Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Oceanography
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Nov 2003
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Aug 2003
Volume 8, Issue 2 - May 2003
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Seasonal Variations and Species Composition of Planktonic Ciliates in the Southern Coastal Waters of Jeju Island, Korea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 59~69
As part of study on the microbial food web in the southern Jeju Island of Korea, Planktonic tintinnids and aloricate oligotrichs were investigated from July 1998 to June 2000 to understand seasonal variation and water mass indication with environmental factors. 39 species of tintinnids were identified representing 1 order, 11 families, 20 genera. Tintinnid abundance ranged from 100 to 5,400 cells.1
(mean 314 cells.1
), and oceanic species were mainly dominant in fall and winter season, while neritic species were a little pre- dominant in spring and summer season. 15 species of aloricate oligotrichs were identified representing 1 order, 5 families, 7 genera, and many belonged to genus Strombidium which was most abundant and most frequently occurred in many months. Abundance of aloricate oligotrichs ranged from 140 to 21,000 cells.1
(mean 2,356 cells.1
). Species diversity and standing crops of tintinnids were quite different according to seasons, but few seasonal variations were detected in aloricate oligotrichs. In terms of water mass indication tintinnids represented obvious characteristics which were affected by marine environmental factors, but alor- icate oligotrichs had no such apparent indication as tintinnids. Ciliates were more abundant and more diverse in inshore than in offshore station. Total carbon biomass of ciliates ranged from 0.01 to 136.06
). The carbon biomass, however, did not coincided with seasonal variations of abun- dance Vertical profiles of mean abundance of both tintinnids and aloricate oligotrichs were similar, and had same trend as those of mean chlorophyll o concentration. It suggests that phytoplankton and ciliates reflected the prey-predator relationship in the study area.
Phonology and Morphometrics Change of Zostera marina L. Population at Duksan Port in the Eastern Coast of Korea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 70~77
From March 1998 to August 2000, the phenological and morphometric changes of Zostera marina L. were examined at the Duksan Port in the eastern coast of Korea. Morphometric characteristics, phenological stage, shoot density, biomass of Z. marina population and environmental parameters were also measured. Nutrient levels in water column varied over the season. Morphometric characteristics of vegetative shoot changed with season; shoot heights ranged from 54.2 cm (March) to 100.0 cm (October). Reproductive shoots appeared from mid-March to early September of which the height was ranged from 97.8 cm (March) to 213.0 cm (July). The flowering phase started at 12
and the fruit development was resulted up to 21
. The seed maturing was developed at 22
. Shoot density and biomass in permanent quadrate (0.25 m
) were significantly different among seasons ranging from 38 to 136 shoots (mean 80.3
6.5) for shoot density, and 190 g dry wt m
in October 1998 to 922 g dry wt m
in June 1998 for biomass respectively. Relationships between shoot morphometrics and physico-chemical parameters were not significantly correlated. Seasonal changes in water temperature seemed responsible for the replacement of reproductive phases and the annual changes of shoot morphometrics in Z. marina populations.
The Study on the Seasonal Variation of Microbial Community in Kyeonggi Bay, Korea II. Nano-and Microzooplankton
The Sea, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 78~93
To investigate seasonal variation and structure of the microbial community in Kyeonggi Bay, abundance and carbon biomass of nano-and micrzooplankton were evaluated in relation to size fractionated chlorophyll-a concentration, through the monthly interval sampling from December 1997 to November 1998. Communities of nano-and microzooplankton were classified into 4 groups such as heterotrophic nanoflagellate(HNF), ciliates, heterotrophic dinoflagellates(HDF) and zooplankton nauplii. Abundance and carbon biomass of HNF ranged from 380 to 4,370 cells ml-1(average 1,340
130 cells ml-1) and from 0.63 to 12.4
C 1-1(average 4.35
C 1-1), respectively. Abundance and carbon biomass of ciliates ranged from 331 to 44,571 cells ml-1(average 3,526
544 cells ml-1) and from 1.3 to 119.7
C 1-1(average 13.7
C 1-1), respectively. Abundance and carbon biomass of HDF ranged from 88 to 48,461 cells 1-1(average 9,034
2,347 cells 1-1) and from 0.05 to 54.05
C 1-1(average 6.9
C 1-1), respectively. Abundance and carbon biomass of zooplankton nauplii ranged from 5 to 546 indiv. 1-1(average 83
15 indiv. 1-1) and from 0.17 to 43.2
C 1-1(average 6.3
C 1-1), respectively. Eash component of microbial biomass was not different from tidal cycle except tintinnids group. Depth integrated nano-and microzooplankton biomass ranged from 124 to 1,635 mgC m-2(average 585
110 mgC m-2) and was highest in March and May. The relative contribution of each component to the nano-and microzooplankton showed difference according to seasons. Community structure of nano-and microzooplankton was dominated by planktonic ciliate group. During the study period, carbon biomass of nano-and microzooplankton was strongly positively correlated with size fractionated chlorophylla-a. It implied that prey-predator relationship between microzooplankton and phytoplankton was important in the pelagic ecosystem of Kyeonggi Bay.
Variability and Horizontal Structure of Sea Surface Height Anomaly Estimated from Topex/poseidon Altimeter in the East (Japan) Sea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 94~110
This study utilizes the dataset of Topex/Poseidon(T/P) altimeter sea surface height (1992-2000 yr., 286 cycles)to investigate the tempore-spatial variability in the East (Japan) Sea. Optimal interpolation (Ol) technique was applied to the pre-processed T/P dataset (level 2) to produce sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) map on regular grids. Spectral analyses of the timeseries of the SSHA at chosen stations and empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of the SSHA in the entire East Sea were made. Distribution of the SSHA can be divided by the southern and northern regions sharply by the polar front situated in the middle of the East Sea. The southern region under the direct influence of the Tsushima Current exhibits higher amplitude of the SSHA fluctuation, while the northern region does relatively smaller one. The spatio-temporal variability of the SSHA in the East Sea can be characterized by the five modes of the EOFs accounting for more than 85% of the total variance. The first mode dominates the SSHA variation in the entire domain with strong seasonal and inter-annual periods accounting for the 72.3% of the total variance. The other modes (up to 5th account for 14%) are responsible for the SSHA variation associated with the local current system, meandering of the polar frontal axis, and mesoscale eddies. Spectral peaks with significant confluence level show semi-annual, annual and interannual (2, 3-4 years) periods.
Relationship Between Dinoflagellate Cyst Distribution in Surface Sediments and Phytoplankton Assemblages from Gwangyang Bay, a Southern Coastal area of Korea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 111~120
To describe dinoflagellate cysts from Gwangyang Bay, surface sediment samples were collected at 20 sites by the TFO core sampler on 24 August 2001, in coupled with a phytoplankton investigation by surface seawater sampling. More than 17 genera, 36 species of dinoflagellate cysts were Identified from the sediment samples of Gwangyang Bay, consisting of 14 species of gonyaulacoid, 14 species of protoperidinioid, 3 species of diplopsalid, 2 species of gymnodinioid, 1 species of tuberculodinioid and calciodinellid, respectively. Cyst concentrations in Gwangyang Bay varied from 115 to 2,188 cysts/g, and generally increased toward a western part of the study area. The highest cyst concentration was observed at St. 11 located in the northwestern region with 11 genera and 19 species(2,188 cysts/g), while the lowest value with 6 genera and 9 species(115 cysts/g) was observed at St. 3 located in the center of the study area. The predominant dinoflagellate cyst was Spiniferites bulloideus, followed by Alexandrium sp., Brigantedinium simplex and S. delicatus. The motile forms of eight dinoflagellate cysts recorded in the sediment samples were also observed in the seawater: Polykrikos swartzii/kofoidii complex, Scripssiella trochoidea, Protoperidinium claudicans(cyst name: Votadinium spinosum), P. pentagonum(: Trinovantedinium capitatum capitatum), P. conicum(: Selenopemphix quanta), P. leonis(: Quinquecuspis concretum), P. conicoides(: Brigantedinium simplex), Gonyaulax spp.(: Spiniferites spp.). In this study, heterotrophic dinoflagellate cysts show the highest concentration at St. 6 where the highest density of diatoms simultaneously observed from surface water sample. This result suggests that the grazing of heterotrophic dinoflagellates on the diatoms in high concentration caused the higher concentration of heterotrophic dinoflagellate cysts.
A Study on Prediction System of Sea Fogs in the East Sea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 121~131
We have found that the east coast of Korea has had few sea fogs on January, February, November and December for the past 20 years by the analysis of monthly fog frequency and duration time. These phenomena appear to relate to the topographical characteristics of which the Taebaek Mountains descends toward the east to bar the radiation fog. On the other hand, the cause of occurring the spring and summer fog which has 90% of the whole frequency is divided into three cases. The first is the steam fog caused by the advection of the northeast cold air current on the East Sea due to the extension of Okhotsk High. The second is the advection fog caused by cooling and saturation of warm airmass advected on cold sea surface. And the last is the frontal fog caused by the supply of enough vapor due to the movement of low-pressure system and the advection of cold air behind a cold front. While, we simulate the sea fog for the period of the case studies by implementing fog prediction system(DUT-METRI) that makes it possible to forecast the fog in the vertical section of neighborhood of the East Sea and to predict the sea surface wind, relative humidity, ceiling height, visibility etc. Finally we verified this result by satellite image.
The Characteristics of Internal Waves Observed by SAR and in-situ Measurement Data Near Ocheong-Do in the Yellow Sea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 132~137
Observations of internal waves in the southwest coastal waters of Korea have been made using a mooring measurement and satellite SAR together. From May 28 to May 30 in 2002, thermistor chains with RCM and ADCP mooring measurements were carried out at 10 kin west of Ocheong-Do, together with a CTD field sur-vey on the surrounding waters. Also, a SAR image was acquired on May 29 at 06:53. The data from the in-situ measurement show several internal wave packets passing through the mooring point and the SAR image reveals numbers of internal wave packets distributed around the point. Temporal and spatial characteristics of internal waves in the southwest coastal waters were analyzed using the data from mooring measurement, SAR image, and the K-dv equation. The internal waves are important phenomena in terms of physical oceanography and military as well as marine biology. They should be considered as one of important features in the southwest coastal waters in summer.
Low-salinity Water and Circulation in Summer around Saemangeum Area in the West Coast of Korea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 138~150
In the mid-west coast of Korea where Mankyung and Dongjin rivers discharge fresh water, Saemangeum tidal dyke of 33 km long is under construction to reclaim the very shallow estuary region of 41,000ha. Main source of freshwater in this coastal area is Keum River locating closely north of the dyke. At present, the dyke connected with Gogunsan-Gundo separates this area into three regions; northwestern, southwestern and eastern (Saemangeum) region of the dyke, and the water in Saemangeum region is exchanged through one gap in the northern dyke and two gaps in the southern dyke. We have observed distributions and structures of temperature and salinity to examine the summer circulation related with low-salinity water in this coastal area in 1998 and 1999. In the surface layer off the northern dyke a tongue-like distribution of low-salinity extends 60 km long from Keum River estuary mouth to the northwest, forming plume front bounded by offshore water. In the inner region of Saemangeum dykes salinity distributions show that two river waters are merged together and the low salinity water is deflected toward northern gap of the dyke. In the surface layer off the southern dyke we observed small tongue-like distribution of another low-salinity water extending to the north from Gomso Bay. Based on the analysis of distributions of low-salinity water and frontal structures, we can suggest an anticlockwise circulation of coastal water around the dyke, composed by the estuarine water outgoing from the inner region of the dyke through the northern dyke's gap and the inflow through two gaps of southern dyke from offshore. After completing the dyke construction, this coastal circulation around the dyke will be, however, changed because fresh water discharge of Mankyung and Dongjin rivers will be routed artificially and directly into the area offshore of the southern dyke.
Physiochemical Characteristics of Coastal Pseudo-Estuarine Environment Formed During the Summer Flood season in the South Coast of Korea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 151~163
In this study, we investigated the physiochemical characteristics of temporal estuarine environment formed during the summer flood season (consecutive rainy days with average 50 mm day
precipitation) in the coastal area of South Sea of Korea. The freshwater from the Seomjin River was characterized by lower temperature, salinity and pH, and high concentrations of COD and nutrients. In the summer flood season, such peculiar Somejin-River freshwater was dispersed southward along the coast of Yeosubando-Dolsando-Geumodo, form-ing temporal estuarine environment (defined as "Coastal Pseudo-Estuary" in this study) throughout the entire study area (as far as 60 km from the Seomjin River mouth). Compared to the winter dry season, the DIN/DIP ratio was almost doubled (16-36) during the summer flood season. This excessive nitrate supply during the summer flood season was probably due to nitrogenous fertilizer. Distribution and behaviors of physiochemical factors in this coastal pseudo-estuarine environment were controlled not only by the runoff of the Seomjun River (physical mixing of river water with seawater) but also by the biogeochemical estuarine processes which are mostly similar to those of the river estuary.r estuary.
Nutrient Variations in the Jindong Bay during Summer by Ecosystem Modeling
The Sea, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 164~176
During summer, the DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) and DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphate) observed in the Jindong Bay in the southern sea of Korea show much higher values in the inner area of the bay. In general, they have high values in the upper (0-1 m) and lower layers (8 m-bottom), but are relatively lower in the middle layer (1-8 m). These features in their distribution are examined using an ecosystem model with considering the wind, tidal current, horizontal gradient of water density and residual flow. The experiments were focused on how to influence nutrients associated with these conditions. In the experiment with tide-induced residual flow, the values of nutrients appeared lower than the observation, and were well corresponded to it when the effects of wind, tide-induced residual current and horizontal gradient of water density were additionally imposed. A statistical analysis identifies these results. This paper suggests that variation of nutrient in the Jindong Bay during summer should be seriously a(footed wind-driven current by the wind and density-driven current is induced by the horizontal gradient of water density as well as tidal current.
Mechanism of Oxygen-Deficient Water Formation in Jindong Bay
The Sea, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 177~186
The influences of horizontal and vertical flow components including the stratification of water column and the wind field on the formation of oxygen-deficient water in summer in Jindong Bay, northern part of Chinhae Bay, were examined. Temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen in seawater, and direction and velocity of wind were observed in Jindong Bay from March 1998 to February 1999. Low concentration of 5 mg/L in dissolved oxygen (DO) appeared at the bottom layer from May to September. Extremely low DO concentration less than 3 mg/L was investigated in summer (July to August) when stratification was strongest due to abrupt vertical gradients of temperature and salinity in water column. Bottom waters with the extremely low DO concentration were observed even in spring (May to June) at the inner part of the bay. In summer (August to September), the bottom waters with the low DO concentration (less than 5 mg/L) existed at the water depth from 4 to 6 m, being moved upward to the surface layer compared to other seasons. Vertical components of residual flow, calculated by the direction and velocity of wind, in Jindong Bay in summer showed that locally prevailed northerly and westerly wind resulted in downwelling flow at the outer part of the bay and conversely, upwelling at the inner part of the bay. In addition, bottom current at the outer part corresponding to the downwelling area directed to the inner part, probably resulting in a transport of the particulate organic matter settled at the bottom waters to the inner part of the bay. The oxygen-deficient watermass, which was formed at the bottom layer of the inner part, was likely to transported to the surface layer by the upwelling flow.
Late Quaternary Depositional Processes in the Korea Plateau and Ulleung Interplain Gap, East Sea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 187~198
High-resolution (Chirp, 3-11 kHz) echo facies and sedimentary facies of piston-core sediments were analyzed to reveal the late Quaternary depositional processes in the Korea Plateau and Ulleung Interplain Gap. The Korea Plateau is an Isolated topographic high with a very restricted input of terrigenous sediments, and its slope is characterized by a thin sediment cover and various-scale submarine canyons and valleys. Echo and sedimentary facies suggest that the plateau has been moulded mainly by persistent (hemi) pelagic sedimentation and intermittent settling of volcanic ashes. Sediments on the plateau slope and steep margins of ridges and seamounts were reworked by earthquake-induced, large-scale slope failures accompanied by slides, slumps and debris flows. As major fraction of the reworked sediments consists of (hemi) pelagic clay particles, large amounts of sediments released from mass flows were easily suspended to form turbid nepheloid layers rather than bottom-hugging turbidity currents, which flowed further downslope through the submarine canyons and spreaded over the Ulleung Basin plain. In the Ulleung Interplain Gap, sediments were introduced mainly by (hemi) pelagic settling and subordinate episodic mass flows (turbidity currents and debris flows) along the submarine channels from the slopes of the Oki Bank and Dok Island. The sediments in the Ulleung Interplain Channel and its margin were actively eroded and reworked by the deep water flow from the Japan Basin.
Occurrence and Food Ingestion of the Moon Jellyfish (Scyphozoa: Ulmariidae: Aurelia aurita) in the Southern Coast of Korea in Summer
The Sea, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 199~202
Monthly occurrence of the moon jellyfish (Scyphozoa: Ulmariidae: Aurelia aurita) was investigated in the southern coast of Korea in summer. The relationships not only between weight and length but also between length and food (rotifer and Artemia sp.) ingestion were also studied. Aurelia was monthly sampled 5 or 6 times at the coastal area between Jinhae and Geoje-do with a landing net (mouth: 30 cm, mesh size: 2 cm) at surface from June to August,2001. Aurelia aurita was dominated by 6-9 cm in June, 7-16 cm in July and 16 cm in August in bell diameter. The bell diameter was significantly related with weight (r=0.930, P<0.001). The ingestion rate was significantly different according to bell diameter and food density (ANOVA test: P<0.001).
A Study on Three-dimensional Dynamic Analysis of a Towing Cable for Marine Survey Instruments
The Sea, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 203~209
In this study, the configuration and tension of a towing cable for side-scan sonar are predicted in an ambient flow and at an unsteady towing condition. The governing equation of three-dimensional dynamic analysis for a flexible cable is solved using a finite difference method. We successfully predict the configuration and tension of a side-scan sonar and designed the towing system. It is found in static analyses that the side-scan sonar must be towed to keep a its stable depth at a reasonable speed. The study also reveals in the transient analyses that the dominant component affecting the top tension is the tangential drag force for the larger towing speed than the critical speed, and the soft weight of a towed instrument for the smaller towing speed than. It should be maneuvered for a towing vessel with good consideration for the impact effect in a cable due to tension peak when a towing speed is suddenly increase. The developed program can be applicable for three-dimensional dynamic analysis of a towing system for various marine survey instruments.
Sulfate Reduction in the Marine Environments: Its Controlling Factors and Relative Significance in Mineralization of Organic Matter
The Sea, volume 8, issue 2, 2003, Pages 210~224
Sulfate reduction is a microbiological process which occurs ubiquitously in anaerobic marine environment. Sulfate reducing bacteria play a significant role in anaerobic decomposition of organic matter and regeneration of inorganic nutrients which supports the primary production in the water column (i.e., benthic-pelagic coupling) and, in special case, could be responsible for the harmful algal bloom in the coastal marine environment. Summary of the sulfate reduction rates reported in various marine sedimentary environments revealed that supply of organic substrates and presence of various electron acceptors (i.e.,
, Fe(III) and Mn(IV), etc.) for other aerobic and anaerobic respiration directly affect the sulfate reduction rate and relative significance of sulfate reduction in organic matter mineralization. Significance of temperature, macrophytes and bioturbation is discussed as factors controlling supply of organic substrates and distribution of electron acceptors. Finally, we suggest studies on the anaerobic microbiological processes associated with biogeochemical element cycles in the coastal environments of Korea where massive operation of organic enriched fish cage farm, frequent occurrence of toxic algal bloom and hypoxia and conservation of tidal flat are of major environmental issues.