Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Clogging Phenomenon and Drainage Capacity of Tunnel Filters
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 3~18
The geotextile filter, which is installed between the ground and the lining and used as a tunnel drainage system, should have sufficient groundwater drainage capacity so that water pressure does not act on the lining. The clogging may have a serious effect on the long term behaviour of geotextile filters. Two typical weathered residual soils in Korea, Shinnae-dong soil and Poi-dong soil, were chosen to investigate the in-plane flow characteristics of the soils with varying degree of compressive stresses applied on the geotextiles and with various conditions of hydraulic gradient. The Shinnae-dong soil is a relatively coarse material classified as'SW-SM'; on the other hand, the Poi-dong soil is much finer and is classified as'SC'. Based on the comparison of the
of geotextile to the
of residual soils, existing clogging criteria were reviewed, and a tentative clogging criterion for the in-plane flow of the residual soil through filters was proposed. The Shinnae-dong soil showed noticeable clogging phenomenon, while the clogging of the Poi-dong soil was not so serious. The Poi-dong soil seemed to be hindered in particle transport by its cohesiveness.
Analysis for Effects of Slope Failure Behavior by Finite Element Method
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 19~28
In this paper, an application of finite element procedure for the analysis of slope failure behavior has been studied. The most widely accepted methods in analyzing the slope stability problems are mostly based on limit equilibrium method. And the finite element method is widely accepted to analyze stress and displacements. This paper shows how the factor of safety calculated in the finite element method can be systematically incorporated into slope stability. In analyzing the slope failure behavior by finite element method, the effects of computational method and the results have been discussed. And several computations of slope stabilities were carried out to compare the finite element analysis results with those obtained by methods of slices based on the limit equilibrium analysis.
Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Sand Overlying Soft Clay
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 29~41
This Paper applied a simple strength parameter averaging method to double layered systems consisting of the strong sand layer overlying the soft clay deposit. This study derived a formula which defines a critical depth as the strength parameters, and used the correction parameter,
to reduce an error of the strength parameter averaging method. The results of the method were presented in the form of dimensionless charts and were compared with the results of several solutions proposed by Satyanarayana & Grag, Sreenivasulu, and Meyerhof & Hanna. The results of the proposed method coincided with the method of Meyerhof & Hanna and the results obtained from FLAC. But the Satyanarayana & Grag method and the Sreenivasulu method overestimated the bearing capacity. Consequently, the bearing capacity of foundation on sand layer overlying soft clay layer can be approximately estimated by using the proposed dimensionless charts.
Evaluation of YasufukuYs Constitutive Model for Compacted Weathered Granite Soil
;;Li Guang Fan;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 43~55
This study evaluated Yasufuku's constitutive model in terms of its capability to accurately consider the observed behavior of Iksan compacted weathered granite soil for various stress-paths. The strains calculated from the model are in reasonable agreement with those measured, but some discrepancies occur. The largest differences between measured and calculated strains occur for axial strain of proportional loading with increasing stress. Yasufuku's constitutive model can consider the observed behavior of Iksan compacted weathered granite soil with accuracy for conventional triaxial compression and for p'-constant loading with increasing stress ratio.
Estimation of Structural Damage by Blasting Vibration Considering the Environmental Crack Deformation
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 57~64
In order to decide critical vibration level on structural damages induced by near blasting, deformation of existing cracks in structure was investigated and ground vibrations were measured. New criteria to evaluate blasting damage to structure are proposed considering daily deformation of cracks in structures. Results from 2 brick houses in fishing village show that new design criteria far more than current are required to cause structural damage for brick houses.
Effect of Pile Head Constraint on Lateral Behavior of Single Flexible Pile in Non-homogeneous Sand
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 65~80
This paper shows the results of a series of model tests on the behavior of single flexible pile, which is subjected to lateral load, in non-homogeneous Nak-Dong River sands, consisting of two layers. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the effects of ratio of lower layer thickness to embedded pile length, ratio of soil modulus of upper layer to lower one, and pile head constraint condition on the characteristics of lateral behavior of single pile. These effects can be quantified only by the results of model tests. Based on the results of model tests, in non-homogeneous sand, it was found that the lateral behavior depends upon the ratio of soil modulus of upper layer to lower one. And, in respect of deflection, it was found that the relationship between the deflection ratio of non-homogeneous to homogeneous sand and the ratio of lower layer thickness to embedded pile length can be fitted to exponential function of H/L and lateral load by model tests results. Also, in respect of maximum bending moment, it was found that the relationship H/L and
can be fitted to linear function of H/L by model test results.
Damage Assessment of Adjacent Structures due to Tunnel Excavation in Urban Areas (II) - Focused on the Variations of Building Stiffness Ratio -
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 81~98
The influence of tunnelling on buildings has become an important issue in urban areas. The problem is an interactive one: not only do tunnelling settlements affect existing structures, but existing structures affect tunnel-induced soil movements. In order to examine the constraint of surface settlement and the degradation of building damage parameters, 3-dimensional elasto-plastic finite element analyses are peformed. Also, in this paper, the results of the parametric studies for the variations of the damage parameters due to the ground movements are presented by utilizing 2-dimensional elasto-plastic finite element models, totally 162 models. The width of a structure, its bending and axial stiffness, its position relative to the tunnel and the depth of tunnel are considered. The interaction is shown by reference to commonly-used building damage parameters, namely angular distortion, deflection ratio, maximum building settlements, maximum differential settlements and horizontal strain. By introducing relative stiffness parameters which combine the bending and axial stiffness of the structure with its width and stiffness of soil, design curves are established. These give a guide as to the likely modification of the greenfield settlement trough caused by a surface structure. They can be used to give initial estimates of likely building damage.
Prediction and Field Measurement of Settlement due to Preloading at the Delta of Nakdong River
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 99~110
Settlement and consolidation time were predicted through systematic soil investigation at the delta of Nakdong river where the preloading method was applied. Field measurements were executed with well-selected instruments. As the results of the comparison, the predicted settlement on the sand layer of about 20m thick underestimated the observed one by 20%. This underestimation was due to the effects of vibration during installation of PBD, creep, the overestimated deformation modulus, and so on. For the clay layer of about 20m in thickness under the sand layer, an ID analysis for underconsolidated soil initially overestimated the observed settlement by 240%. However, when the laboratory compression curve was reconstructed and a conventional ID analysis for NC clay was applied, the re-calculated settlement of the clay layer was relatively similar with the observed one. And the predicted consolidation time was about 45% less than the observed one, because of different influencing factors.
Prediction and Field Measurement on Behaviour of Soft Clay during Deep Excavation
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 111~124
When deep excavation adjacent to an existing structure is performed, it is very important to minimize damage on the structure through the prediction of ground movement. In this paper, finite element analysis was performed to predict the ground movement, based on the data from site investigation and laboratory tests, when deep excavation close to a buried water tank was carried out in soft clay ground. The movement and stabilities of the soil-cement wall(SCW) and the adjacent structure were checked using the results of the analysis and the field measurement. The comparison between the measured and the predicted ground movements showed the significance of the excavation procedure and lowering of water level in the analytical model. In the future, it is needed to improve the prediction method for better estimation of the ground movement.
The Characteristics of Shear Strength on Weathered Residual Soils for the Effect of Soaking and Disturbance
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 125~139
It is difficult to evaluate the shear strength of weathered residual soils because of the difficulties of undisturbed sampling. In this study, a sampling device, direct shear box with shoe, was developed in order to get undisturbed samples easily for direct shear tests, and undisturbed samples could be successfully obtained. Through direct shear tests on undisturbed samples, the shear strength was evaluated with the variation of saturated conditions. In order to consider the effect of disturbance on the shear strength, a static compaction device was developed, and then it was found that undisturbed samples show greater shear strengths than the disturbed ones under natural water contents and similar strengths to the ones under soaked conditions. Further, the shear strength evaluated from direct shear tests was compared with the result of triaxial tests on undisturbed samples, and soaked strengths of the former were similar to the latter. As the result of stability analyses on an actual failed slope, it was found that the shear strength can be evaluated reasonably using direct shear box with shoe.
Geotechnical Characterization of the Eardo Seabed for Offshore Pile Foundation Design
Shim, Jae-Seol ; Yoon, Gil-Lim ; Kown, O-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 141~155
Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute(KORDI) conducted an offshore geotechnical investigation for the Eardo Ocean Research Station with the help of the Fugro International Limited at a site location approximately 152 km away from Mara Island, Korea. The primary purpose of the geotechnical investigation was to obtain information on soil and foundation conditions, and to develop foundation design data for a fixed offshore observation platform. This paper discussed the details of the geotechnical investigation and the foundation design recommendations for the Ocean Research Station. Clear recommendations were proposed for the foundation type of driven pile considering the existing soil conditions.
The Use of Piles to Cut Slopes Design in Cohesive Soils
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 157~170
A new design technique is presented to stabilize cut slopes in cohesive soils by use of piles. The design method can consider systematically factors such as the gradient and height of slope, the number and position of pile's rows, the interval and stiffness of piles, etc. The design method is established on the basis of the stability analysis of slope with rows of piles. The basic concept applied in the stability analysis is that the soil across the open space between piles can be retained by the arching action of the soil, when a row of piles is installed in soil undergoing lateral movement such as landslides. To obtain the whole stability of slope containing piles, two kinds of analyses for the pile-stability and the slope- stability must be performed simultaneously. An instrumentation system has been installed at a cut slope in cohesive soil, which has been designed according to the presented design process. The behavior of both the piles and the soil across the open space between piles is observed precisely. The result of instrumentation shows that the cut slope has been stabilized by the contribution of stabilizing effect of piles on the slope stability in cohesive soil.
A Fundamental Study on Behavior Characteristics of the Geosynthetic Composite Reinforcement in the Weathered Granite Backfill Soils
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 171~191
The final aim of this research is to systematize the reinforced-earth wall system using the geosynthetic composite reinforcement in the weathered granite backfill soils having relatively large amount of fines. As a staged endeavour to accomplish this purpose, laboratory pull-out tests and finite element modeling are carried out in the present study focusing on the analyses of friction characteristics associated with interaction behaviors of the geosynthetic composite reinforcement composed of geogrid with a superior function in tensile resistance and geotextile with sufficient drainage effects. In addition, drainage effects of the geotextile below geogrid are examined based on the analysis of finite difference numerical modeling. From the present investigation, it is concluded that the geosynthetic composite reinforcement in the weathered granite backfills may possibly be used to achieve effects on both a reduction of deformations and an increase of the tensile resistance, together with drainage effects resulting from the geotextile.
A Basic Study on Crushability of Sands and Characteristics of Particle Strength
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 193~204
Particle crushing is an important and essential factor in interpreting the strength and deformation properties of granular materials in the case of geotechnical problems related to soil crushability. As a recent field problem, the exploitation of offshore oil reserves in tropical and sub-tropical coastal shelf areas has shown that the behaviour of soils containing carbonates is markedly different from predominantly silica sands. In this study, as a first step in making a mechanical framework of granular materials incorporating the soil crushability, single particle fragmentation tests were carried out on four different types of sands in order to clarify the characteristics of the single particle fragmentation strength as related to soil crushability. The single particle strength was considered with the influence of the particle shapes, the amount of mineral components and the particle sizes. The soil particle strength corresponding
of soil distribution curve has shown the lower value, the more the carbonate component and the more angular the particle shape.
A Crushability Index of Sands Using Particle Strengths and Compressibility Characteristics
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 205~215
Crushable sandy soil grounds are widely found along the coast throughout the world. The ground composed of lime sand, which is characterized by the material with high compressibility due to particle crushing contains carbonate calcium. In this study, in order to clarify the characteristics of the particle crushing as related to the strength and deformation properties of sands, isotropic compression test was carried out on three different types of carbonate sands and a silica sand. A crushability index, K, is proposed in connection with the yielding and particle crushing stress of sands at various relative densities under isotropic compression. It is concluded that the representative crushability index, K, associated with the soil particle strength, can be a key factor in preliminary parameters in evaluating soil crushability.
A Comparative Study on the REV, non-REV and Joint Network Methods for Analysis of Groundwater Flow in Jointed Rock Masses
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 217~228
The three methods of analysis (i) REV(representative elemental volume), (ii) non-REV and (iii) joint network analysis are introduced in this paper to analyze the groundwater flow in jointed rock mass and the inflow into underground excavations. The results from those methods are compared one another to reveal their characteristics by varying the number of joints and the diameter of the opening. The pre-processor, the so-called sequential analysis, is introduced to predict the equivalent hydraulic conductivity of a jointed rock mass having a number of intersecting joints. Using the finite element mesh, joint map and sequential analysis, the equivalent hydraulic conductivities are calculated for all 445 elements. The hydraulic inhomogeneity and the determination of the representative properties of jointed rock masses are discussed. In the REV analysis where the entire rock mass is homogenized through the representative properties, the inflow is increased regularly and consistently by increasing the joint density, the opening size and the conductivity contrast value. Though the non-REV analysis showed irregular variation of the inflow due to the local inhomogeneity allowed to individual elements, the inflow approached the REV results as the characteristic length increases. The joint network analysis showed the most sensitive reaction to the joint density, the opening size and the presence of the network crossing the opening. The reliability of the network analysis depends on the geometric data of individual joints. In view of the limited field data on joint geometry and possible uncertainty the REV and non-REV methods are considered more practical and rational than the joint network analysis.
A Study on the Flow Characteristics of Groundwater and Grout in Jointed Rock
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 229~240
The groundwater flow and grout flow in individual rock joint and jointed rock mass are studied using various methods of analysis such as (i) the finite difference method, (ii) channel network analysis and (iii) joint network analysis. The flow behaviour is investigated in two distinguishable scales of observation: one for a rough joint of a laboratory scale having variable aperture, and the other for field- scale rock masses having three sets of intermittent joints. In the former case, the aperture-dependent channel flow is identified for both water and grout flows. The comparison of the flow rate in a rough joint is made between the finite difference analysis and existing analytical solution. In the latter case, the effects of increasing number of joints on the groundwater inflow into a circular opening of various diameters are analyzed using both the joint network method and Goodman's analytic solution. Comparisons are made between the two methods. The boundary effects in the joint network method are discussed. The inhomogeneity of joint network and its impacts on the groundwater inflow are also discussed.
Remediation Technique for PCBs-and Phenols-Contaminated Soils by Surfactant-Enhanced Desorption
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 241~257
Subsurface contamination of industrial hazardous organic substances is a serious social issue. Decomposing the hydrophobic organic compounds in the subsurface is technically difficult and the compounds can last as long-term contaminant sources of groundwater once they are sorbed on the soil. Although the danger of contaminated subsurface has long been recognized little was known about the effective remediation technique. Focusing on the remediation of the p-Cresol and 3, 5-Dichlorobiphenyl among subsurface contaminants, this paper studies the surfactant-enhanced desorption technique. Nonionic surfactant(Triton X-100) and anionic surfactant(SDS ) were used as desorbing solvents for extracting organic compound sorbed on soil particles. Sorption characteristics of soils and organic compounds were analyzed and the applications of surfactant solution were studied through batch tests and the flexible-wall permeameter tests. As a result of the sorption isotherm tests, a log-log linear relation was obtained between the linear-partition coefficient,
and the octanol-water partition coefficient,
of each organic compound. The result of the batch test also showed that Triton X-100 at 0.5% of solution desorbs the 3, 5-Dichlorobiphenyl 28 times more than the water in the batch tests. The surfactant-enhanced subsurface remediation technique becomes more effective when the contaminants are hydrophobic and hard to be decomposed,
Model Tests for The Behavior of Propped Retaining Walls in Sand
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 259~279
Model tests on propped retaining walls were performed for the investigation of wall displacement, distribution of earth pressure, surface settlement and underground movement at various excavation stage in sand. The result of model tests on the trough of surface settlement showed considerable difference depending on the characteristic of wall stiffness, wall friction and soil condition. The location of maximum underground movement were found to be at range of 0.15H to 0. 1H(H: Final excavation depth). Effect of arching by the redistribution of earth pressure were closely related to the stiffness of wall as well as the soil condition. The wall displacement and earth pressure distribution were simulated by elasto - plastic beam analysis program and finite element method with GDHM model respectively. The result of elasto-plastic analysis showed some discrepancy on the wall displacement and earth pressure, but result of underground movement by FEM with various wall stiffness were in good agreement with the model tests.
A Study on the Consolidation Effect of Adjacent Ground by Quick Lime Piles
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 281~290
The coastal area, particularly along the West and South coasts in Korea, is often reclaimed with dredged marine-clay to meet the demand of land capacity. A large number of ground improvement techniques are developed for such a newly formed soft clay deposit. However, the quick lime column method, which is effectively used for the purpose of ground improvement in the other countries, is seldom applied in Korea. This study, therefore, focuses on the development of appropriate soft soil improvement technique by using quick lime column. A model test as well as finite element analysis was conducted to identify the consolidation characteristics around the lime column. Although actual pore water pressure measured from model tests does not coincide with the predictions made by finite element method and Chen ＆ Law's theoretical formula, their trends are quite similar. It is revealed from this study that the pressure caused by the expansion of lime column affects considerably the consolidation characteristics of the surrounding ground.
An Experimental Study on Surfactant Enhanced LNAPL Removal Behavior in Saturated Zone
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 15, issue 5, 1999, Pages 291~300
Surfactant flushing for enhancing the removal of BTEX from contaminated sand/clay mixtures was investigated. Eight soil columns packed with relatively undisturbed BTEX contaminated soils, were leached with water, methyl alcohol and then flushed with surfactant with or without several additives. Initial concentrations of BTEX mixture range from 278mg/kg to 1975mg/kg. Initial BTEX removal efficiency was 98% when the contaminated soil was flushed with water of 850 pore volumes. Because of tailing effect, water flushing could not remove below 8mg/kg concentrations during the experimental period. Eventually, the most effective surfactant for flushing was turned out to be 4% SOFTANOL(equation omitted)-90 with 3% ethyl alcohol and 3% SXS. In interrupted flow conditions, the removal efficiency was 99.5% with the flushed water of 95 pore volumes. The BTEX mixture removed from the soil columns during the surfactant flushing ranges from 84.5% to 99.5% of the initial amount for both water leaching(850 pore volumes) and surfactant flushing(95-165 pore volumes), respectively. Test results indicated that surfactant flushing could enhance the removal of BTEX mixture from contaminated soils and could reduce the aqueous phase BTEX mixture concentration in leachate.