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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Society of Oceanography
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Volume 6, Issue 4 - Nov 2001
Volume 6, Issue 3 - Aug 2001
Volume 6, Issue 2 - May 2001
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
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Physical Environment Changes in the Keum River Estuary Due to Dike Gate Operation: III. Tidal Modulation of Low-salinity Water
Choi, Hyun-Yong ; Kwon, Hyo-Keun ; Lee, Sang-Ho ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 3, 2001, Pages 115~125
To examine the movement of the freshwater discharged artificially into the estuary during ebbing period in the Keum River dike we observed surface salinity variations in three stations along the estuary channel in May 1998 and July 1997 and surface temperature and salinity along the ferry-route between Kunsan and Changhang during eighteen days in July 1999. Based upon the typical features of observed salinity variation, we analyzed the excursion and decay processes of the discharged water. When freshwater is discharged, the low-salinity water forms strong salinity front over the entire estuary width, which basically moves forth and back by tidal modulation along the channel, producing the sudden change of surface salinity with the front passage. Salinity distribution along the channel, which is deduced from time variation of mean salinity over the estuary width, after one tidal period from gate operation suggests that diluted low-salinity water is trapped to the front and surface salinity increases gradually toward the upstream region. This frontal distribution of salinity is interpreted to be produced by the sudden gate operation supplying and stopping of freshwater within about two hours. Daily repeat of freshwater discharge produces separation (double front) or merge between decaying and new-generated fronts depending on dike-gate opening time, and the front decays with salinity increasing if the freshwater supply is stopped more than two days. In addition, the observed fluctuations and deviations in surface salinity variation is explained in terms of the differences of fronts intensity, their transition time and temporal salinity front running along the channel, which can be generated due to artificial gate-operation for the discharging time and water volume in the estuary dike.
Origin of Sandstone Fragments Within Core Sediments Obtained from Southwestern Continental Shelf of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea
Lee, Eui-Hyeong ; Lee, Yong-Kuk ; Shin, Dong-Hyeok ; Huh, Sik ; Kim, Seong-Ryul ; Jeong, Baek-Hoon ; Han, Sang-Joon ; Chun, Jong-Hwa ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 3, 2001, Pages 126~134
Several angular sandstone fragments (about 7 cm in longest diameter) occur in two piston cores, obtained from the submarine trough in the northeastern part of Korea Strait. The origin of the sandstone fragments and the paleoenvironment of trough sediment could be suggested from sedimentary facies analysis of cores and identification of ostracod within sandstone fragments. Echo characteristics around two core sites in submarine trough represent the prolonged bottom echoes with diffuse or no subbottom reflectors. The cores consist of a lower bioturbated mud and an upper gravelly sand sediments with sandstone/shell fragments. The bioturbated mud sediments show low water contents (27-44%) and high shear strength (19.2->37 kPa) compared with those of Holocene sediments (60-219% and 1.0-2.7 kPa, respectively) in the inner shelf and continental slope. However, clay contents (48-56%) of the bioturbated mud sediments are similar to those of fluviatile Holocene sediments in the inner shelf. The mean grain size of gravelly sand sediments ranges from 2.3 to 3.0
and shows coarsening upward with sandstone/shell fragments. The Holocene palimpsest in the continental shelf are composed of muddy sand sediments or sandy mud sediments (mean grain size: 4.6-7.6
). Those suggest that two core sediments might be formed from Paleofluvial and paleocoastal deposits during sea-level lowstand. However, sandstone fragments mainly consist of quartz grains and bioclasts, with carbonate matrix, hollow pore, and glauconite. Two extinct ostracod species, Normanicythere sp. and Kotoracythere sp., are recovered in the sand-stone fragments of core EP-7, and they continued to exist from late Pliocene to early Pleistocene in cold water environment of this area. Thus, the sandstone fragments are interpreted to be formed at the paleocoastal environment derived from the Plio-Pleistocene outcrops exposed around the submarine trough during the LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) period.
Paleomagnetism of Deep-sea Core Sediment in Southwestern Pacific
Moon, Jai-Woon ; Kim, Ki-Hyune ; Chi, Sang-Bum ; Lee, Gun-Chang ; Doh, Seong-Jae ; Park, Cheong-Kee ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 3, 2001, Pages 135~141
A paleomagnetic investigation was carried out to analyze magnetostratigraphic information and to evaluate the relationship between paleoenvironment and magnetic properties in sedimentary sequences of piston cores recovered from the abyssal basin of the southwestern Pacific. Pateomagnetic results revealed that the sediments had a stable remanent magnetization and recorded both normal and reversal polarities. The age of sediments was from late Pliocene and Pleistocene determined by matching the polarities with the geomagnetic time scale. The sedimentation rates were in the range of 0.63-1.85 mm/
year which were extremely low rates. The results of the paleomagnetic analyses indicated that intervals of the magnetically stable layers as well as high value of susceptibility were significantly affected by the input changes which resulted input of large-quantity materials of relatively stable magnetic carriers.
Formation and Evolution of the Paleo-Seomjin River Incised-Valley System, Southern Coast of Korea: 1. Sequence Stratigraphy of Late Quaternary Sediments in Yosu Strait
Chun, Seung-Soo ; Chang, Jin-Ho ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 3, 2001, Pages 142~151
Detailed interpretation of some high-resolution seismic profiles in Yosu Strait reveals that Late Quaternary deposits consist of three allostratigraphic units (UH, LH, PL) formed by fluvial and tidal controls. The top mud unit, UH, thins onshore, and overlies the backstepping modem Seomjin delta deposits, which is interpreted as a transgressive systems tract (757) related to Holocene relative sea-level rise. The unit LH below the unit UH is composed of delta, valley- and basin-fill facies. The delta facies (Unit
) occurs only in Gwangyang Bay and shows two prograding sets retrogradationaly stacked, thus it is also interpreted as a transgressive systems tract(757). On the contrary, the valley- and basin-fill facies (Unit
), interpreted as 757, occur between the units UH and PL (Pleistocene deposits) in Yosu Strait. The bounding surface between UH and
can be interpreted as a tidal ravinement surface on the basis of trends thinning toward inner bay and becoming young landward. Furthermore its geomorphological pattern is similar to that of recent tidal channels. This allostratigraphy in'ffsu Strait suggests that two 757 deposits (UH and
), divided by tidal ravinement surface, have been formed in Yosu Strait, whereas in Gwangyang Bay backstepping delta deposits (
) without tidal ravinement surface have been formed during Holocene sea-level rise. These characteristics indicate that different stacking patterns could be formed in these two areas according to different increasing rate of accommodation space caused by different geomorphology, sediment supply and tidal-current patterns even in the same period of Holocene sea-level rise.
Diatom Assemblages and its Paleoceanography of the Holocene Glaciomarine Sediments from the Western Antarctic Peninsula shelf, Antarctica
Shin, Yu-Na ; Kim, Yea-Dong ; Kang, Cheon-Yoon ; Yoon, Ho-Il ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 3, 2001, Pages 152~163
Based upon the sedimentological, geochemical and micropaleontological analyses of two sediment cores from the Antarctic Peninsula (AP), three distinct lithological units can be recognized: (1) ice-proximal an/or ice-distal diamictons in the lower part of the cores, accumulated just seaward of the grounding line of the ice shlef until 11,000 yrs BP; (2) diatomaceous mud between 6,000 and 2,500 yrs BP in the middle part, resulted from a large influx of organic materials by enhanced production of open marine condition; (3) diatomaceous sandy mud since 2,500 yrs BP, characterized by an increase in sand content and decrease in TOC and diatom abundance in the lower layers, which reflects the formation of more extensive and seasonally persistent sea ice. Based on the C-14 radiocarbon dating, the sub-ice shlef deposition of the diamicton on the AP western shelf completed around 11,000 yrs BP. Colder condition was reinstated between 12,800 and 11,600 BP with a dropin TOC content and diatom abundance, which is coincident with the Younger Dryas event in the North Atlanticregion. At this time, the ice shelf, that is now absent in the study area, appears to advance as evidenced by an abrupt increase in sea-ice taxa. A climatic optimum is recognized between 9,000 and 2,500 BP, coincide witha mid-Holocene climatic optimum 'Hypsithermal Warm Period' from the other Antarctic sites. During this time, diatomaceous mud accumulated by a large influx of organic materials by enhanced production occurred in openmarine condition. Around 2,500 BP, diatomaceous sandy mud reflects the formation of more extensive and seasonally persistent sea ice, coincident with the onset of the Neoglacial in the Antarctic. Our results provide evidence of climatic change from the Antarctic Peninsula`s western shelf that helps in determining the existence and timing of Holocene milennial-scale climatic events in the Southern Hemisphere.
Seasonal and Annual Variations of Catch by Large Purse Seine off Korea
Baik, Chul-In ; Park, Jong-Hwa ; Choi, Kwang-Ho ; Hwang, Sun-Do ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 3, 2001, Pages 164~179
Spatio-temporal variation in species composition, abundance and distribution of fisheries resources caught by large purse seine off Korea from 1991 to 1994 was analysed. Out of 19 species, Scomber japonicus (54.7%), Sardinops melanostictus (20.4%), Trachurus japonicus (9.1%), and Scomberomorus niphonius (6.2%) were predominated in catch. These 4 pelagic fishes occupied 90% of total catch. Major pelagic fishes caught by large purse seine were dispersed to northward from spring to summer, and migrated to the southern wintering ground during winter. Fishing effort (number of haul) was high in summer, but catch per unit effort showed a peak in winter. The high CPUE in winter seemed to be related to aggregation of the pelagic fish to the wintering ground in the southern sea. After spawning, they were widely dispersed for feeding in warm months.
Spatial Distribution of Benthic Macrofaunal Community in Ulsan Bay and Onsan Bay, Eastern Coast of Korea
Yoon, Seong-Myeoung ; Koh, Chul-Hwan ; Shin, Hyun-Chool ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 3, 2001, Pages 180~189
This study was conducted to investigate the macrobenthic community in Ulsan Bay and Onsan Bay, in November of 1997. The density of benthic animals was 535 md./m2, and the number of species was 117. Polychaeta was the most dominant faunal group, comprising a total of 63 species, and its density was 380 md./m2 The most dominant benthic macrofauna was Cirratulrus cirratulas (2.7%), and followed by Tharyx sp. (16.6%), Ruditapes philippinarum (16.1%), Lumbrineris longifolia (10.3%) and so on. The dominant species occupied their distinct unique distribution area. Tharyx sp., R. philippinarum and Grandidierella sp.1 occurred mainly in Ulsan Bay, L. longifolia and Euchone sp. in Onsan Bay, and C. cirratulas and Cirriforimia tentaculata in both bays. By cluster analysis, study area was divided into 4 station groups: Northern Ulsan Bay (Al), the middle area of Ulsan Bay (Bl), offsea area between Ulsan Bay and Onsan Bay (Bll), and Onsan Bay (C). Northern Ulsan Bay was characterized by low species number and high density. The dominant species were C. cirratulas R. philippinarum and Tharyx sp. The middle area of Ulsan Bay was by low species number and density, and its characteristic species was Grandidierella sp.1. The offsea area between Ulsan and Onsan Bay was by high species number and low density. Onsan Bay was by high species number and high density, and its important species were L. longifolia and Euchone sp.
The Community Ecology of Benthic Macrofauna on the Cheokjeon Tidal Flat, Incheon, Korea 1. Community Structure
Seo, In-Soo ; Hong, Jae-Sang ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 3, 2001, Pages 190~200
An ecological study was performed to investigate the community structure of the benthic macrofaunal assemblage on the Cheokjeon tidal flat, Incheon, Korea. Benthic samples were collected between Sept. 1990 and July1992 at three stations to compare environmental factors with the structure of benthic community among station sand seasons. Overall, macrofauna comprised a total of 111 species, and the mean density (708.1 md./
) and biomass (214.9gWWt/
). The number of species and individuals of polychaetes, molluscs and crustaceans made up more than 80% of the total number. On the other hand, in terms of biomass, bivalves and holothuroideans indicated that they were the dominant faunal groups. Hierarchical classification using the Bray-Curtis coefficient categorized samples into 3 station and 4 faunal groups. In terms of q-mode, there consisted of upper, middle and low tidal flat stations, respectively. And four faunistic groups were established as follows: 1) Heteromastus filifomis-Mactra veneriformis-Solen strictus-Ilyoplax finggi (wide-ranging elevation specialists), 2)Nephtys chemulpoensis-Macrophthalmus gaponicus (high elevation specialists), 3) Glycera subaenea-Decorifer matusimana-Tritodynamia (middle elevation specialists) and 4) Nephtys polybranchia-Borniopsis tsurumaru-Asthenognathus inaequipes-Protankyra bidentata (low elevation Specialists).
Limiting Nutrient on Phytoplankton Growth in Gwangyang Bay
Lee, Jae-Seong ; Jung, Rae-Hong ; Kim, Soung-Soo ; Go, Woo-Jin ; Kim, Kui-Young ; Park, Jong-Soo ; Lee, Young-Sik ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 3, 2001, Pages 201~210
Salinity, DIN, DIP, DIN/DIP and indigenous algal assay were determined to estimate the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth in Gwangyang Bay, South Sea of Korea. Seawater samples were collected at surface and bot-tom water in 4 November 1999 (dry season) and 2 September 2000 (after heavy rain). In 4 November 1999, the salinity, DIN, DIP and DIN/DIP were 29.92 psu, 13.59
and 4.14 respectively. In 2 September 2000, These values were 24.62 psu, 27.77
and 9.79 respectively. The DIN and DIP concentrations in this study were higher than Deukryang, Yeoja and Gamak Bay, South Sea of Korea. Especially, DIP concentration was 8 times high compared to Deutryang, Yeoja and Gamak Bay. The main sources of nitrogen seem to be freshwater runoff from Somjin River and industrial wastewater. But, the main sources of phosphorus seem to be industrial wastewater around Gwangyang Bay. The limiting nutrient was nitrogen at all station in 4 November 1999. The limiting nutrient was also nitrogen in 2 September 2000 in spite of heavy rain observed because of relatively much volume of phosphorus sup-plied from point sources than nitrogen. In case of below 20 psu in salinity by heavy rain, the limiting nutrient willbe shift from nitrogen to phosphorus at some area of Somjin River estuary. But the limiting nutrient will be never shift to phosphorus throughout Gwangyang Bay, eastern coast of Yeoja and Dolsan because of much volume of phosphorus runoff from point source in coastal area of Gwangyang Bay.