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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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Korean Geotechical Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Oct 2000
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
Selecting the target year
Engineering Characteristics of the Sedimentary Rocks on Compressive Strength and Weathering Grade
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 5~17
The physical and mechanical properties of the sedimentary rocks deposited in Taegu and Kyongbuk region have been measured in the laboratory and at the field. Four kinds of rocks such as the shale, the mudstone, the siltstone and the sandstone were the object of this study. In sedimentary rock joint, bedding made it impossible to extract cores for uniaxial compressive test. Some correlations between the uniaxial compressive strength and the other characteristic values such as Point load index, Schmidt hammer rebound, Brazilian strength, P-wave velocity and Absorption ratio are made. The chemical and mineral compositions are also investigated by the XRF and XRD analysis. In addition, the weathering grade of rocks are classified by the quantitative indices of Point load index, Schmidt hammer rebound and Absorption ratio.
Design Charts and Simplified Formulae for Anchored Sheet Pile Wall- Using Equivalent Beam Analysis for Fixed End Supported Wall -
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 19~30
The major design parameters of the anchored sheet-pile wall include the determination of required penetration depth, the force acting on the anchor, and the maximum bending moment in the piling. Blum solved the fixed earth supported wall using the equivalent beam method, assuming that the wall can be separated into upper and lower parts of the point of contraflexure. Design charts help designer by simplifying the design procedure. But they have some difficulties under some Geotechnical and geometrical conditions. For example, the conventional design charts can compute design parameters only when the ground water table exists above the dredge line. In this paper, the design charts which can be used for the ground water table existing under the dredge line are presented. And simplified formulae are developed by regression analysis. It is found that simplified formulae are not only very useful for the practice of design but also they can evaluate the result of numerical methods or design charts.
A Study on the Horizontal Consolidation and Permeability Characteristics of Decomposed Mudstone Soil in Pohang
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 31~42
Consolidation and permeability are major engineering properties of soil. In clay, coefficient of permeability and consolidation can be calculated by incremental loading consolidation test. However, it is known that the incremental loading test has several deficiencies including long testing time, non-uniform stress state, very soft clay and problem of back pressure saturation. Specially, it is not performed with horizontal consolidation test. Several methods have been proposed for obtaining reliable values of
. Among these, the square root of time-fitting method proposed by Taylor(1948) and logarithm of time-fitting method, also called Casagrande's method, are used extensively in soil engineering practice. But these methods are not amenable for the absence of initial linear portion and have the difficulties involved in distinguishing secondary compression from primary compression. Rowecell consolidation tests were carried out in this study with different trimming axis and sample size. The results were compared with those of other methods; Casagrande,
. From the results, we explained a relationship between horizontal coefficient of permeability and void ratio was obtained. Finally, the directly measured horizontal coefficient of permeability obtained by using the Rowecell was compared with the permeability derived indirectly from the consolidation test result.
Estimation of Equivalent Diameter for Cross Shaped Vertical Drain Installed in Weak Clay Soils
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 43~50
In this paper, the consolidation efficiency and the equivalent diameter of the cross shaped drain are examined by using the laboratory test and the numerical model, and the results are compared with those of the band shaped drain. The equivalent diameter of the tested drains is back-calculated from the laboratory experiment and compared with those calculated from the formula suggested in the literature. The efficiency of the cross shaped drain is evaluated by using the 3-D flow program which was validated by the settlement-time test fill data. The results of laboratory test show that the equivalent diameter of the band shaped drain was close to the Rixner's formula and that of the cross shaped drain was fit to the following formula:
The results of the numerical analysis show that the cross shaped drain can reduce the consolidation time by 9-10% from that for the band shaped drain. The equivalent diameter obtained from the numerical flow model by using the field data is 3.5 times smaller than that obtained from the laboratory consolidation test.
Slope Stability Analysis of Unsaturated Soil Slopes Due to Rainfall Infiltration
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 51~64
This paper presents a procedure of calculating a safety factor of the unsaturated slope suffering from the rainfall infiltration. The process of infiltration into a slope due to rainfall and its effect on the behavior of the soil slope are examined by using a two dimensional finite element flow-deformation coupled analysis. A factor of safety is calculated at various elapsed times after the commencement of rainfall as in the following procedure. First, stresses are estimated at each Gaussian point from the coupled finite element analysis. Then, the global stress smoothing method is applied to get a continuous stress field. Based on this stress field, a factor of safety is calculated for a specified slip surface by a stress integration scheme. Then, a search strategy is used to find out a critical slip surface which is associated with the minimum factor of safety. Some numerical examples are analyzed in order to study the effect of hydraulic conductivity on the slope stability during rain-induced infiltration. According to the results, local failure zone can be formed near the slope surface due to inhomogeneous distribution of hydraulic conductivity If the failure zone is once formed, then the region extends until a large amount of slide activates. Therefore the local failure can be neglected no longer in the stability analysis.
An Anisotropic Hardening Elasto-Plastic Constitutive Model for the Behavior at Small-to-Large Strain Conditions
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 65~73
An elasto-plastic constitutive model was proposed, in which the behavior at small-to-large strain level can be modeled. The proposed model is based on the anisotropic hardening description with the generalization of isotropic hardening rule and the total stress concept. From a mathematical approach it was proved that the model includes the previous successful models. The model was verified by a series of resonant column tests, torsional shear tests and triaxial tests, and the proposed model predicted small-to-large strain behavior more consistently and accurately than the hyperbolic model and the Ramberg-Osgood model for a weathered granitic soil. In addition, the nonlinearity under small strain condition was predicted appropriately for the torsional shear test results.
Prediction of Undrained Shear Strength of Normally Consolidated Clay with Varying Consolidation Pressure Ratios Using Artificial Neural Networks
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 75~81
The anisotropy of soils has an important effect on stress-strain behavior. In this study, an attempt has been made to implement artificial neural network model for modeling the stress-strain relationship and predicting the undrained shear strength of normally consolidated clay with varying consolidation pressure ratios. The multi-layer neural network model, adopted in this study, utilizes the error back-propagation loaming algorithm. The artificial neural networks use the results of undrained triaxial test with various consolidation pressure ratios and different effective vertical consolidation pressure fur learning and testing data. After learning from a set of actual laboratory testing data, the neural network model predictions of the undrained shear strength of the normally consolidated clay are found to agree well with actual measurements. The predicted values by the artificial neural network model have a determination coefficient
above 0.973 compared with the measured data. Therefore, this results show a positive potential for the applications of well-trained neural network model in predicting the undrained shear strength of cohesive soils.
Development of a System Predicting Maximum Displacements of Earth Retaining Walls at Various Excavation Stages Using Artificial Neural Network
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 83~97
In the present study, artificial neural network based on the multi-layer perceptron is used and an optimum model is chosen through the process of efficiency evaluation in order to develop a system predicting maximum displacements of the earth retaining walls at various excavation stages. By analyzing the measured field data collected at various urban excavation sites in Korea, factors influencing on the behaviors of the excavation wall are examined. Among the measured data collected, reliable data are further selected on the basis of the performance ratio and are used as a data base. Data-based measurements are also utilized for both teaming and verifying the artificial neural network model. The learning is carried out by using the back-propagation algorithm based on the steepest descent method. Finally, to verify a validity of the formulated artificial neural network system, both the magnitude and the occurring position of the maximum horizontal displacement are predicted and compared with measured data at real excavation sites not included in the teaming process.
A Consolidation Characteristics of Decomposed Mudstone Soil by Constant Rate of Strain Consolidation
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 99~106
The main advantage of incremental loading consolidation test is the simplicity of equipments that can be used. However, it is known that the incremental loading test has several deficiencies including long testing time, non-uniform stress state, high and variable rates of strain, very soft clay and problem of back pressure saturation. Due to these drawbacks, various testing methods including constant rate of strain consolidation test(CRS) were developed. In this paper, CRS consolidation test was performed with three different strain rate. The results were verified by the modified CRS theory of Wissa et al.(1971). And then the results obtained from the CRS consolidation tests were compared with those from incremental loading test and direct permeability test.
The Behavior of Bearing Capacity for the Precast files
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 107~116
Dynamic and static load tests are conducted in four construction sites by using steel pipe piles(SPP) and concrete piles to compare differences of load bearing mechanism. Steel pipe piles are instrumented with electric strain gages and are subject to dynamic load tests during driving. The damage of strain gages attached is checked simultaneously. Static load test is also conducted on the same piles after two to seven days' elapse. Then load-settlement behavior and shaft and/or tip resistances are measured. As a result, the allowable bearing capacity calculated by the Davisson's offset method of CAPWAP analysis shows 2~33% larger than that of static load test. The average value of allowable bearing capacity of static load test is closer to the allowable capacity obtained at the safety factor of 2.5 applied on ultimate bearing capacity than to the one obtained from the Davisson's offset method. The analysis of strain gage readings shows that unit skin friction increases with depth. Furthermore, the friction mobilized around the 1~2m above the pile tip considerably contributes to the total shaft resistance.
Lateral Behavior of Group Pile in Sand
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 117~129
This paper discusses the lateral behavior of group pile in homogeneous and non- homogeneous (two layered) soil. In the group pile, the model tests were to investigate the effects on spacing-to-diameter ratio of pile, pile array, ratio of pile spacing, constraint condition of pile tip, eccentric load and ground condition. The group efficiency and lateral deflection induced in active piles were found to be highly dependent on the spacing-to-diameter ratio of pile, number of pile. Lateral bearing capacities in the group piles of fixed tip, in the case of 6D spacing and
array, were 40-100% higher than those in the group pile of free tip. Based on the results obtained, a spacing-to-diameter of 6.0 seems to be large enough to eliminate the group effect for the case of relative density of 61.8% and 32.8%, and then each pile in such a case behaves essentially the same as a single pile. However, in the case of dense sand, it can be estimated that a spacing-to-diameter of 8.0 seems to be large enough to eliminate the group effect. In this study the group efficiency is illustrated in experimental function with spacing-to-diameter, S/D, relative density and number of pile. The distribution of shear force in lead row piles, in the case of 3
3 array group pile, was 41.6-52.4% for 3D spacing and 34-40% for 6D spacing, respectively. The shadowing effect for the parallel direction of lateral loading appears to be more significant than the one for the perpendicular direction of lateral loading.
Theoretical Analysis of Embankment Loads Acting on Piles
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 131~143
Several theoretical analyses are performed to predict the vertical load on embankment piles with cap beams. The piles are installed in a row in soft ground below the embankment and the cap beams are placed perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the embankment. Two failure mechanisms such as the soil arching failure and the punching shear failure are investigated according to the failure pattern in embankment on soft ground supported by piles with cap beams. The soil arching can be developed when the space between cap beams is narrow and/or the embankment is high enough. In the investigation of the soil arching failure, the stability in the crown of the arch is compared with that above the cap beams. The factors affecting the load transfer in the embankment fill by soil arching are the space between cap beams, the width of cap beams and the soil parameters of the embankment fill. The portion of the embankment load carried by cap beams decreases with increment of the space between cap beams, while it increases with the embankment height, the width of cap beams, the internal friction angle and cohesion of the embankment fill. Thus, the factors affecting load transfer in embankment should be appropriately decided in order to maximize the effect of embankment load transfer by piles.
Sampling Bias of Discontinuity Orientation Measurements for Rock Slope Design in Linear Sampling Technique : A Case Study of Rock Slopes in Western North Carolina
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 145~155
Orientation data of discontinuities are of paramount importance for rock slope stability studies because they control the possibility of unstable conditions or excessive deformation. Most orientation data are collected by using linear sampling techniques, such as borehole fracture mapping and the detailed scanline method (outcrop mapping). However, these data, acquired by the above linear sampling techniques, are subjected to bias, owing to the orientation of the sampling line. Even though a weighting factor is applied to orientation data in order to reduce this bias, the bias will not be significantly reduced when certain sampling orientations are involved. That is, if the linear sampling orientation nearly parallels the discontinuity orientation, most discontinuities orientation data which are parallel to sampling line will be excluded from the survey result. This phenomenon can cause serious misinterpretation of discontinuity orientation data because critical information is omitted. In the case study, orientation data collected by using the borehole fracture mapping method (vertical scanline) were compared to those based on orientation data from the detailed scanline method (horizontal scanline). Differences in results for the two procedures revealed a concern that a representative orientation of discontinuities was not accomplished. Equal-area, polar stereo nets were used to determine the distribution of dip angles and to compare the data distribution fur the borehole method versus those for the scanline method.
Evaluation of Applicability of HMS-25 as the Railroad Roadbed Material
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 157~165
The applicability and performance of HMS-25 as the railroad roadbed materials were evaluated through the model and laboratory tests. The uniaxial compression test of HMS-25, model soil box test, and combined resonant column and torsional shear test were performed for static and dynamic analysis of railroad roadbed. The uniaxial compression test result of HMS-25 shows steady increase in strength due to hardening chemical reaction between HMS-25 and water. The result of model soil box test reveals that railroad roadbed of HMS-25 is better than that of soil in several aspects such as bearing capacity and settlement. The combined resonant column and torsional that shear test result indicates that shear modulus of HMS-25 increases with the power of 0.5 to the confining pressure and that shear modulus increases with the increase of curing period.
Estimation of volume Ratio according to Step up Filling Method for a Dredged Clay
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 167~178
An experimental study on step up filling method is carried out to reinforce the Yano method which is widely used to estimate volume ratio and self-weight consolidation settlement in reclamation area. This method considers actual reclamation construction in which dredged clay is continuously filled and rising of deposit height is presented as a result of volume decrease by height rising and self-weight consolidation. It measured the relationship between filling velocity and deposit rising velocity; calculated the total filling height which is needed to achieve the planned final deposit height, and its solid height and the time which is taken to finish the planned final deposit height; and on the basis of these calculated parameters, predicted the self-weight consolidation and volume change ratio in reclamation construction. Yano method is also used to predict the same conditions. 29.8% in self-weight consolidation, 31.1% in volume ratio, 40% in void ratio and water content is underestimated in Yano method compared to step up filling method.
The Effect of Freeze and Thaw for the Stabilized Soil Bottom Liners in the Landfill
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 179~189
The purpose of this research is to complement the existing researches on landfill bottom liners behavior during the periods of freeze and thaw. Landfill-related researches have been typically focused on small-scale soil samples that are often compacted under conditions different from those used in the field. Although these tests have been invaluable in clarifying the problem of freeze and thaw, extending the results of such experimental studies to prototype landfills are questionable. In this investigation, the author utilized a large scale laboratory simulation allowing inclusion of the field depth of the cover systems, layered soil profiles, rainfall simulation, a cold climate and boundary conditions similar to those encountered in the landfill. The soil materials were stabilized soils (mixed clays, cements, and minerals) instead of clays. The bottom liners are made up of drainage layer (30 cm), stabilized layer (75 cm), and leach collection layer (60 cm). The stabilized layers are made up of supporting layer (45 cm) and low permeable layer (30 cm) - consisting of
layer. As a results, depths of penetration increased by about 2~5 more centimeters at rainfall simulated designs than those at no rainfall simulated designs (that is design 3, design 5 and design 7) - it increased by about 20mm/day in the bottom liners and frost heaves also increased it by a few millimeters. Also, a few cracks appeared partly. According to these results, we can surmise that the compacted stabilized soil is more reliable than the compacted clay liners for construction of the landfill liners.
Earth Retaining Structure Using a Row of piles during Shallow Excavation in Soft Clay
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 191~201
In this study, the earth retaining structure using a row of piles considering plastic flow of the ground is suggested for shallow excavation works instead of conventional anchored sheet-pile wall method in the marine clays with high groundwater level. The behavior of the earth retaining structure using a row of piles is precisely observed during excavation by inclinometer and piezometer installed in opposite to the excavation side. As a result of field measurement, it was found that the behaviors of the piles and the soil were influenced mainly by slope of excavation face, interval ratio of piles, fixity condition of pile head, and stability number, etc. The earth retaining structure using a row of piles is ascertained for workability, stability, and economical construction on the soft ground having no adjacent structures.
Development of Analysis Method and Computer Program for Train-induced Ground Vibration
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 203~210
Recently, environmental vibration by train operation has been getting such an attention that the ISO puts it into the environmental vibration regulation. However, the reasonable and efficient countermeasures against such a kind of vibration is not well established, especially in residential areas near the railroad. Therefore, it is very important to estimate the ground vibration induced by the train operation for the design and construction of track supporting structures as well as structures near the track. In this study a model estimating dynamic load on track due to train operation and analysis technique of propagation of ground vibration were developed. Futhermore, the estimated vibration from this model was compared with the actual measurement data in the field and found to be reasonably acceptable.
Comparison of Performance between Regular Drilled Shaft and Isolation Tube Drilled Shafts
Kim, Myung-Hak ; O'Neill, Michael W. ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 211~220
An experimental study that included detailed observation of four 305-mm-diameter drilled shafts, one reference shaft of standard design and three test shafts with isolation tubes to mitigate skin friction in the vadose zone of a clay soil profile, is described. The shafts were loaded only by naturally expanding and contraction soil over a period of 17 months. The soil at the test site was instrumented to track suction and elevation changes. Maximum ground surface movements exceeding 40 mm were observed. Heave movements of less than 1.5 mm were observed in the test shafts with isolation tubes, while movements of 5 mm were observed in the reference shaft. Unit side shear loads in the shafts protected by the isolation tubes were minimal compared to those measured in the reference shaft. This indicates that the isolation tubes were very effective.
Experimental Study on Gas-Water Fracture Relative Permeability Measurement in a Single-Fractured Parallel Plate Model
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 221~226
In this study, the characteristics of gas-water relative permeability curves in a single fractured-plate according to the various aperture size were analyzed by using the Hele-Shaw type glass plate model. The plate was made of glasses for the observation of the two-phase flow pattern, and seven cases were set up based on the aperture size in the range of field scale from 30 to
. The experiment was conducted by steady-state method, and the water saturation was determined more accurately by the developed digital image process technique. The empirical equations of relative permeability to gas and water for single fractured-plate were correlated by using the aperture size which directly affects the two-phase flow pattern and critical saturation.
A Study on the Mix Design for the Pozzolanic Cement Treated with High Strength Soilcrete by Using the Statistical Design of Experimental Method
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 227~234
Soilcrete has been a traditional material for pavement and soft ground improvement techniques. However, since the durability is not excellent and the quality is not consistent, it has not been used for various purposes up to date. However, with the increase of naturally oriented needs for light traffic roads such as pedestrian roads of garden, golf courses and sidewalks, the cases of the high strength soilcrete paving have been increased lately. This study aims at making a reference table of mix design in accordance with the required design specifications fur the high strength soilcrete admixtured with the pozzolanic cement by using a statistical experimental method. The treated soil is the clay which is widely found in Korea. As the results of this study, we could derive an effective reference mix design table for the clay treated with the pozzolanic cement stabilizer in accordance with the compressive strength of
Characteristics of Driving Efficiency and Bearing Capacity for Long Steel Pipe Pile Method without Welding
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 235~241
The existing methods for installation of long steel pipe pile have some uneconomical problems such as increase of installation cost and period due to the welding of two piles and removal of soil plug, and decrease of driving efficiency due to the increase of driving resistance resulting from time effect during the welding of piles and removal of soil plug, etc. Thus, in this study, new installation method for long steel pipe pile is suggested to solve the existing problems, and calibration chamber tests were performed to investigate both driving and economical efficiency for the suggested method. The test results showed that the new method increased bearing capacity, and decreased the installation cost and period for long steel pipe piles compared with existing methods.
Earth Pressure on the Underground Box Structure
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 1, 2000, Pages 243~250
The mechanical behavior of the underground box culvert constructed by the open cut method depends mainly on the earth pressure acting on it. In this study, the earth pressure on the underground box culverts constructed by the open cut method during and after the construction sequence was numerically analysed by using FLAC. The results are compared with those of the Marston-Spangler's theory, silo theory, and the model tests. The results showed that the vertical earth pressure on the upper slab of the box structure was not uniform. It was as large as the overburden in the middle part of the slab but was smaller or larger than that at its end part depending on the slope of the excavation, the depth of the cover, and the width of the side refill. The horizontal earth pressure on the side wail was much smaller than the earth pressure at rest and grew nonlinearly with the depth.