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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Oceanography
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Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Nov 2003
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Aug 2003
Volume 8, Issue 2 - May 2003
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
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Seasonal Changes of Tidal-flat Sediments: Kwangyang Bay, South Coast of Korea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 349~356
A continuous monitoring of sedimentation rate and textural characteristics of surface sediments was carried out on the tidal flats in Kwangyang Bay, middle South Sea for two years on an every-two-monthly basis. This study shows that during the winter the tidal flats receive a thin surface layer of which texture becomes finer. In summer, the surface sediments were subject to rather abrupt erosion by occational typhoons and heavy rainfall resulting in a coarse-silt dominated texture. Due to nearly closed geomorphology of Kwangyang Bay, local waves created in the bay during winter are much subdued, in contrast to the rough wave climate and associated sedimentary cycle for open-type tidal flats in the Yellow Sea. In addition, unexpected artificial effects on the tidal-flat sedimentation by construction of a huge industrial complex along the shoreline of the bay are observed from a nearby tidal flat. Here, the sediments were consistently eroded without any sign of natural seasonal variations.
Wind-and Rain-induced Variations of Water Column Structures and Dispersal Pattern of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) in Marian Cove, the South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica during the Austral Summer 2000
The Sea, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 357~368
Time-series CTDT (Conductivity/Temperature/Depth/Transmissivity) were obtained at one point near tidewater glacier of Marian Cove (King George Islands, Antarctica) to present water column properties and SPM (suspended particulate matter) dispersal pattern in relation with tide, current, meteorological data, and SPM concentration. Four layers were divided from the water column characteristics measured in the interval of an hour for about 2 days: 1) cold, fresh, and turbid surface mixed layer between 0-20 m in water depth, 2) warm, saline, and relatively clean Maxwell Bay inflow between 20-40 m in water depth, 3) turbid/cold tongue of subglacial discharges compared with the ambient waters between 40-70 m in water depth, and 4) cold, saline, and clean bottom water beneath 70 m in water depth. Surface plume, turbid freshwater at coastal/cliff area in late summer (early February), had the characteristic temperature and SPM concentration according to morphology, glacial condition, and composition of sediments. The restrict dispersion only over the input source of meltwater discharges was due to calm wether condition. Due to strong wind-induced surface turbulence, fresh and turbid surface plume, englacial upwelling cold water, glacier-contact meltwater, and Maxwell Bay inflow was mixing at ice-proximal zone and the consequent mixed layer deepened at the surface. Large amount of precipitation, the major controlling factor for increasing short-term glacial discharges, was accompanied by the apparent development of subglacial discharge that resulted in the rapid drop of salinity below the mid depth. Although amount of subglacial discharge and englacial upwelling may be large, however, their low SPM concentration would have small influence on bottom deposition of terrigenous sediments.
Sequence Stratigraphy of Late Quaternary Deposits in the Southeastern Continental Shelf, Korea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 369~379
Analysis of high-resolution seismic profiles and sediment data from the southeastern continental shelf of Korea reveals that the late Quaternary deposits consist of a set of lowstand (LST), transgressive (TST), and highstand systems tracts (HST) that corresponds to the sea-level change after the Last Glacial Maximum. LST (Unit I) above the sequence boundary consists of sandy mud or muddy sand deposited during the last glacial period and is confined to the shelf margin and trough region. TST (Unit II) between transgressive surface and maximum flooding surface consists of sandy sediments deposited during the postglacial transgression (15,000-6,000 yr BP). Although TST is widely distributed on the shelf, it is much thinner than LST and HST. On the basis of distribution pattern, TST can be divided into three sub-units: early TST (Unit IIa) on the shelf margin, middle TST (Unit IIb) on the mid-shelf, and late TST (Unit IIc) on the inner shelf, respectively. These are characterized by a backstepping depositional arrangement. HST(Unit III) above the maximum flooding surface is composed of the fine-grained sediments deposited during the last 6000 yrs when sea level was close to the present level and its distribution is restricted to the inner shelf along the coast.
Geochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metal Pollutions in the Surface Sediments of Gwangyang and Yeosu Bay, south coast of Korea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 380~391
Surface sediments were collected from Gwangyang and Yeosu Bays to evaluate their sedimentological characteristics and geochemical aspects of both the benthic environment and heavy metal pollution. The grain size distribution includes both sandy and muddy sediments. Sand-rich sediments occur mainly near the POSCO and the channel between Namhedo and Yeosu Bando, while elsewhere mud-dominated sediments are present. TOC content ranges from 0.2 to 2.1 % and C/N ratios indicate that the range arises from the mix of organic matter. The C/S ratios of this organic matter show that parts of the study area are anoxic or have sub-anoxic bottom conditions. The hydrogen sulfide content of the sediment has a range of 0.7 to 301 ppm, with a high content occurring inshore of Myodo Island, where it indicates a polluted environment. The enrichment factor (Ef) and index of accumulation rate (Igeo) of ten heavy metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, Li, Zn, V, Cr, Ba) show that parts of the study area contain from one to seven times more Pb and Ba, and from 0.8 to 3.5 times more of the other elements than the mean sediment value. The Igeo values of V and Cd show that different parts of the area can be classified as heavily polluted, heavily to moderately polluted, or more or less unpolluted. Those areas that have both high levels of enrichment and high accumulation rates of heavy metals contain predominantly fine sediments with a high organic matter and hydrogen sulfide content.
Estimation of Oxygen Consumption Rate and Organic Carbon Oxidation Rate at the Sediment/Water Interface of Coastal Sediments in the South Sea of Korea using an Oxygen Microsensor
The Sea, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 392~400
We used an oxygen microelectrode to measure the vertical profiles of oxygen concentration in sediments located near point sources of organic matter. The measurements were carried out between 13th and 17th May, 2003, in semi-closed bay and coastal sediments in the central part of the South Sea. The measured oxygen penetration depths were extremely shallow and ranged from 1.30 to 3.80 mm. This suggested that the oxidation and reduction reactions in the early diagenesis should be studied at the mm depth scale. In order to estimate the oxygen consumption rate, we applied the one-dimension diffusion-reaction model to vertical profiles of oxygen near the sediment/water interface. Oxygen consumption rates were estimated to be between 10.8 and 27.6 mmol O
-1/(average: 19.1 mmol O
-1/). These rates showed a positive correlation with the organic carbon of the sediments. The corresponding benthic organic carbon oxidation rates calculated using an modified Redfield ratio (170/110) at the sediment/water interface were in the range of 89.5-228.1 mg C m
-1/(average: 158.0 mg C m
-1/). We suggest that these results are maximum values at the presents situation in the bay because the sampling sites were located near point sources of organic materials. This study will need to be carried out at many coastal sites and throughout the seasons to allow an understanding of the mechanisms of eutrophication e.g. the spatial distribution of oxygen consumption within the oxic zone and hypoxic conditions in the coastal sea.
Characteristics and Formation conditions of the Rhodoliths in Wu Island beach, Jeju-do, Korea: Preliminary Report
The Sea, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 401~410
Three beaches of the Seogwang-ri coast in the western part of Wu Island, Jeju-do, are solely composed of rhodoliths (red algal nodules). The beach sediments are coarse sand to granule in size and they show the banded distribution according to size. Commonly the larger pebble-sized rhodoliths are concentrated near the rocky coast, resulting from the transportation of the nodules from shallow marine environments by intermittent typhoons. Based on the internal texture of the rhodoliths, it appears that crustose red algae, Lithophyllum sp., is the main contributor for the formation of the rhodolith. The coarse sand to granule-sized grains show that they started to grow from the nucleus as rhodoliths, but the surface was severely eroded by waves. However, the pebble to cobble-sized grains exhibit the complete growth pattern of rhodoliths and sometimes contain other calcareous skeletons. It is common that encrusting red algae are intergrown with encrusting bryozoan. The surface morphology of rhodolith tends to change from the concentric to domal shape towards the outer part. This suggests that the rhodolith grew to a certain stage by rolling, but it grew in more quiet condition without rolling as it became larger. Aragonite and calcite cements can be found in the pores within rhodoliths (conceptacle, intraskeletal pore in bryozoan, and boring), and this means that shallow marine cementation has occurred during their growth. Growth of numerous rhodoliths in shallow marine environment near the Seogwang-ri coast indicates that this area has suitable oceanographic conditions for their growth such as warm water temperature (about 19
in average) and clear water condition due to the lack of terrestrial input of volcanoclastic sediments. Fast tidal current and high wave energy in the shallow water setting can provide suitable conditions enough for their rolling and growth. Typhoons passing this area every summer also influence on the growth of rhodoliths.
Organic Matter and Nutrient Budget of Constructed Tidal Flat in Gapo Area of the Masan Bay, Korea
The Sea, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 411~419
Dredged material during Masan Bay cleaning in 1990-1994 was deposited in Gapo area. The site provides an ideal experimental condition to monitor environmental remediation and benthic ecosystem stabilization processes after the disturbance. Sea water samples were taken during one tidal cycle in one hour interval from Oct. 2001 to Apr. 2002 (4 times) to estimate the organic matter and nutrient fluxes in Gapo area. Hourly material fluxes were estimated from the water balance estimated from 3 dimensional topography of Gapo area and from material concentration. Net material fluxes were estimated from the difference between total influx and total outflux during one tidal cycle. Chemical oxygen demand showed net outflux in Nov. 2001, Dec. 2001 and Apr. 2002 (2.2∼3.9 g m
-1/) and showed net influx in Mar. 2002 (1.4 g m
-1/). Ammonium showed net outflux during the study (0.1∼118 mg m
-1/m-2h-I). According to this investigation, Gapo area was a source rather than a sink of organic matter. However, the variability of the material fluxes was high so that a long term study may be required.
Dynamics of Marine Benthic Community in Intertidal Zone of Seoam, Busan
The Sea, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 420~425
Species composition, community structure and biodiversity of marine benthic community were studied in the intertidal zone of Seoam, Busan. A total of 75 species of benthic marine plants including 4 Cyanophyta, 6 Chlorophyta, 17 Phaeophyta, 47 Rhodophyta and 1 Magnoliophyta are listed. The dominant marine plants were melobesioidean algae, Chondracanthus tenellus, Sargasium thunbergii, Corallina spp., and Phyllospadix japonica and Ulva pertusa was added in summer. Chthamalus challengeri and Mytilus edulis were dominant zoobenthic species in the upper and middle intertidal zone. The algal species diversity index based on coverage was 1.81; 2.25 from frequency; 2.19 from average of total frequency and coverage, and 1.80 from importance value. The algal diversity indices estimated from different sources were quite different. This means that the index value changes depending on the sources used to calculate the species diversity index, indicating how important it is to select the based data and that it is necessary to standardize the methodology when studying later the algal diversity index. On the other hand, the number of species identified in this study has been found to be reduced by 65% at highest, compared with the result of the investigation that was conducted in the coast of Busan.