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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Oceanography
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Volume & Issues
Volume 6, Issue 4 - Nov 2001
Volume 6, Issue 3 - Aug 2001
Volume 6, Issue 2 - May 2001
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
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Study on Physical Oceanographic Environments in the Coastal Sea of Chung-Moon, Cheju Island
Hong, Chang-Su ; Oh, Kyung-Hee ; Pang, Ig-Chan ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 211~217
Physical oceanographic environments in the coastal sea of Chung-Moon located in the south coast of Cheju Island, Korea, where water pollutions by growing tourism complex possibly start to influence on the ecological system, are studied with hydrographic data observed monthly during July 1997 to June 2000. Winter and summer characteristics are shown in December to April and June to October, respectively, and transitional characteristics are shown in May and November. Waters show
34.7 psu in winter and
34.3 psu in summer. It tells that Tsushima water distributes in the whole column in winter and in the lower layer in summer, and Yangtze coastal water appears in the surface water in summer. When the influence of Yangtze coastal water is strong, salinities below 30psu are shown. Stratification is formed in the depth of about 20 m from June to October, so that it is not shown in the near shore stations, of which the depth is about10 m. Isotherms and isohalines sometimes tend to be perpendicular to the coast line in the surface, which seems to show influences from the steam power plant near St. 1 and the sewage disposal plant near St. 3. During the observation period, temperatures in St. 1 are a little higher than those in St. 2 and St. 3 except for a couple of months in summer and salinities in St. 3 are mostly a little lower than those in St. 1 and St. 2. Their effects seem to be no more than
in a distance of 300 m and no more than 0.1 psu within a distance of 30 m.
Hydrography and Circulation in the Youngsan River Estuary in Summer, 2000
Cho, Yang-Ki ; Cho, Cheol ; Sun, Youn-Jong ; Park, Kyung-Yang ; Park, Lae-Hwan ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 218~224
Water movement in the Young San River Estuary where a sea dyke was constructed, was observed using anacoustic doppler profiler (ADP) and two TGPS buoys for 25 hours on 27-28 July 2000. Hydrographic observations were simultaneously taken using CTD to understand the characteristic of the spacial structure of temperature and salinity. A large quantity of fresh water was discharged from the sea dyke on 26 July 2000. The observation period fell on neap tide. The amplitude of the tidal elevation and the maximum velocity of the tidal current were about 4 m and 12 cm/sec respectively. The water movement at the surface layer is mainly controlled by wind, and those at the other layers are controlled by semidiurnal tide. The low salinity water less than 22 psu was observed along the northern part during the early observation period while southerly wind prevails. The less saline water moves westward and finally leaves the estuary by easterly wind early on the second day. We can divide the vertical structure into four layers by hydrography and current structure. Mean velocity structure shows that relatively less saline waters at the surface and the middle layer move seaward, and the waters at the upper and the bottom layers move landward. It is thought that the intermittent discharge of river water from the sea dyke makes vertical structure of four layers.
Numerical Study on the Role of Sea-ice Using Ocean General Circulation Model
Lee, Jin-Ah ; Ahn, Joong-Bae ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 225~233
In order to find out the role of sea-ice in the climate system, a thermodynamic sea-ice model has been developed and included in the ocean general circulation model, MOM2, for the construction of OGCM/sea-ice coupled model in this study. By using the model developed, seasonal mean sea-ice distribution has been simulated, first of all. The role of sea-ice in the sense of large scale ocean circulation has been studied by comparing the results of OGCM/sea-ice coupled model experiment with OGCM-standalone experiment. At the same time, the coupled model has been verified by comparing and analysing the results of the other models and observation. The coupled model has reasonably simulated the overall seasonal distribution of sea-ice in the high latitudes of both hemispheres. In the comparative analysis between the OGCM/sea-ice coupled and OGCM-standalone experiments, the sea-ice is playing important roles on maintaining not only the distributions of temperature and salinity in high latitudes of both hemispheres, but also the meridional ocean circulation associated with south ocean cell, southern hemisphere cell and zonal ocean circulation such as a circum-polar current.
Degree of saturation of
in the East Sea
Kang, Dong-Jin ; Kim, Kyung-Ryul ; Lee, Kyung-Eun ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 234~241
The degree of saturation of calcium carbonate in the East Sea was calculated from the data obtained from'99 expedition using R/V Roger Revelle. The calcium concentrations in seawaters were estimated from salinity data, and the carbonate ion concentrations were calculated from total alkalinity and pH data. The results suggest that the crossover from the supersaturation to undersaturation for calcium carbonate occur at the depth of approximately 200-400 m for calcite, and 100-300 m for aragonite. Compared to the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, these levels in the East Sea are shallow due to most likely lower temperature of sea water in this region.
Gas Hydrate Occurrence in the Southwestern Slope of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Inferred from Seismic Evidence
Hong, Jong-Kuk ; Yoo, Hai-Soo ; Jou, Hyeong-Tae ; Han, Sang-Joon ; Choi, Dong-Lim ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 242~248
A high resolution Chirp seismic profile and a multichannel seismic reflection profile were analysed to study the possibility of gas hydrate presence in the southwestern upper slope of the Ulleung Basin. The Chirp profile shows acoustic turbidity, acoustic void, and pockmarks, suggesting the presence of shallow gas in the sediments .Slope failures appear to have occurred in association with decomposition of gas hydrated sediments. A bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) is seen in subbottom depths of 60 to 110 m below the seafloor at water depths of 750 to 1130 m. The sediments above BSR are characterized by acoustic blanking probably due to amplitude reduction caused by a mixture of gas hydrate with sediments. The interval velocity above the BSR is 1,650 m/sec and it drops abruptly to 1,080 m/sec below the BSR. The sediment column between seafloor and the BSR thins with increasing water depth, which is very closely related to increasing geothermal gradient with increasing water depth in the Ulleung Basin.
Characteristics of Velocity and Electrical Resistivity in Gassy Sediments Results of Mudbelt Sediments in the Southeastern Inner Shelf of Korea
Kim, Dae-Choul ; Park, Soo-Chul ; Seo, Young-Kyo ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 249~258
Compressional wave velocity and electrical resistivity of muddy sediments in the southeastern inner shelf of Korea were studied using nine piston core samples. The acoustic and physical properties were measured with 10 cm depth interval. Sediment structures were examined by x-radiographs of the cored sediments. Subbottom profiles were obtained by a high-resolution acoustic subbottom profiler. Acoustic turbid layers are clearly seen on the profiles, and x-radiographs of the sediments showed degassying structures formed by gas escaping. On the basis of x-radiographic images, velocities, electrical resistivities and physical properties, the sediments are divided into gassy and non-gassy sediments. The presence of gas and degassying structures result in a marked variation in velocity and electrical resistivity. It can be concluded that velocity and electrical resistivity arep arameter to recognize gassy sediment. The velocity is important parameter to indicate gassy sediment.
Countermeasure and Outbreak Mechanism of Cochlodinium polykrikoides red tide 1. Environmental characteristics on outbreak and disappearanceof C. polykrikoides bloom
Park, Young-Tae ; Kim, Young-Sug ; Kim, Kui-Young ; Park, Jong-Soo ; Go, Woo-Jin ; Jo, Yeong-Jo ; Park, Seong-Yoon ; Lee, Young-Sik ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 259~264
Typhoon and neap tide on Cochlodinium polykrikoides bloom and water temperature on disappearance of C. polykrikoides bloom were investigated to elucidate the outbreak mechanism of C. polykrikoides blooms at Naro and Namhae coastal area in South Sea of Korea. The first observation of C. polykrikoides blooms were observed when thermocline was disappeared by typhoon, tide, etc. The first blooms of C. polykrikoides were observed on neap tide or before one day from neap tide in 1996-1998 and 2000. However, thermocline was disappeared by typhoon in 1994 and 1999, the first blooms were observed early 12-30 day than 1996-1998 and 2000. The main reason of disappearance of C. polykrikoides blooms after typhoon on 1997-2000 seems to be other environmental change by typhoon rather than low water temperature. In the future, the first C. polykrikoides bloom will be appear around the first neap tide of latter part of August with breaking down of thermocline, but if the thermocline be collapsed by typhoon in July, the C. polykrikoides bloom will be appear at beginning of August. The outbreak of C. polykrikoides blooms will be explain as follows: The vegetative cells, which was germinated by environmental change or already exist in surface water at low level, input to the surface water, and then nutrients and trace metals which were suppled from out side of C. polykrikoides bloom area inflow to surface. The vegetative cells are growth by the nutrients and trace metals at suitable environmental conditions e.g. water temperature, salinity, and sufficient light.
Genetic Studies on the Sea Urchin Embryogenesis and Skeletogenesis
Lee, Youn-Ho ;
The Sea, volume 6, issue 4, 2001, Pages 265~273
The sea urchin has been used as sea food in many countries. This species has also been an important organism of embryological studies for more than a century. In recent years, sea urchin embryos are being used as testing materials for toxicity of pollutants and toxins. Usefulness of sea urchin embryos as experimental models comes from the easiness in obtaining sea urchin samples and a lot of gametes, in rearing embryos in the laboratory, in observing the cellular movement and organ formation during the embryogenesis and in manipulating blastomeres and genetic maferials. The sea urchin in itself is a key organism for the understanding of deuterostome evolution from the protostomes and of indirect development of marine invertebrates which undergo the planktotrophic larval stage. A fertilized sea urchin egg goes through rapid cleavage and becomes a 60 cell embryo 7hr after fertilization. It then develops into a morula, a blastula, a gastrula and finally a pluteus larva approximately 70 hr after fertilization. At the 60 cell stage, the embryo comprises of five territories that express territory-speciflc genes and later form different organs. Micromeres at the vegetal pole ingress into the blastoceol and become the primary mesenchyme cells(PMCs). PMCs express genes involved in skeletogenesis such as SM30, SM37, SM50, PM27, msp130. Among the genes, SM37 and SM50 are considered to be members of a gene family which is characterized by early blastula expression, Glycine-Proline-Glutamine rich repeat structures and spicule matrix forming basic proteins. Genetic studies on the sea urchin embryos help understand the molecular basis of indirect development of marine invertebrates and also of the biomineralization common to the animal kingdom.