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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Oceanography
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Nov 2003
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Aug 2003
Volume 8, Issue 2 - May 2003
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Sedimentologic Linkage of depositional environments of Han River and Kyunggi Bay, Korea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 225~236
In order to understand the relationship of depositional environment between fluvial and estuarine-embayment in Han River system, including depositional change in main Han River, more than 250 bottom sediment and 70 suspended sediment were analyzed with hydrologic data. Based on the previous data, the study area can be divided into two environment(fluvial and estuarine-embayment) by Singok underwater dam. The gravelly facies occurs in the South and North Han Rivers and sandy and silty facies occupies in the main Han River. Depositional environment of main Han River changed mainly because of limited sediment transport and hydrological condition. In the estuarine-embayment environment, coarse-grained sediments are dominant in tidal channel and of shore whereas fine and poorly sorted sediments are observed in coastal area. During moderate period, relationship between fluvial-estuarine-embayment system is discontinuou s because of flow restriction by artificial construction such as dam and underwater dam, so that each river system characterizes the individual environment. Fluvial and estuarine system is influenced by tide and, thus, transition zone of estuarine- embayment system moves landward. During flooding period, however, each river system is integrated as continuous depositional system by high discharge and, thus, transition zone of fluvial-estuarine-embayment system moves seaward. For further detailed systems about the lower Singok under-water dam, joint research of South-North Korea should be necessary.
Microstructure of Otoliths and Early Growth of River Puffer, Takifugu Obscurus
The Sea, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 237~242
Microstructure of otoliths and early growth in total length of laboratory-reared river puffer, Takrifugu obscurus were observed from 1 to 63 days after hatching. The total length of Takifugu obscurus was 3.09
0.02 mm, 4.96
0.24 mm, 5.39
0.59 mm, 10.78
2.31 mm, 30.49
l.53 mm in 1, 10, 20, 30, 34, 43, 63 days respectively. The mean radius of otoliths was 14.20
in 1 day, 31.06
in 10 days,57.19
in 20 days,127.13
in 34 days,190.79
in 43 days and 281.85
in 63 days after hatching. Growth of otoliths were similar to the growth pattern in total length during 20-63 days after hatching. Hatch mark was distinguished with other growth increments and within a hatch mark two or three increments were observed. The number of growth increments was correlated with the days after hatching between 20 and 63 days after hatching.
Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Zooplankton Community in Kyeonggi Bay, Yellow Sea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 243~250
The spatio-temporal distribution of zooplankton community was investigated in Kyeonggi Bay with monthly samples from February 2001 to December 2001 at 5 stations along a transect between Incheon coastal waters and Seongap-Do. Monthly mean abundance of total zooplankton ranged from 1,100(Feb.)∼404,200 indiv./㎥ (Aug.) and annual mean abundance of total zooplankton was 55,000 indiv./㎥. The spatial mean abundance of total zooplankton varied from 114,600 indiv./㎥ (Incheon coastal waters) to 16,500 indiv./㎥ (Seongab-Do). Zooplankton abundance was higher in the inner bay than in the outer bay. Noctiluca scintillans, Acartia hongi, Oithona davisae, Paracalanus crassirostris, Paracalanus indicus and Oikopluera spp. were dominant species in Kyeonggi Bay and they contributed 95％ of annual mean abundance of total zooplankton. Most of dominant species distributed widely in study area throughout the year, however seasonal abundance peak only happened in inner part of the Bay. This pattern suggests that the spatio-temporal distribution of zooplankton is affected by the variations of water temperature and phytoplankton standing stock.
Distribution of Nitrogen Components in Seawater Overlying the Gomso Tidal Flat
The Sea, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 251~261
As a part of an on-going project investigating flux of materials in Gomso Tidal Flat, we have monitored temporal and spatial distribution of nitrogen components(TN, PON, DON, DIN) and have sought the relationships with the freshwater input(tidal range, salinity), the biological activities(chlorophyll-
, TP, DIP, silicate) and the resuspended bottom sediment in seawater(SPM) from 1999 to 2000. TN in seawater was 39.05
-1/) without any statistical difference(p<0.05) between the studied periods. Organic nitrogen (DON and PON) occupied 75％, 95％, 73％, and 75％ in April, August, September and November, respectively. DON and PON have been found within the narrow concentration ranges of 11.30∼16.38
-1/ and 13.16∼20.04
-1/ in spite of severe environmental differences through the studied periods. Dissolved fractions of nitrogen(DON and DIN) occupied 53∼65％ of TN. Only DIN varied with an evident temporal variability: low concentrations(1.325∼1.616
-1/) in August and high enrichment(8.377∼14.65
-1/) in September. High consumption rate of DIN by phytoplankton and a long-lasted drought probably induced such low concentration of DIN in August. Eventually heavy precipitation probably introduced plenty of new nitrogen sources into Gomso Bay in September. The portion of PON, DON and DIN in the total nitrogen was 40％, 38％ and 22％, respectively. Their contents were in the order of DON>PON>DIN for the year round except PON>DON>DIN only in September. The highest DON portion in August probably due to the active microbial decomposition of organic material in summer. Only in April, some evident negative correlations have been found between chlorophyll-
and DIN mostly nitrate(-0.64, p<0.01), phosphate(-0.46, p<0.01) and silicate(-0.55, p<0.01). The Si(OH)
/DIN/DIP ratios in the water column suggests the limitation of DIN for the growth of phytoplankton during the dry summer in Gomso Bay, which was the case of August in this work. Even with some difference between the studied periods, the primary factors on the distribution of nitrogen components in seawater overlying the Gomso Tidal Flat have been the tidal range and the freshwater input, but the additional variations were due to the biological activities.
Characteristics of the Monthly Mean Sea Surface Winds and Wind Waves near the Korean Marginal Seas in the 2002 Year Computed Using MM5/KMA and WAVEWATHC-III model
The Sea, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 262~273
We have analyzed the characteristics of the monthly mean sea surface winds and wind waves near the Korean marginal seas in the 2002 year on the basis of prediction results of the sea surface winds from MM5/KMA model, which is being used for the operation system at the Korea Meteorological Administration and the third generation wave model, WAVEWATCH-III. which takes the sea surface winds derived from MM5/KMA model as the initial data. Statistical comparisons have been applied with both the marine meteorological observation buoy and the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite wave heights data to verify the model results. The correlation coefficients between the models and observation data reach up to about 60-80％, supporting that these models satisfactorily simulate the sea surface winds and wave heights even at the coastal regions except for Chilbal-Do located very close to the land. Based on these verification results, the distributions of monthly mean sea surface winds, significant wave heights, wave lengths and wave periods around the Korean marginal seas during 2002 year have been represented.
Analysis of Wave Parametric Characteristics using WAVEWATCH-III Model and Observed Buoy Data
The Sea, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 274~284
The analysis of wave parametric characteristics in sea regions in the vicinity of Korean Peninsula have been carried out using the third generation wave model, WAVEWATCH-III (Tolman, 1999) and four observed buoy data of Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). Significant wave height increases about 2-3 hours later after the increase of wind speed. Maximum correlation coefficient between two parameters appears in Donghae buoy data, which is at off-shore region. When land breeze occurs, it can be found that the correlation coefficient decreases. Time differences between wind speeds and wave heights correspond to significant tidal periods at all of the buoy locations except for Donghae buoy. After verifying the WAVEWATCH-III model results by the comparing with observed buoy data, we have carried out numerical experiments near the Kuroshio current and East Sea areas, and then reconfirmed that when there exist an opposite strong current in the propagation direction of the waves or wind direction, wave height and length get higher and shorter, respectively and vice versa. It has been shown that these modulations of wave parameters are considerable when wind speed is week or mean current is relatively strong, and corresponding values have been represented.
The Selection of Appropriate Sampler for the Assessment of Macrobenthos Community in Saemangeum, the West Coast of Korea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 285~294
To select an appropriate sampler for the environmental monitoring survey in coastal waters of Saemangeum, Jeollabuk-do, a macrobenthic sampling was conducted in April 2002. Employed samplers were dredge (type Charcot), a semi-quantitative sampler and Smith-McIntyre (SM) and van Veen grab (VV) as quantitative ones. One haul was tried for dredge and 3 replicates (0.1 ㎡
3) for SM and W at each of 11 stations. Comparisons of sediment volume in sampler bucket and of precision of biological parameters (i.e., density, biomass, species number and diversity index, H') were made between SM and VV. Sediment volume was significantly different (SM > VV) at p-value of 0.0050 (paired t-test) and, in average, 3 replicate samples of SM and VV satisfied a precision level of 0.2 by applying 4th root transformation. Patterns of observed and expected species numbers and H' were compared. Dredge-VV samples showed higher affinity than any other pair. Several dominant species in the area were underestimated in dredge samples (e.g., polychaete Heteromastus filiformis. Aricidea assimilis etc.). Quantifying the agreement pattern of multi-species responses was accomplished by estimating correlations between similarity matrices. Correlation between dredge and VV was slightly higher, but near-per-fect matches were found in general. Different ranks and composition among principal species lists were presumably linked to the effect of penetration depth that differs among samplers. Lower level of some species' abundance in VV samples (ca. 50％ compared with those of SM) was explained in this context. It seem appropriate to regard the effect as a probable cause of relatively higher correlations in dredge-VV, Overall bio-logica1 features indicated that a better choice could be SM in situations of requiring high data quality. The others work well, however, on observing and defining faunal characteristics and their capability cannot be questionted if we do not expect a first-order quality.
Biological Pump in the East Sea Estimated by a Box Model
The Sea, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 295~306
Recently efforts are underway to analyze the impacts of anthropogenic
on the global environments and the amount of oceanic uptake increase. The East Sea is now viewed as a miniature ocean because its circulation pattern is similar to the ocean conveyer belt. The biological pump of the East Sea is a vital component to understand the carbon cycle quantitatively. In this paper, the biological pump is estimated utilizing the stoichiometric ratio between carbon and phosphorus. A simple phosphate budget model is constructed based on the seawater and dissolved oxygen box model that can simulate the recent structural change in deep water circulation of the East Sea. A model run from you 1952 to 2040 shows the steadily intensifying biological pump. Currently it exports about 0.016 Pg C yr
, which corresponds to 35％ of the carbon introduced into the seawater by the air-sea exchange. An increased oxygen supply to the central water mass as a result of from the transition in the ventilation system might enhance the remineralization of sinking biogenic particles. This should strengthen the upward nutrient flux into the surface layer. Consequently, the biological sequestration of anthropogenic carbon is expected to increase with time. The estimated biological uptake of the anthropogenic carbon in the East Sea since the Industrial Revolution is estimated as 0.025 Pg C.
Fish Assemblages Collected using a Beam Trawl in a Sheltered Shallow Water of Doam Bay in the Southern Coast of Korea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 307~316
Fish assemblage structure in a sheltered shallow water in the Southern Coast of Korea was examined monthly. Sampling was conducted in Doam Bay using a beam trawl between March 2001 and February 2001. A total of 53 fish species from 33 families were caught. Pinkgray goby (Chaeturichthys hexanema), ponyfish (Leiognathus nuchalis) and yellowfin goby (Acanthogobius favimanus) were the most frequent species, comprised 67.4％ of the total numbers captured. Snailfish (Liparis tanakai), yellowfin goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus) and pinkgray goby (Chaeturichthys hexanema) represented 50.8％ of the total biomass. While total abundance (number of individuals) and biomass were high in autumn and winter, species richness (number of species) and diversity were high in spring. Cluster analysis, based on monthly abundance data of the 14 most frequent species, showed that the species were separated into three different groups. Group A composed of pinkgray goby, yellowfin goby, robust tonguefish (Cynoglossus robustus) and scaly hairfin anchovy (Setipinna taty), which were year-round residents, and devil flathead (Onigocia spinosa), Red dragonet (Repomucenus lunatus) and ponyfish, which were abundant in autumn, group B surmullet (Upeneus japonicus), hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus) and gaff-topsail goby (Cryptocentrus filifer), which were abundant in summer, and group C grassfish (Liparis tanakai), spotted velvefish (Erisphex pottii), chameleon goby (Tridentiger trigonocephalus) and Richardson dragonet (Repomucenus richardsonii), which were abundant in winter and spring. A seasonal homogeneity of fish assemblage indicates that overall fish assemblage in Dom Bay is largely controlled by year-round residents.
Characteristics of Total Organic Carbon and Chemical Oxygen Demand in the Coastal Waters of Korea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 317~326
In order to improve our knowledge of the characteristics of organic compounds in coastal waters, water samples were collected from the Incheon coastal region, the Hyungsan River in Youngil Bay and the Busan coastal region. Also, mooring was carried out near the Kanghwa Island and Seo Island. In this study, the relationship between the total organic carbon (TOC) and salinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity were evaluated and determined. Riverine end-member of TOC into the Korean coastal area and its COD estimated from these relationships were 5.32 mg C/l and 8.87 mg O
/l, respectively. The oxidation efficiency of COD to TOC estimated using the high-temperature catalytic oxidation method was about 47％. The linear relationship between TOC and COD was derived as COD (mg O
TOC (mg C/l) -0.03, (R
=0.66). Therefore, it is possible to estimate total organic carbon using this equation from previously reported chemical oxygen demand.
Water Masses and Frontal Structures in Winter in the Northern East China Sea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 327~339
During the winter in February 1998, January and April 1999, interdisciplinary research was conducted in a large area including the South Sea of Korea and northern East China Sea to examine distribution and structure. Water masses identified from the observed data are Warm Water originated from Tsushima Warm Current, Yellow Sea Cold Water (Northern or Central Cold Water) and Korean Southern Sea Cold Water. In the southern Yellow Sea, Warm Water originated from Tsushima Warm Current, flowing into the Cheju Strait after turning around the western Cheju Island, makes a front of '┍' shape, which is bounded by the Yellow Sea Central Cold Water in the southern part of Daeheuksan Island and by the Yellow Sea Northern Cold Water in the eastern part of the Yangtze Bank. This front changes its corner shape and position with strength of the warm water extension toward northwestern Yellow Sea. The position and structure of the fronts off the southwestern tip of the Korean peninsular and near the Yangtze Bank varies with observation period. In the front in the South Sea of Korea, cold coastal water which if formed independently due to local cooling, ,sinks along the sloping bottom. We explained the processes of variations in the distribution and structure of these winter fronts in terms of up-wind and down-wind flow by the seasonal monsoon, heat budget through the sea surface and density difference across the fronts.
Spatial and Temporal Variation of Grain Size of the Surface Sediments in Kwangyang Bay, South Coast of Korea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 3, 2003, Pages 340~348
Sedimentological investigations on surface and suspended sediments were performed in Kwangyang Bay of the middle South Sea in order to reveal recent changes in depositional environments concerning anthropogenic influence. A variety of coastal developments caused the texture of the surface sediments to become distinctively finer, particularly in the southwestern part of the bay. Accordingly, the westward lining sedimentary facies was somewhat simplified from triple-mode distribution to the dual-mode one by the construction of POSCO. This east-west distribution to the sedimentary facies has recently graded into the north-south distribution by further construction of other industrial complexes including Kwangyang Port. The prominent textural changes in surface sediments are most likely associated with weakening of tidal currents related to the developments which is anticipated to be .still continued. The distribution and flux estimation of suspended sediments suggest a noticeable import of fine particles into the bay predominantly through a northern entrance rather than the southern entrance. The movements of suspended sediments in the water level near the seabed prevailed over those of the mid and surficial levels.