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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
Editor in Chief :
Seong Wan Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Nonlinear Subgrade Reaction Analysis of the Soil-Pile System for Mooring Dolphin Structures
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 2, 1999, Pages 3~16
The objective of BMP( Barge Mounted Plant) project is to construct plants on mooring floating structures at sea. To analyze the pile behavior under mooring dolphins, generally, axial or lateral behavior of soil-pile system is evaluated by using a nonlinear subgrade reaction method which models the pile as a structural element and the soil as series of nonlinear springs along the depth. As a result, load-displacement curves at pile head can be solved by finite difference method and the equivalent stiffness of bottom boundaries of dolphin structure is evaluated. In this study off-shore site investigation was performed on the marine area of Koje Island and axial and lateral load transfer curves of the ground were modeled with depth. The subgrade reaction analysis was performed for piles under axial or lateral loadings, and the required penetration depth and section of the pile were determined. Subsequently, the spring boundaries under the dolphin structure could be modeled from the calculated load-displacement curve and then the dynamic response of the dolphin structure was analyzed reasonably by considering ground conditions. The analysis considering the stiffness of the soil-pile system has resulted in larger displacement amplitudes than those for rigid foundations. Furthermore, moment distributions of the casing were dependent on the soil-pile system so that deformable foundation induces the larger moment of top section of casing and the smaller moment of pile head.
A Model Test on the Settlements of Adjacent Structures by Excavation
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 2, 1999, Pages 17~27
It comes to be an important point to judge precisely the effects of excavation on adjacent ground and structures. It is incorrect to evaluate the ground settlement by excavation without considering the adjacent structure. In this study, laboratory scale tests were carried out by varying the position of structure under the condition of different system stiffness and wall friction to evaluate the behavior of adjacent structures and ground by excavation. When the distance between the structures and the wall was less than 0.3 times of the excavation depth, the ground settlement increased by 181%. No additional effect was observed when the distance was more than 1.0H. As the embedded depth was deeper, the influence zone was smaller, and few additional settlements and angular displacement were observed when the embedded depth was more than 0.75H.
Development of Tomographic SASW Method to Evaluate Two-Dimensional Variability of Shear Stiffness
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 2, 1999, Pages 29~42
The SASW (Spectral-Analysis-of-Surface-Waves) method, which evaluates the stiffness structure of the subsurface and structures nonintrusively and nondestructively, has been successfully used in the civil engineering applications. However, the SASW method assumes that the subsurface or structures consist of horizontal multi-layers, so that the method has some difficulty in continuously evaluating the integrity of a tunnel lining and a pavement system. This difficulty prevents the SASW method from being used to generate a tomographic image of stiffness for the subsurface or structures. Recently, the GPR technique which has the advantage of continuously evaluating integrity of the subsurface and structures has been popular. This advantage of GPR technique initiated the efforts to make the SASW method, which is superior to GPR and other nondestructive testing methods due to its capability of evaluating stiffness and modulus, be able to do continuous evaluation of stiffness structure, and the efforts finally lead to the development of \ulcornerTomographic SASW Technique.\ulcorner Tomographic SASW technique is a variation of the SASW method, and can generate a tomographic image of stiffness structure along the measurement line. The tomographic SASW technique was applied to the investigation of lateral variability of a sand box placed by the raining method for the purpose of verifying its effectiveness. Tomographic SASW measurements on the sand box revealed that the investigated sand box has different shear stiffness along the measurement line, which gave a clue of how to make a better raining device.
A Feasibility Study on the Use of Liner and Cover Materials Using Sewage Sludge
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 2, 1999, Pages 43~71
This research is an experimental work of developing a construction material using municipal wastewater sludge as liner and cover materials for waste disposal landfill. Weathered granite soil and flyash, produced as a by-product in the power plant, were used as the primary additives to improve geotechnical engineering properties of sludge. For secondary additives, bentonite and cement were mixed with sludge to decrease the permeability and to increase the shear strength, respectively. Various laboratory test required to evaluate the design criteria for liner and cover materials, were carried out by changing the mixing ratio of sludge with the additives. Basic soil properties such as specific gravity, grain size distribution, liquid and plastic limits were measured to analyze their effects on permeability, compaction, compressibility and shear strength properties of mixtures. Laboratory compaction tests were conducted to find the maximum dry densities and the optimum moisture contents of mixtures, and their effectiveness of compaction in field was consequently evaluated. Permeability tests of variable heads with compacted samples, and the stress-controlled consolidation tests with measuring permeabilities of samples during consolidation process were performed to obtain permeability, and to find the compressibility as well as consolidational coefficients of mixtures, respectively. To evaluate the long term stability of sludges, creep tests were also conducted in parallel with permeability tests of variable heads. On the other hand, for the compacted sludge decomposed for a month, permeability tests were carried out to investigate the effect of decomposition of organic matters in sludges on its permeability. Direct shear tests were performed to evaluate the shear strength parameters of mixed sludge with weathered granite, flyash and bentonite. For the mixture of sludge with cement, unconfined compression tests were carried out to find their strength with varying mixing ratio and curing time. On the other hand, CBR tests for compacted specimen were also conducted to evaluate the trafficability of mixtures. Various test results with mixtures were assessed to evaluate whether their properties meet the requirements as liner and cover materials in waste disposal landfill.
A Study on The Decision of Allowable Bearing Capacity of PHC Piles
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 2, 1999, Pages 73~80
Analytical studies on piles so far have been directed toward prediction of bearing capacity under vertical loads. Various static and dynamic formulas have been used in predicting the ultimate bearing capacity of a pile. Further, the reliability of these formulas has been verified by comparing the predicted values with the pile load test measurements. Accordingly, by means of the ultimate load from the data measured by the actual field load tests of PHC piles, safety factors were compared and analyzed static and dynamic formula methods applying to 4 different sites. As a result, the safety factor by Meyerhof formula method indicates 3.0 and the safety factor by Hiley formula method indicates 5.0.
Analysis of the Negative Skin Friction Acting on a Model Pile
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 2, 1999, Pages 81~93
This paper investigated the negative skin friction acting on the model piles driven in the cylindrical chamber filled with remolded marine clay. In model tests, three load cells were installed on the model piles consisting of three parts to measure the negative skin friction forces independently. Pore pressures and ground movements were monitored throughout the period of investigation. Finite element analysis was used to simulate the behavior of a model pile. This paper describes the comparison of the behavior of negative skin friction on the single model pile with a numerical analysis by CRISP.
Consideration of Set-up Effect in Wave Equation Analysis of Pile Driving.
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 2, 1999, Pages 95~104
The bearing capacity of piles driven in soils showing set-up tendency increases with time. Though WEAP is an excellent tool for evaluating the driveability of driven pile, it has some limitations to predict reliable bearing capacity of pile after driving. It is because the existing WEAP method cannot take into account time-dependent soil properties after driving. The set-up effect should be accounted for to obtain a reliable bearing capacity by the WEAP. Unfortunately, there are no sufficient methods to take the set-up effect into consideration in wave equation analysis. This paper suggests an alternative to consider time effect in wave equation analysis through statistical analysis of dynamic load test data both at the end of driving and in the beginning of restrike. It is shown that the suggested parameters(quake and damping) would be more reliable than the existing one for the wave equation analysis of driven piles.
Stability Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of the Pretensioned Soil Nailing System
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 2, 1999, Pages 105~127
Application of the soil nailing method is continuously extended in maintaining stable excavations and slopes. Occasionally, however, ground anchor support system may not be used because of space limitations in urban excavation sites nearby the existing structures. In this case, soil nailing system with relatively short length of nails could be efficiently adopted as an alternative method. The general soil nailing support system, however, may result in excessive deformations particularly in an excavation zone of the existing weak subsoils. Pretensioning the soil nails then, could play important roles in reducing deformations mainly in an upper part of the nailed-soil excavation system as well as improving local stability. In the present study, the analytical procedure and design technique are proposed to evaluate maximum pretension force and stability of the pretensioned soil nailing system. Also proposed are techniques to determine the required thickness of a shotcrete facing and to estimate probability of a failure against the punching shear. The predicted results are compared with the limited measurements obtained from the excavation site constructed by using the pretensioned soil nails. Based on the proposed procedure and technique, effects of the radius of a influence circle and dilatancy angle on the thickness of a shotcrete facing, bonded length and safety factors are analyzed. In addition, effects of the reduction of deformations expected by pretensioning of the soil nails are examined in detail throughout an illustrative example and FLAC
A Study on the Self-Weight Consolidation Procedure of Very Soft Ground Reclaimed by Dredging Clayey Soil
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 2, 1999, Pages 129~138
This study is performed for the development of a field monitoring and test technique both of self-weight and hydraulic consolidation by which the soil parameters of dredge-reclaimed clay can be obtained effectively. The field monitoring development and tests mentioned above make it possible to reproduce the process of the self-weight consolidation from settling to reclaimed soft ground. The experimental research is mainly focussed on the characteristics of self-weight consolidation of dredged clayey soil. And theoretical study has pointed out the limits in the application of Terzaghi's one dimensional consolidation theory in interpreting reclaimed clayey ground. Furthermore, a finite difference analysis has been made on the basis of Mikasa s self-weight consolidation theory which takes the problems of Terzaghi's theory into consideration. The relationships between specific volume, effective stress, and the coefficient of permeability of Kunsan reclaimed clayey soil have been obtained by laboratory tests. On the other hand, through the field monitoring, pore pressure, total pressure, and water levels have been measured after pouring. The results of these experiments have been analyzed, and compared with those from Terzaghi's method and the finite difference analysis of Mikasa's self-weight consolidation theory. In conclusion, the measured settlements is comparatively consistent with Mikasa's self-weight consolidation theory rather than Terzaghi's consolidation theory.
Integrity Evaluation of Deep Foundations by Using Impact Echo Method(Numerical Study)
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 2, 1999, Pages 139~152
These days we broadly apply drilled shafts for deep foundations to build infrastructures. The defects of the deep foundations cause the decrease of their support load capacity and the increase of settlement, and the subsequent damage of the super-structures. In consequence, non-destructive testings techniques of concrete piles are important for their integrity evaluation. To improve understanding and reliable application of the impact echo method for the integrity evaluation of the drilled concrete piles, numerical studies of the impact response of concrete piles by using axi-symmetric three-dimensional finite element method are peformed for (a) sound piles: (b) piles containing necks, voids and layers of low-quality concrete: and (c) piles in soil and/or above rock. The results of these studies show that the finite element method is effective for evaluating the impact response of drilled concrete piles.
Optimizing Surfactant-Enhanced Solubilzation of LNAPL from Soil in Saturated Zone
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 2, 1999, Pages 153~164
The solubilization of BTEX was evaluated in aqueous surfactant solutions with and without several additives. Anionic surfactant(Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, SDS) and nonionic surfactants (NEODOL(equation omitted)25-3 and
were used as test surfactants. The effects of surfactant HLB(Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance) Number and hydrocarbon molar volume and polarity of BTEX on the MSR(Molar Solubilization Ratio), micelle-water partition coefficient of BTEX, and CMC(C,itical Micelle Concentration) were investigated. Optimizing treatment conditions applicable to enhanced solubilization was also studied by manupulating salinity or electrolyte control with additives of ethyl alcohol, hydrotrope, and electrolyte solution. The most effective surfactant for solubilization was found
, since HLB number of 13.6 is similar to those values of BTEX ranging between 11.4 and 12.2, which was also proved experimentally. Ethyl alchohol of 3% was the most effective additives in reducing CMC and improving solubilization among the conditions using SDS, NEODOL(equation omitted)25-3, and
with three additives. The partitioning of BTEX between surfactant micelles and aqueous solutions was characterized by a mole fraction micelle-phase/aqueous phase partion coefficient,
. Values of log
. for BTEX compounds in surfactant solutions of this study range from 2.95 to 3.76(100mM SDS) and 2.95 to 3.49(117mM
appears to be a linear function of log
for SDS and
. A knowledge of partitioning of BTEX in aqueous surfactant system can be a prerequisite for the understanding of the behavior of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil-water systems in which surfactants play a role in remediation of contaminated soil and facilitated transport.
Study on the Vertical Pile Capacity of Base-grouted Pile
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 2, 1999, Pages 165~180
Static load tests were performed for open-ended piles, closed-ended piles, piles with grouted toe, and base-grouted piles by using calibration chamber. Then vertical bearing capacities determined from load tests were compared with each other. The stability of base-grouted pile during a simulated seaquake was investigated by changing the penetration depth. Also, static load tests and seaquake tests for 2-piles and 4-piles group were performed. The bearing capacity of the pile grouted inside the toe was 11.2~30.8% less than that of open-ended pile because of reduction of base resistance due to disturbance of base soil under pile toe. The bearing capacity of a base-grouted pile was 23.8~33.9% more than that of an open-ended pile and was similar to that of a closed-ended pile. The bearing capacity of base-grouted group pile was increased ; the bearing capacity of base-grouted 2-piles group increased 14.6~31.8% compared to that of open-ended 2-piles group, and that of base-grouted 4-piles group increased 15.3~22.4% compared to that of open-ended 4-piles group. During the simulated seaquake in deep sea, stability of base-grouted pile was found to be dependent on the pile penetration depth. During seaquake motion, single long base-grouted pile longer than 20m was stable and short base-grouted pile shorter than 12m failed. But relatively long base-grouted pile longer than 12m kept mobility state. Bearing capacity of base-grouted group pile with penetration depth less than 7m was degraded a little bit ; so, base-grouted group pile could maintain mobility condition.
An Evaluation of Shear Strength Parameters
for Weathering Decomposed Granite Soil
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 2, 1999, Pages 181~194
Both the chemical components and the physical and mechanical properties of the compacted and undisturbed weathered granite soils were estimated to investigate the influences of the degree of weathering and saturation on the shear strength. The weathered granite soils used in this study were taken from six different sites in Korea. The results showed that the shear strength of weathered granite soil decreased with increasing the degree of weathering and saturation. Under the normal stresses less that 40kPa, the shape of Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope followed curved or hyperbolic relationship and a half of cohesion value obtained by the common shear test was observed. Using the Sueoka's method, the values of CWI were ranged from 21.5 to 31.26 which can be characterized as a completely weathered granite soil. Large decrease in shear strength and remarkable variation in dilatancy were observed in saturated granite soil compared to unsaturated soil. It was also found that the shear strength of undisturbed weathered granite soil of Pungam site can be expressed approximately by the equation of
and this equation can be extended to the other sites considered in this study.