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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
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Behavior of Sand during Large Stress Reversal in Torsion Shear Test
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 3~17
Torsion shear tests under various stress paths were performed to study the behavior of sand during large stress reversal. The stress paths can be classified into the clockwise and the counterclockwise according to torque applied to specimen, and the directions of plastic strain incremental on the stress paths including large stress reversal are compared with the direction of stress state and stress incremental. From test results, the isotropic hardening theory using the principle of St. Venant desirably showed that direction of plastic strain incremental coincided with stress state on primary loading part and nearby failure point, but it might result in a rough approximation on part of unloading and reloading by stress reversal.
A Study on the Safety Assessment of Adjacent Structures Caused by Tunnel Excavation in Urban Area -Focused on the Characteristics of Geometries and Locations for Nearby Building-
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 19~42
In urban area, there are several major factors to be considered in tunnel design and construction. The first is to predict the magnitude and distribution of ground movements for particular ground conditions and construction procedures. The second is to assess the potential damage to nearby structures in response to the predicted ground movements. The third is to select the measures to be taken if a potential damage is foreseen. This study is concerned primarily with the first and second stages of the problem. Particularly, this paper is focused on the second stage to assess the potential damage to the nearby building with any type of geometries and locations above ground surface. In order to solve this problem, we introduced damage parameters(angular distortion, deflection ratio, maximum building settlements, maximum differential settlements, horizontal strain, etc.), and extended these parameters into 3-dimensional safety assessment. Also, to assess the safety of any walls existing in the building, we developed a 3-dimensional analysis program, and various parametric studies for the nearby building with any type of geometries and locations were presented. In addition to these parametric studies, we compared the results of the proposed techniques with some abroad case records for particular tunnels and adjacent buildings.
The Efficient Berms for Restraining Excessive Deformation Caused by Deep Excavations in Urban Area
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 43~56
The use of berms can be an effective method to restrain excessive movements of wall and ground caused by deep excavations in urban area. But generally in construction sites, no berm remains for the sake of construction convenience or the geometry and magnitude of remaining berm is determined by individual experiences due to scarce research results. In this research, laboratory model tests and numerical analyses are used mainly for sandy soils. And efficient berms for restraining excessive movements by deep excavations are analyzed. Model tests were performed for the cases of cantilever and braced wall excavations, and the behaviors of retaining wall were analyzed according to the geometry and magnitude of berms. And also, numerical methods were used for analyzing efficient berms which are available in the soil and construction conditions in urban areas of Korea.
Stability Analysis of Embankment on Soft Clay considering the Rate of Strength Increase
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 57~67
In conventional stability analysis of embankment on soft clay ground, an averaged undrained shear strength
for the depth of clay layer is usually used. Also, all applied load is assumed to an immediate load for simplicity of analysis. The load in the field, however, increases gradually. Undrained shear strength increases during loading due to consolidation of clay ground. In this study, the stability analysis program(RSI-SLOPE) is developed. By using this program, it is possible to consider the rate of strength increase according to the elapsed time of consolidation and the depth of clay ground. And the rested duration for consolidation and gradually increased load can also be considered. Using the examples of some embankments, the critical embankment heights calculated by RSI-SLOPE program are compared with those by PCSTABL without the considerations of gradually increased load and rate of strength increase. In addition, this study contains analysis and comparison about the influence of coefficient of consolidation
and drainage distance
in the embankment design. RSI-SlOPE program may be useful for more effective and accurate embankment design.
Considerations of Permeability of Converter Slag for Recycling
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 69~83
The permeability of converter slag, replacing material of sand mat on improving soft clay foundation, was evaluated in the laboratory. The effects of grain size, flow water time and aging were investigated using sea and fresh water. In the case of converter slag submerged with fresh water, the coefficients of permeability in A and B samples less than 10 mm grain sizes were measured as
per sec respectively, while they were
per sec respectively under sea water condition. Also, the condition of turbulent flow may exit and was experimentally identified from the relationship between hydraulic gradient and seepage velocity. After 100 days under sea water condition, the coefficients of permeability of A and B samples decreased ten times than initial values. The reduction of permeability coefficient was considered to result from the filling of voids in high-calcium quicklime(CaO).
Determination of OCR on the Deltaic Clay of the Nakdong River
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 85~97
For a deltaic clay in the mouth of the Nakdong river, OCR was investigated through methods using the results of field measurement, laboratory and field soil tests. As a result, OCRs were obtained around the range of 0.95 to 1.20 by analysis of field measurements, although they were estimated around the values of 0.4 to 0.7 by the results of conventional consolidation tests for the clay. From the dissipation test it was found out that the excess pore pressures scarcely existed in the clay deposit and then the soil was not in the underconsolidated condition. And the OCRs obtained through methods of Mayne(1991) and Cao et al(1996) using the piezocone test and of Mayne & Kemper(1988) using the cone penetration test were in good agreement with those of field measurement.
3-Dimensional Tunnel Analyses for the Prediction of Fault Zones
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 99~112
When there exists a fault zone ahead of the tunnel face and a tunnel is excavated without perceiving its existence, it will cause stress concentration in the region between the tunnel face and the fault zone because of the influence of the fault zone on the arching phenomena. Because the underground structure has many unreliable factors in the design stage, the prediction of a fault zone ahead of the tunnel face by monitoring plans during tunnel construction and the rapid establishment of appropriate support system are required for more economical and safer tunnel construction. Recent study shows that longitudinal displacement changes during excavation due to the change of rock property, and if longitudinal displacement and settlement, which are measured in the field, are considered together in displacement analysis, the prediction of change in rock mass property is possible. This study provided the method for the prediction of fault zones by analyzing the changes of L/C and (Ll-Lr)/C ratio (L= longitudinal displacement at crown, C = settlement at crown, Ll = longitudinal displacement at left sidewall, Lr = longitudinal displacement at right sidewall) and the stereographic projection of displacement vectors which were obtained from the 3-D numerical analysis of hybrid method in various initial stress conditions.
Optimum Design of Soil Nailing Excavation Wall System Using Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network Theory
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 113~132
Recently in Korea, application of the soil nailing is gradually extended to the sites of excavations and slopes having various ground conditions and field characteristics. Design of the soil nailing is generally carried out in two steps, The First step is to examine the minimum safety factor against a sliding of the reinforced nailed-soil mass based on the limit equilibrium approach, and the second step is to check the maximum displacement expected to occur at facing using the numerical analysis technique. However, design parameters related to the soil nailing system are so various that a reliable design method considering interrelationships between these design parameters is continuously necessary. Additionally, taking into account the anisotropic characteristics of in-situ grounds, disturbances in collecting the soil samples and errors in measurements, a systematic analysis of the field measurement data as well as a rational technique of the optimum design is required to improve with respect to economical efficiency. As a part of these purposes, in the present study, a procedure for the optimum design of a soil nailing excavation wall system is proposed. Focusing on a minimization of the expenses in construction, the optimum design procedure is formulated based on the genetic algorithm. Neural network theory is further adopted in predicting the maximum horizontal displacement at a shotcrete facing. Using the proposed procedure, various effects of relevant design parameters are also analyzed. Finally, an optimized design section is compared with the existing design section at the excavation site being constructed, in order to verify a validity of the proposed procedure.
The Study on Liquefaction Characteristics of Silty Sand Soils by Cyclic Triaxial Test
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 133~152
The cyclic triaxial test was carried out to research liquefaction characteristics and sample disturbance effects of silty sand soils at the west coast in Korea. First, liquefaction in silty sand was generated when axial strain approached to
of strain and behavior of pore pressure was similar to the formula suggested by Seed, Martin, and Lysmer(1975). Also, it was found that dilatancy was generated at failure. Secondly, the liquefaction evaluation methods suggested by many researchers were carried out and the results were compared. In these methods the weak depth in liquefaction was similar and the method carried out by cyclic triaxial test on remolded sample showed the least safety factor. Thirdly the stress ratio by cyclic triaxial test was compared with that obtained from SPT N-value as a kind of empirical methods. It was found that the effect of sample disturbance was relatively small when SPT N-value was less than 20, but there were large differences in safety factor and resistance of liquefaction in soil by the effects of disturbance and remolding when SPT N-value was more than 20.
Development and Application of Construction Control System for Excavation
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 153~166
Since the reliability of results by the existing analyzing method is low, in the case of for excavation performed in urban area whose stability is of great importance, construction control based on field monitoring is always necessary. But the field monitoring reflects only the behavior of construction process that has already been carried out, and it has limitations in predicting the behavior of the expected construction process, which is practically more important for construction control. In this study, construction control system for excavation which can predict the behavior of the expected processes during construction with high degree of accuracy, is developed by adopting inverse analysis. The inverse analied applied field monitoring results to excavation analysis can improve the reliability of predicted results. The developed system uses an elasto-plastic soil spring model for the excavation analysis and the minimization of least squared errors between measured displacements and calculated displacements for the inverse analysis. All the required processes for construction control can be performed as an integrated work within the system reflecting real time application and user's convenience. Their applicabilitis are confirmed by two case studies.
A Study on the Failure Behavior of the Reinforced Earth Wall Structures according to the Deformed Types of the Face
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 167~173
In this paper the failure behavior of the reinforced earth retaining wall structures according to the deformed types of the face was studied by model test using carbon rods. In model test the behavior of the face for the model of the reinforced earth wall was divided into three cases : the displacement of the top part(case 1), the lateral displacement(case 2) and the displacement of the lower part (case 3). The photographic method was applied to examine the failure line of the deformed wall with the naked eye. The failure line shows a parabolic shape for case 1, a large circular arc for case 2 and a logarithmic spiral for case 3 in the experimental results. The design failure line for the coherent gravity structure hypothesis was most similar to the failure line for the case of the lower part displacement.
Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Reclaimed Land by Utilizing Waste Lime
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 175~184
Several major land reclamation projects such as the Inchon International Airport construction, Songdo New City construction, LNG Tank and LPG storage construction are underway along the coastal line of Inchon in Korea. This study was carried out to investigate the feasible use of waste lime in the land reclamation projects. Waste lime (hydrated lime) used in this study is produced as a by-product in the manufacturing process of
from local chemical factory in Inchon. This study presents the characteristics of bearing capacity and settlement on the ground formed by layers of waste lime and dredged soil. From the laboratory and in-situ plate load test, the ultimate bearing capacity by in-situ test was 1.25~1.37 times higher than that of the theoretical ultimate bearing capacity. Based on the settlement analysis by Magset- II, the total settlement of layered ground steadly increased up to the ratio of waste lime depth 0.2 and therefore rapidly increased with the increase of waste lime depth. The results of the present study indicate that the ratio of waste lime depth for reclamation work is about 0.2.
In-Situ Stress Determinations by Hydraulic Fracturing in Deep Inclined Boreholes for the Design of Underground Oil Storages
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 185~205
Hydraulic fracturing tests were performed in two inclined boreholes for the design of underground oil storages in Korea. Extensions of their application limits were expected through a precise comparison between the interpretation techniques for the vertical and the inclined boreholes. Especially, it was verified that the magnitude of in-situ stress can be varied even in the same rock mass with a variety of geographic/geotechnical characteristics. It was also demonstrated that its orientation can be changed even in the same borehole with the existence of explicit discontinuities.
Failure Modes in Piled Embankments
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 207~220
Model tests were performed to investigate the failure modes in embankments on soft ground supported by piles with cap beams. In the model tests, Jumunjin standard sand was placed on simulated cap beams and soft ground. The cap beams are placed perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the embankment. The colored sand and the Jmniin standard sand were placed one after the other above cap beams and soft ground to make lateral stripes with 3mm thickness in the embarkment. The colored sand was prepared by coating the Jumunjin sand with black lead powder. The photographs illustrate the two characteristic modes of failure in embarkments. One is the soil arching failure and the other is the punching shear failure. The failure mode depends on the height of embankment and the space between cap beams. That is, if the embankment is high enough compared with the space between cap beams, it will fail in arching failure. On the other hand if the embarkment is relatively low or the space between piles is too wide, it will fail in punching shear failure. The soil arching develops in embarkment as a semicylindrical arch with a thickness equal to the width of the cap beam. And the soil wedge developed above the cap beams remains intact during both arching and punching failures. The boundary of punching shear failure of the displaced soil mass can be defined on the basis of observation of the photographs.
Finite Element Modeling of Tunnels Constructed in Discontinuous Rock Mass
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 221~234
This paper deals with the application of joint element in the finite element modeling of discontinuities encountered during rock tunneling. A nodal displacement joint element was implemented in a two dimensional finite element program GEOFE2D. The applicability of the joint element for modeling of discontinuities and the numerical stability of the implemented algorithm were examined by comparing the results of reduced small scale model tests as well as commercially available FEM program. The GEOFE2D was then used to analyze a tunnel crossed by a major discontinuity for the purpose of understanding the effect of discontinuity on the tunnel behavior. In addition, a modeling technique for the junction of discontinuity and shotcrete lining was presented. The results of analysis indicated that the stress-strain field around the tunnel is significantly altered by the presence of discontinuity, and that the stresses in the shotcrete lining considerably increase at the junction of the shotcrete lining and the discontinuity. It is therefore concluded that the major discontinuities must be carefully modeled in the finite element analysis of a tunneling problem in order to obtain more reliable results close to actual tunnel behavior.
An Experimental Study on the Earth Pressure on the Underground Box Structure
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 235~246
Some of the underground structures such as subway tunnels are constructed by open cut method, in which the ground is excavated, a structure installed, and after that the excavated space is backfilled. In this case, because of their narrow and constrained boundary conditions, the earth pressure induced by self-weight of the backfilled soil acting on the underground structures is different from that of the classical theory. The vertical and horizontal earth pressures acting on upper slab and side wall of the underground structures constructed by open cut method are affected by the backfill geometry. The laboratory model tests were performed in the conditions of a variety of the shapes of backfill geometry and wall friction. And their results were compared with those from theories. As a result, it was observed that the distribution of the earth pressure acting on the underground structure is affected by the shapes of backfill geometry, the width of backfill, the angle of excavation and the wall friction.
Directional Variations in Surface Roughness Determinations
Lee, Seok-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 247~260
It was found that surface roughness has a first-order effect on the interface shear strength and accordingly it should be accurately quantified if its role is to be properly understood. Most of the surface roughness parameters are based on the trisector approach (three dimensional parameter) which can provide a good measure of the surface roughness from a static perspective. However, if roughness is to be correlated with a directional sensitive parameter such as interface shear then a two dimensional parameter could be more meaningful if the roughness measurements are made parallel to the direction of shearing. In this paper, alternative roughness parameters which consider the direction of shearing are described. These directional parameters are compared with the existing roughness parameters, and the relationship between these directional and non-directional parameters are investigated. The surface roughness was quantified by using the Optical Profile Microscopy (OPM) method (Dove and Frost, 1996) based on the digital image analysis. The results showed that the various surface roughness parameters measured in this study exhibit similar trend of roughness values, so that, good relationships are obtained between these roughness parameters. As the surface roughness increases, the roughness values measured in trisector coupons are increasing higher than those measured in parallel coupons.
A Study on Earth Pressure in Unsymmetrical Narrow Backfill Space
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 4, 1999, Pages 261~277
The horizontal and vertical earth pressures in backfill space which is narrowly excavated like ditch are affected by the share of ditch backfill space and the wall friction between excavated surface and backfill soil. In this paper, for the excavated surface the Handy's equation of a symmetric vertical case and the Kellogg's equation of a symmetric sloped one are modified to show the minor principal stress arch for the unsymmetrical excavated backfill space. Compared with the soil test box result, a similarity in magnitude and distribution of backfill earth pressure shows that the earth pressure has been observed. The backfill earth pressure in unsymmetrically sloped space has been shown twice as much as the one in vertically excavated space and also remarkable decline of arching for the former case. It is verified that the earth pressure equation should account the shape and size of backfill space to calculate the earth pressure for similar structure to the one handled in this study