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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
Editor in Chief :
Seong Wan Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Oct 2000
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
Selecting the target year
Nonlinear Analysis for the Prediction of Lateral Behavior of Single Piles in Non-homogeneous Sandy Soil
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 5~16
THe purpose of this paper is to suggest the analytical method which can predict lateral nonlinear behavior in non-homogeneous soil using the coefficient of soil resistance and ultimate soil resistance. Those parameters are obtained through back analysis on the base of the results of a series of model tests.Analytical method of Chang is more or less difficult to predict nonlinear behavior in non-homogeneous sol. So, in this study, for the prediction of nonlinear behavior the compositive analytical method which apply the p - y curve to Chang model is suggested. Also, the program is developed to predict nonlinear behavior using the compositive analytical method and it can be used to calculated the deflection, bending moment and soil reaction with DFM in non-homogeneous soil. To establish applicability of the suggested analytical method, the results of model tests and field tests and Pentagon2D finite element program are compared with those of the compositive analytical method. In the analysis values of the coefficient of soil reaction and ultimate soil resistance are also applied to the case of non-homogeneous soil. Lateral defection calculated using the compositive analytical method has been found to be in good agreement with values measured in field and model load tests.
A Study on the Flowable Backfill with Waste Foundry Sand for Retaining Wall
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 17~30
The objective of this study is to evaluate the lateral earth pressure and the stability of small scale retaining wall with waste foundry sand(WFS) mixtures as a controlled low strength materials (CLSM). Three different types of WFS, like Green WFS, Hurane WFS and Coated WFS, were used in this study, and fly ash of Class F type was adopted. To evaluate the lateral earth pressure and the stability of retaining wall, two different samll scale retaining wall tests, which are called an artificially controlled strain method and a natural strain method, were carried out. In case of an artificially controlled strain method, the coefficient of lateral earth pressure, just after backfilling of WF mixtures, was around 0.8 to 1.0, and most of earth pressure was dissipated within 12 hours. In case of a natural strain method, two steps of stage constructions were employed. The mixtures of Hurane WFS and Coated WFS showed fast decrease of earth pressure due to a relatively good drainage. Judging from the sta bility of retaining wall for overturning and sliding, two steps of stage construction for 2 days were enough to finish the backfill of 6-m height of retaining wall. Also, considering the curling effect of WFS mixtures, the stability of retaining wall increased as curling time increased.
A Study on the Stability of Group Piles Installed in the Deep Sea to the Seaquake
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 31~42
In this study, the stability of group piles installed in deep sea to the seaquake was studied by performing the calibration chamber model tests for open-ended pipe piles, grouted piles under soil plug and close-ended piles installed in the simulated deep sea. For each case (a single pile, 2-pile and 4-pile groups), series of seaquake tests were performed. While, during the simulated seaquake, the compressive capacity of the single open-ended pile depended on pile penetration depth(=7m), were found to be stable. But, a single grouted pile with penetration depth of 13m kept "mobility" state, the one with penetration depth of 20m was stable and grouted pile groups with penetration depth of 7m were stable regardless of pile penetration depth. By grouting soil plug of open-ended piles and soil under the pile toe of open-ended pipe piles installed in the deep sea, failure of soil plugging was prevented. Thus, close-ended piles were more stable than open-ended pile against the seaquake motionake motion
Lateral Wall Movements and Apparent Earth Pressures for In-situ Walls during Deep Excavations in Multi-Layered Grounds with Rocks
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 43~50
This paper presents the measured performance of in-situ walls using the measured data collected from various deep excavation sites in urban area. A variety of in-situ wall systems from 57 sites were considered, including H-pile walls, soil cement walls, cast-in-place pile walls, and diaphram walls. The examination included lateral wall movements as well as apparent earth pressure distributions. The measured data were thoroughly analyzed to investigate the effects of various components of in-situ wall system, such as types of wall and supporting system, on the lateral wall movement as well as on the apparent earth pressure distribution. The results wee then compared with the current design/analysis methods, and information is presented in chart formes to provide tools that can be used for design and analysis. Using the measured data, a semi-empirical equation for predicting deep excavation induced maximum lateral wall movement is suggested.
Comparative Study on Seismic Design of Soil-Reinforced Segmental Retaining Walls
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 51~61
This paper reviews fundamentals of a pseudo-static seismic design/analysis method for soil-reinforced segmental retaining walls. A comparative study on NCMA and FHWA seismic design guidelines, which are one of the most well known design guidelines for mechanically stabilized earth walls, was also performed. The results demonstrate that there exist significant discrepancies in the results of external stability analysis despite the same calculation model used in the two guidelines, due primarily to different seismic coefficient selection criteria. It is also demonstrated that the internal stability calculation model for NCMA guideline tends to yield larger seismic reinforcement force in the shallower reinforcement layers, resulting in an increased number of reinforcement layers at the top of reinforced wall and increased reinforcement lengths to ensure adequate anchorage capacity. The internal stability calculation model adopted by FHWA guideline, however, leads to redistribution of dynamic force to the lower reinforcement layers and thus results n an opposite trend of NCMA guideline. Findings from this study clearly demonstrate a need for more in-depth studies to develop a generally acceptable design/analysis method.
Parameter Effect on Elastic Modulus of Discontinuity Rock-mass Based on Homogenization Method
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 63~70
The quantitative analyses and the mechanical interpretation of discontinuity planes are the most important factor for the study of strength and deformation properties of rock masses containing discontinuity planes. However, the relationship between the factors investigated in the field and the actual mechanical properties of discontinuity planes is not fully understood. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of density, length, and spacing of joints on elastic modulus of rock masses as these values vary. A new parameter which has a direct relation with the elastic modulus of discontinuity planes is also preposed in this study. The combination of finite element methods and homogenization methods has been used for the numerical analyses of a uintcell with discontinuity planes, which is generated using random-number generation methods. The elastic modulus of the discontinuity plane is found from the numerical analyses. The final results propose not only the relation between the investigation parameters of discontinuity planes and the elastic modulus of rock masses but also a new parameter, an effect area ratio having a linear relation with the elastic modulus of rock masses.
Ground Vibration Analysis for Light Rail Transit on Bridges
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 71~82
Ground vibration analysis methods for Light Rail Transit(LRT) on bridges are studied. LRT loads acting on the piers are evaluated considering interactions between trains and a bridge. Two dimensional in-plane and axisymmetric wave propagations are used in ground vibration analyses, and then the results of them are compared one another. A modified axisymmetric method is presented, which can consider the effect of the train loadings on a series of piers as the train moves. Parametric studies are carried out for various train speeds, bridge types and geotechnical conditions to investigate the characteristics of ground vibrations.
Evaluation of Ground Properties for Marine Ground in Pusan Area using Elastometer-200 Type
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 83~94
Applicability of PMT in domestic area, test procedure, and methods determining the shear strength parameters
and deformation character (E) using PMT results were studied. At six test boreholes of three construction sites in Pusan, PMT using Elastometer-200 type was performed. The problems occurring during tests were investigated and the test results were analysed.In-situ total horizontal stress could be obtained by observation from pressuremeter curve and limit pressure, ｐ could be determined by
method. Shear strength parameters
and deformation modulus(G, E) could be determined from the PMT results. But effective friction angle and undrained cohesion determined from PMT results were greater than those obtained from laboratory test.Using PMT results, marine soil in Pusan could be classified approximately. Net limite pressure values were in the range of 6.4~22.5
, in clay, 2.2~30.
, in sand, 13.0~58.0
, in weathered soil and 47.0~190.0
, in weathered rock. Also, Em/ｐ values were in the range of 2.4~7.0 in clay, 2.6~12.1 in sand, 6.8~17.1 in weathered soil and 7.2~29.6 in weathered rock.
Anisotropy in Strength and Deformation Properties of a Variety of Sands by Plane Strain Compression Tests(Part III) -Shear Deformation Characteristics-
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 95~105
Anisotropy of stiffiness, from extremely small strains to post-failure strains, of isotropically consolidated air-pulviated sands in plane strain compression was studied by using the newly developed instrumentation for small strain measurements. Seven types of sand of the world-wide origins were tested, which have been extensively used for research purposes. Stress-strain relationships for a wide range of strain from about 0.0001% to 10% were obtained with measuring axial and lateral strains locally free from the effects of bedding and membrane penetration errors at the specimen boundaries. It was found that the maximum shear modulus Gmax was irrespective of the angle
1 direction relative to the bedding plane. However, the normalized Gmax was varied with the types of sand. Furthermore, the dependency of the strain and stress level on the stiffness increased as decreased.
Permeability Reduction Model of Soil-Geotextile System Induced by Clogging
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 107~116
In this study, the permeability reduction in the soil-filter systems due to clogging phenomenon was evaluated. An extensive research program was performed using two typical weathered residual soils which were sampled at Shinnae-dong and Poi-dong area in Seoul. Two separate simulation tests with weathered residual soil were performed: one was the filtration test(cross-plane flow test); and the other was the drainage material in the field. The compatibility of the sol-filter system was investigated with emphasis on the clogging phenomenon. The hydraulic behaviour of the soil-filter system was evaluated by changing several testing conditions. Also, experimental results of the permeability reduction are compared with the results obtained from the theoretical model which can monitor the spatial variation of the permeability with time.
Behaviour Characteristics of Sand Compaction Pile with varying Area Replacement Ratio
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 117~128
Sand compaction pile(SCP) is one of the ground improvement techniques which is being used for not only accelerating consolidation but also increasing bearing capacity of loose sands or soft clay grounds. In this study, laboratory model test and large-scale direct shear test were performed to investigate the effects of area replacement ratio of composite ground in order to find out the optimum value of area replacement ratio for the ground improvement purpose. Area replacement ratios of 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% were chosen respectively in the model tests to study the effects of area replacement ratio on variations of stress concentration ratio, settlement and shear strength characteristics of composite ground. In large-scale direct she4ar tests, area replacement ratios of 20%, 30%, 46% were applied to study their effects on shear strength characteristics of composite ground.
Performance Evaluation of Earthquake Resistant Caisson Type Quay Walls
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 129~139
The liquefaction of reclaimed land generally caused the harbor facilities to hazards. In Korea, the major harbor quay walls are gravity type and the gravity quay wall is not a good earthquake resistant structure. Recently, various earthquake resistant quay walls have been suggested, but the study on the efficiency of reinforced quay wall was not much performed. In this study, numerical analysis is carried out for performance evaluation of easily adoptable earthquake resistant quay walls. The results of numerical analysis are compared with shaking table test that is performed at the same cross-section.
Dynamic Behavior of Large Diameter steel Pipe Piles during driving
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 141~148
For the construction of 4.8km long Multi-Purpose Jamuna Bridge in Bangladesh, 2 or 3 large diameter open-ended steel pipe piles were used for the foundation of piers. A total of 123 piles were driven for 50 piers and 2 test piles from the river bed through the normally-consolidated upper sand layer and rested n top of gravel layer. Two types of piles, having 3.15 or 2.50m diameter and variable wall thickness in the range of 40 to 60mm, were driven to the depths of 69 to 74m with the rake of 6:1 by connecting 2 or 3 pieces of short piles. Dynamic pile tests were performed on 24 selected piles during pile driving and soil plug length inside the pile was also measured after driving of each short section.These piles were plugged with soil to, though slightly affected by pile diameters, about 75% of total length of pile driven. Active plug at the tip of pile contributed substantial amount of inner skin friction to the total capacity. Piles soon after driving showed a skin-friction dominant pile behaviour, tat is, 90% of total capacity being developed by skin resistance. Quakes values and Smith damping factors were almost constant regardless of pile diameters. This result reflects the influence of uniform soil condition at the site.
Sedimentation & Consolidation Behaviour of Dredged Clay Fill
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 149~156
Sedimentation and self-weight consolidation tests in cylinder and large model tank and field measurement such as settlement and pore water pressure at each layer by wireless automatic instrumentation system were carried out to investigate the behaviour of dredged marine clay fill. The consolidation behaviour for each reclaimed layer was analyzed from these measured data and numerical analysis result using finite strain consolidation theory. It was fond from this study that the consolidation behaviour of dredged clay fill is heavily dependent on the filling process.
Effect of Temperature on Cu Adsorption and Competitive Adsorption of Zn and Cu onto Natural Clays using Combined Adsorption-sequential Extraction Analysis(II)
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 157~170
In this study, we conducted a combined adsorption-sequential extraction analysis(CASA) to investigate temperature effects of single and competitive adsorption of zinc and copper on natural clays. As a result, it was found out that in a single adsorption of zinc, the adsorption was mostly in the exchangeable phase, with increase n temperature. In a competitive adsorption of zinc, this trend was so strong that the exchangeable phase adsorption increase up to 80~90%. On the other hand, about 50% of copper was adsorbed in the carbonate occluded phase in single and competitive adsorptions. In the single adsorption the adsorption of carbonate occluded phase increased by 5% with the temperature increase and in the competitive adsorption the increase rate is about twice. The adsorption of zinc and copper on natural clays is an endothermic reaction with the exception of exchangeable phase adsorption.
Model Tests for Vertical Loads Acting on Embankment Piles
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 171~181
A series of model tests were performed both to investigate the load transfer by soil acrching in fills above embankment pils and to verify of the theoretical analysis. In the model tests, the piles were installed in a row below the embankment and the cap beams were placed on the pile heads perpendicular to the longitudinal axias of the embankment. The space between pile cap beams and the embankment height was focused as the major factors affecting the load transfer in embankment fill. When the embankment fill was higher than the minimum required height, which was about 33% higher than the radius of the soil arch proposed by theoretical discussion in the previous study, not only the soil arching could be developed completely but also the experimental results showed good agreement with theoretical predictions. The portion of the embankment load carried by model pile cap beams decreased with increment of the space between pile cap beams, while it increased with increment of the embankment height. Therefore, to maximize the effect of embankment load transfer by piles on design, the interval ratio of pile cap beams should be decreased under considerably high embankments by reducing the space between cap beams and/or enlarging the width of pile cap beams.
Finite Element Analysis Piezocone Test I
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 183~190
In this research, the finite element analysis of piezocone penetration and dissipation tests have been conducted using the anisotropic elastoplastic-viscoplastic bounding surface model in the Updated Lagrangian reference frame for the large deformation and finite strain nu\ature of piezocone penetration. Accordingly, virtual work equation and corresponding finite element equations have been reformulated. Theory of mixtures has been incorporated to explain the behavior of the sol. It has been observed that the viscoplastic part of the soil model affected the whole formulation. The results of the finite element analysis have been compared and investigated with the experimental results. The formulations and the results are described in part 'I' and part 'II', respectively.
Finite Element Analysis of Piezocone Test II
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 191~199
In this research, the finite element analysis of piezocone penetration and dissipation tests has been conducted using the anisotropic elastoplastic-viscoplastic bounding surface model, virtual work equation, and theory of mixtures formulated in the Up[dated Lagrangian reference frame for the large deformation and finite strain nature of piezocone penetration. The formulated equations have been implemented into a finite element program. The cone resistance, excess pore water pressure, and dissipation of excess pore water pressure from the finite element analysis have been compared and investigated. An effective simulation could be performed with the use of the anisotropic and viscous soil model. The finite element formulations and the results are described in part 'I' and part 'II' respectively.
Measurement of Pile Load Transfer Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 201~208
Axial load distribution in model piles was measured by fiber Bragg Grating(FBG) sensor to investigate a possibility of analyzing the load transfer mechanism by Fiber Optic sensor system. Since FBGs of different wave lengths can be multiplexed in an optical fiber, the installation of sensor system and the measurement of strains are relatively simple, compared with consisting strain gages. In this study, FBG sensors and electric strain gages were embedded in the same piles and the distributions of load transfer by two sensor systems were measured. It was observed from the test results that the variations of axial load by both systems showed insignificant difference and that the measurements by FBG were smoother than those by strain gage. Under the environments of laboratory testing, survival rate of embedded FBG system was higher than that of strain gage. Therefore, it was concluded that the use of FBG sensor has a great potential for the measurement of load transfer for pile foundation.