the Southern Yellow Sea
Kim, Kee-Hyun ; Han, Jeong-Hee ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 4, 2000, Pages 357~362
Stable isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen were investigated in southern Yellow Sea in August 1997. Salinity showed good positive correlation with
. The correlation between
D is good. From the relationship between these parameters, we obtained two lines of conclusion: 1) seawater of study area I in summer is a mixture of Changjiang Water and modified Kuroshio Water; 2) stable isotopes are very useful tracers in studying property and behavior of water masses in the study area. In case when water masses can not be easily distinguished by T-S analysis, the stable isotopes seem to be powerful tools for this purpose.
Evidence for Hydrothermal Plume in Manus Basin, SW Pacific: Distribution of Transparency and Hydrogen Sulfide
Lee, Kyeong-Yong ; Park, Yong-Chul ; Son, Seung-Kyu ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 4, 2000, Pages 363~373
To understand and investigate chemical characteristics of thermal environment in the southwestern Paciflc, we have measured hydrological and chemical parameters such as temperature, salinity, transparency, pH, nutrients and hydrogen sulfide (H
S). Samples were collected with CTD-casting at 12 station, in Manus Basin including PACMANUS, DESMOS and Susu Knolls, Hydrothermal systems consist of circulation zones where seawater interacts with rock, thereby changing chemical and physical characteristics of both the seawater and the rock. The altered seawater, called hydrothermal fluid, is injected back into the ocean from the hydrothermal vent fields and forms hydrothermal plumes. Consequently, we detected hydrothermal plume with transparency and sulfide anomalies at PACMANUS and Susu Knolls. Sulfide, as geochemical tracer of hydrothermal plume, ranged 0-3.31
M, and averaged 0.63
M in the study area. The height, flux and activity of the plume are affected by circulations in the deep water and the spread of plume follows along the isopycnal surface. Therefore the observed H
S anomaly can provide important clue for the source location and it appears that the targestsource in the PACMANUS is aligned in the north-south direction.
Dissolved Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in the surface waters of Cheju-Korea Straits region
Cho, Ki-Woong ; Jung, Kyung-Hwa ; Shin, Jung-Hun ; Kim, Young-Il ; Chung, Chang-Soo ; Hong, Gi-Hoon ;
The Sea, volume 5, issue 4, 2000, Pages 374~380
Dissolved aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the surface seawater were investigated to describe their distribution and elucidate their sources in the Cheju-Korea Straits region (33
E). Seawater sampling was made in spring and autumn in 1998. A large temporal and spatial variability were observed in the dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations in the region. The sources of dissolved hydrocarbons in seawater were elucidated based on the molecular concentrations of n-alkanes and pristane. Dissolved hydrocarbons in the surface water appears to be largely originated from phytoplankton and petroleum in the southern Yellow Sea (125
), and terrigenous and petrogenic in the Cheju-Korea Straits region in April 1998. In September 1998, dissolved hydrocarbons in the surface waters were largely derived from phytoplanktons and terrestrial material in the Cheju-Korea Soaits region.