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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
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Simplified Design Method for Stabilizing Piles and its Application
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 5~14
This paper describes a simplified design method of stabilizing piles based on an experimental tests and an analytical study which can take into account the safety factor of slope and pile spacing. The nonlinear characteristics of the soil-pile interaction for stabilizing piles are modeled by using load transfer method. The interaction factors due to pile spacing and cap rigidity were estimated by using a three dimensional nonlinear finite element approach and laboratory tests. Based on the results obtained, the interaction factors are proposed quantitatively for one-row pile groups with spacing-to-diameter ratios varying far 2.5 to 7.0. The Bishop's simplified method of slope stability analysis is extended to incorporate the soil-pile interaction and determine the safety factor of the reinforced slope. Through the comparative study, it is found that the prediction by present approach is in relatively good agreement with the results of centrifuge tests and field tests and three dimensional finite element analyses.
Piezocone Factors of Korean Clayey Soils
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 15~24
In order to evaluate undrained shear strength of clayey soils using Piezocone Penetration Test (CPTu), piezoncone factor is utilized. Commonly, piezoncone factors determined by empirical basis were preferred, which were established by correlation between measurements of piezocone test and undrained strengths obtained from other shearing tests. However, previous studies on the empirical piezocone factors were site-specific and there have been no systematic investigations on the effect of both engineering characteristics of clayey soils and soil non-homogeneity on the piezocone factor. Accordingly, the direct application of the previous results to Korean clayey soils without verification may be inappropriate. In this study, empirical piezocone factors are evaluated by comparing 46 CPTu results of 10 test sites with undrained shear strength obtained from Field Vane Test (FVT) and laboratory triaxial tests. Their reliabilities are investigated by the comparison with the previous piezocone factors and the deviation of data distribution from the mean values. And the effects of referencing test methods and typical engineering characteristics of clayey soils such as overconsolidation ratio (OCR) and plastic Index (I
) are examined. Because piezocone factors obtained for various soil conditions are widely distributed, it is not appropriate to use the mean value as a representative. Instead, it is recommended to apply the piezocone factors with OCR, which is found to be a major factor in deriving piezocone factor. The necessitated piezocone factors are presented.d.
Proposition Empirical Equations and Application of Artificial Neural Network to the Estimation of Compression Index
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 25~36
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of soil properties such as liquid limit, water content, etc. on the compression index and to propose the empirical equation of compression index far regional clay and to verify the application Back Propagation Neural Network(BPNN). The compression index values obtained from laboratory tests are in the range of 0.01 to 3.06 for clay soils sampled in eleven regions. As the compare with the results of laboratory test and the predicted compression index value from the proposed empirical equations, the results of empirical equations including single soil parameter have a possibility to be overestimated. Also, the results of empirical equations including multiple soil parameters closed to the measured value more than that of empirical equations including single soil parameter, but the standard error for measured value obtained larger than 0.05. For these reasons, the empirical equations including single or multiple soil parameters proposed base on the results of laboratory test and the determination coefficient is up to 0.89. The result of BPNN shows that correlation coefficient and standard error between test and neural network result is larger than 0.925 and smaller than 0.0196, which means high correlativity, respectively. Especially, the estimated result by neural network, using only three parameters such as natural water content, dry unit weight and in-situ void ratio among various factors is available to the estimation of compression index and the correlation coefficient is 0.974. This result verified the possibility that if BPNN use, the compression index can be predicted by the parameters, which obtained from simplex field test.
Behavior of Small-Scale Pile Group Under Vertical Loading
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 37~46
Pile load tests were carried out to investigate the contribution of the pile cap to the carrying capacity of a pile group and load transfer characteristics of piles in the group. A group of 24 piles$(4 \times6 array)$ of 92.5mm diameter steel pipe were installed to the depth of 3m fron the ground surface, the top of weathered rock. A maximum load of 320ton was applied to the pile cap,
, in contact with the ground surface. At the maximum load of 320ton, the pile cap has carried 22% of the total load. Average ultimate capacity of pile in the pile group was estimated to be 16.4ton, substantially higher than that of single pile, installed at the corner and tested before pile cap construction. For the same magnitude of settlement, the pile in the center carried less load than the pile at the perimeter due to strain superposition effect. Piles in the group showed almost constant contribution(approx. 60%) of side friction to the total capacity for all of the loading stages, while that of single pile decreased from 82% to 65%.
The Role of Geocrete and Soluble Sodium Silicate as a Substitute to Control Leachate Leaking from Landfill Side Wall
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 47~51
There are two strategies to cope with the troubles in landfill site after closure. The first method is active in a way that the wastes are dug up and the recyclable materials are reutilized, meanwhile the materials not recyclable are incinerated in order to minimize the volume of residues to be disposed of. The second method is rather passive and defensive in a way that the source of contamination, that is, buried wastes are not treated. Instead, the transport of leaking leachate and gases generated from the wastes are intercepted and controlled. In this study, as a passive way of the efficient leachate blocking process, applicabilities of geocrete and soluble sodium silicate as a substitute to control leachate leaking from landfill sidewall were investigated. In case of compression test, the strength of mixture I (Geocrete:Sodium silicate=1:3.9 v/v) and mixture II (Geocrete:Sodium silicate=1:2.5 v/v), even after 7 days' curing was higher than the minimum allowance to tolerate the loading(5 kg/
). Soaking in the acid fur 4 days and 7 days respectively, the compressive strength of the specimens reduced seriously. The toxicity of geocrete is not detected through the bioassay test, once it was mixed with sodium silicate and the complex was formed. The hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures even after 7 days' curing was lower than the threshold limit
Settlement Restraint of Soft Ground by Low Slump Mortar Injection
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 53~67
In this study the pilot test of CGS as injection method by low slump mortar was performed and the results were analyzed in order to find out the application of this method and effect of settlement restraint. The site far pilot test is adjacent to apartments supported by pile foundations. Sand drain method was performed previously as countermeasures against settlement, but settlement occur continuously because this ground is very soft. Site investigations such as SPT, DCPT and vane shear test were performed to determine the characteristics of ground improvement. Field measurements and FDM analysis were performed on purpose to find out the displacement of ground during injection works. From the results of this study, CGS method can be optimized by the control of diagram, space, depth, injection material, and injection pressure. CGS improved soft ground compositely by the bearing effect of CGS columns and reinforcement of adjacent ground. Considering that increase of N value is about 2.1, CGS can be considered as an effective method to increase the bearing capacity as well as to stop the settlement of soft ground. It is also expected to be economic and effective in improvement of ground when it is used in applicable sites.
Utilization of Finished Municipal Landfill as a Construction Site
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 69~83
In order to make use of finished municipal landfill as a construction site, it is necessary to consider environmental and geotechnical aspects for the ground improvement and application of waste landfill. In environmental aspect, methods for management of landfill gas and leachate have to be established, and in geotechnical aspect, it is necessary to investigate available method for constructing structure foundation. In this study, the finished landfill was selected for pilot test. Investigation about the environmental characteristics of the waste landfill was performed to establish the methods far management of landfill gas according to monitoring the gas quantity and to investigate economical efficiency according to utilizing landfill gas. Investigation about cases of utilizing the waste landfill in Korea and abroad as construction site was performed and pilot tests were performed to analyze the improvement effects of methods such as dynamic compaction method and PG pile method available to waste landfill. The results of this study showed that economical profits could be gained by utilizing landfill gas and improved waste landfill, besides, dynamic compaction method was effective in case of improvement depth being shallow, and PG pile method was effective in case of improvement depth being deep.
An Analysis of Cone Penetration Based on Arbitrary Larangian-Eulerian Method
Oh, Se-Boong ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 85~98
Cone penetration was analyzed by arbitrary Lagangian-Eulerian(ALE) method. In order to simulate full penetration, steady state analyses were performed using ABAQUS/Explicit, which models upward flow of soil layers. In the analysis of homogeneous layer it was found that the paths and the strain of soil particles were consistent with the result of the strain path method and that the ultimate resistance were reasonably evaluated. The cone penetration through different soil layers was also analyzed and that showed the transfer of cone resistance. The steady state ALE analysis could perform full penetration through the layered soils.
Effect of Pile Driving Energy on Steel Pipe Pile Capacity in Sands
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 99~110
Open-ended pipe piles are often used for the foundations of both land and offshore structures because of their relatively low driving resistance. In this study, load tests were performed on model pipe piles installed in calibration chamber samples in order to investigate the effects of pile installation method on soil plugging and bearing capacity. Results of the test program showed that the incremental filling ratio (IFR), which is used to indicate the degree of soil plugging in open-ended piles, decreased (i) with increasing hammer weight for the same driving energy and (ii) with increasing hammer weight at the same fall height. The base and shaft resistance of the piles were observed to increase (i) with increasing hammer weight for the same driving energy and (ii) with increasing hammer weight at the given same fa11 height. The jacked pile was found to be have higher bearing capacity than an identical driven pile under similar conditions, mostly due to the more effective development of a soil plug in jacking than in driving.
Characteristics and Energy Absorbing Capacity for Rockfall Protection Fence from In-Situ Rockfall Tests
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 111~121
Rockfall protection fences are used for diminishing rockfall damage in roads side slopes. In order to install the fences in effective way, the conditions of rock slopes and total predicted impact energy of fa11ing rock should be considered. However, the fences have been constructed without any consideration for lithology, height and slope angle of rock slope in Korea. In addition, the information about the performance of the protection fences, which should be evaluated by in-situ test or laboratory test in order to check out the practical use in the field, is not available. Therefore, in design manual for the rockfall protection fence, the specific details for the installation of this type of fence are not provided yet. The full sized rockfall in situ test was carried out for the calculation of falling energy of rock and the evaluation of the maximum energy absorbing capacity of fence. For this test, the rock slopes whose heights are about 20 m and dip angle of 65 degree, have been chosen. This is because those geometries are mean height and slope angle of most road cut slopes along Korean national highway. Based on the preliminary simulation procedure, four different sizes of concrete ball (0.7, 1.3, 2.3 and 4.3 ton) were prepared and flour different types of protection fence were constructed. The results of this test provide information about the maximum energy absorbing capacity of the fence, kinetic energy of rockfall and restitution coefficient, and these results can be utilized in the establishment of rockfall fence design and construction manual.
Slope Stability Analysis by Optimization Technique Considering Unsaturated Characteristics of Weathered Granite Soil
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 123~133
Since most of soil slopes are in an unsaturated state, it is necessary to consider the unsaturated characteristics of soil slopes, in order to obtain more reasonable results. Therefore in this study we supplemented a slope stability analysis program to consider them, based on the concept of limit equilibrium. We also applied an optimization technique to search for a failure surface. Besides, we carried out experiments to obtain the unsaturated soil properties required in the analysis with weathered granite soils. We formulated a nonlinear apparent cohesion relationship with the matrix suction to be able to apply the unsaturated shear strength characteristics to the stability analysis. In addition, we intended to obtain more accurate soil water characteristic curves(SWCC) by measuring the change in volume of the specimen in the SWCC tests. As a result, we could appropriately assess the change of the safety factor according to the rainfall intensity and duration, by considering the variation of suction, permeability, and shear strength caused by the infiltration of rainfall into slopes.
Assessment Method of Geosynthetic Pullout Resistance Considering Soil Confinement Effect
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 135~148
In this study, an assessment method was proposed to evaluate the pullout resistance between geosynthetic and backill soil by using a stress-strain relationship of the orthotropic composite material subjected to both longitudinal and vertical loadings. For this analysis friction characteristics of geosynthetic-soil and stress-strain relationships subjected to soil confined pressure were investigated by performing the laboratory pullout tests for three types of geosynthetics and performing the confined extension tests far seven types of geosynthetics having geotextiles, composite geosynthetics and geogrids. A comparison was made between unconfined an confined moduli far each geosynthetic material to quantify the soil confinement effect on stress-strain properties. A comparison was also made between the relative increase of moduli at the same strain level among the seven geosynthetic materials to demonstrate the different responses of these geosynthetic materials under soil confinement. Based on the proposed procedure, it was shown that values of the increased tensile force are applicable fur the evaluation of friction strengths between five types of geosynthetics and sands in light of the soil confinement effect.
An Evaluation of Stress-Strain Behaviour of Earth-Rockfill Dam and Causes of Crack due to Water Table Fluctuation
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 149~162
Longitudinal cracks have occurred on the crest of dams soon after their construction of two earth-rocfill dams located in Samlangjin. They are a pair of pumped storage dams constructed for generation of electrical power. The upper dam and lower dam are subjected to the variation of water level more than 10m once in a day alteratively. This paper deals with the finding of possible causes for longitudinal cracks about upper dam. The dominant cause was considered to be due to fluctuation of water load, for which numerical analysis was carried out using the hyperbolic model. In order to obtain parameters necessary to the analysis, a series of triaxial tests was performed for both core and rock material. Also dynamic triaxial test was performed to obtain dynamic properties of soils, which could be used as input data to simulate frequent variation of stress change due to the water fluctuation. It was known from the numerical analysis that the confining pressure of upper 4m from the top of the crest become negative after repeating of water load, meaning that tension cracks occurred in the top portion of the crest. The depth of longitudinal cracks has been investigated by digging test pit on the crest. This results agree with the field observation.
Characteristics of Developed Earth Pressure by Backfill Compaction
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 163~171
It is important to pay careful attention to the backfill construction for the structural integrity of concrete box culvert. To increase the structural integrity of culvert good compaction by the dynamic compaction roller with big capacity is as effective as good backfill materials. However structural distress of the culvert could be occurred due to the excessive earth pressure by great dynamic compaction load. In this study, two box culverts were constructed with change compaction materials and construction methods. Two type of on-site soils such as subbase and subgrade materials were used as backfill materials. In most case, dynamic compaction rollers with 11 to 12 ton weights were used and vibration frequency were applied from 2000 to 2500 rpm for the great compaction energy. Backfill compactions with good quality soils were carried out to examine the effect of cushions on dynamic lateral soil pressure. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) and rubber of tire were adapted as cushion materials and they are set on the culverts before backfill construction. This paper presents the main results on the characteristics of dynamic earth pressures. Test result indicates that the amounts of increased dynamic pressures are affected with backfill materials, depth of pressure cell, and compaction condition. The earth pressure during compaction can give harmful effect to box culvert because the value of dynamic earth pressure coefficient
during compaction is greater than that of static condition. It was observed that cushion panels of EPS(t=10cm) and rubber(t=5cm) are effective to mitigate dynamic lateral pressure on the culverts.
A Study on the Dynamic Behaviour of Cut-and-Cover Tunnel by Shaking Table Test
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 173~180
This research is aimed at investigating the dynamic response of cut-and-cover tunnel to seismic waves. We carried out shaking table test which is used a 1/40-scale(the width of prototype tunnel is about 14.2m, the height is about 8.5m) model for this research, and we analyzed the effect of depth of tunnel and slope of the ground in relation to the dynamic responses of tunnel. As a result of the test, the stress and acceleration along the tunnel decreased accordingly to the depth of increment, and this phenomenon is caused by the increase of the confining effect of ground. Also, the dynamic responses of tunnel showed a tendency to rise according as ground declined gently. In comparison the result of shaking table test with that of structural analysis on ordinary condition, we conclude that seismic waves do not affect cut-and-cover tunnel when the depth of tunnel is over the diameter of tunnel.
Estimation of Ultimate Bearing Capacity for Randomly Installed Granular Compaction Pile Group
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 181~191
Granular compaction piles increase the load bearing capacity of the soft ground and reduce the settlement of fecundation built on the reinforced soil. Also the granular compaction piles accelerate the consolidation of soft ground using the granular materials such as sand, gravel, stone etc. However, this method is one of unuseful methods in Korea. In the present study, the estimation procedure for the ultimate bearing capacity of randomly installed granular compaction pile group is proposed. Also, carbon rod tests have been peformed for verifying the group effect of granular compaction piles and the behavior characteristics such as bulging failure zone on granular compaction piles. From the test results, it is found that bulging failure shape of granular compaction piles was conical shape and the ultimate bearing capacity increased as the spacing of piles became gradually narrow. Also, from the proposed method in this study, the optimal locations of granular compaction piles with various installed cases are analyzed. The results were shown that the bearing capacity was increased in the case concentrated on the central part of pile group.
Model Tests of Pile Groups in Sand
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 193~205
In this study the behavior of pile groups is investigated experimentally. Special attention is given to the load transfer characteristics of pile groups and to the evaluation of the group effects under vertical and horizontal loadings. In the laboratory experiments, vertical and lateral loadings were imposed on model piles in sand. Model piles made of PVC embedded in Joomoonjin sand were used in this study. Pile arrangements(
) and pile spacings(2.5D, 5.OD, 7.5D) were considered. Load-transfer curves(t-z, q-z and p-y curves), load-deflection curves and group interaction factors were obtained from the experimental results. The group interaction factors under both vertical and horizontal loadings were proposed for the cases of
pile groups with varying ratios of pile spacings. p-multipliers in this study were found for the individual piles in
Dynamic Friction Behavior of Interfaces Between Dense Dry Granular Soils and Construction Material(Concrete)
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 207~213
Shaking table tests to investigate the dynamic friction behavior of interfaces between dense dry granular soils and construction material(concrete) were performed and the results are reported. The results show the variation of dynamic interface friction coefficients between dense dry granular soils and construction material was small in the sliding velocity range employed in this study. It was also observed that dynamic interface friction coefficients decreased as mean grain sizes of granular soils increased. These coefficients were compared with the friction coefficients obtained from the peak internal friction angles of the same granular soils by plane strain compression tests.
Development of Contaminant Leakage Detection System Using Electrical Resistance Measurement: I. Variations of Electrical Properties of Subsurface due to Contaminants
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 215~224
The concept that the electrical properties of subsurface material can be affected by the introduction of contaminants might be applicable fur developing the leakage detection system for petroleum hydrocarbons of underground storage tanks and leachate coming from landfill. Investigations were conducted with diesel, NaCl solution, and leachate by laboratory tests. Simulation test was performed leaking at a certain point in the field. The measured resistance was exponentially decreased as the water content of uncontaminated unsaturated sand was increased. The resistance of soil was increased by diesel but decreased by NaCl solution or leachate. The optimum electrode spacings were found for NaCl solution, leachate and diesel. Electrolytic solutions were better detected by wider spacing than non electrolytic solution.
Development of Contaminant Leakage Detection System Using Electrical Resistance Measurement: ll. Evaluation of Applicability for Landfill Site by Field Model Tests
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 225~233
Field model tests were performed to develop the grid-net landfill leachate leakage detection system using electrical resistance. Electric circuit tests were also carried out to investigate the expected electrical effects of grid-net electric circuit. The resistance of leaking point showed lower value than that of non leaking point. Grid-net leakage detection system was thought to be effective to locate the leachate leaking point. The measured electrical resistance along the wire including the leaking point was slightly reduced following the reduction of electrical resistance at the leaking point, which was explained by electric circuit test results.
Occurrence of Sand Liquefaction on Static and Cyclic Loading
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 235~244
Liquefaction may be caused by sudden decrease in the soil strength under undrained conditions. This loss of soil strength is related to the development of excess pore pressures. During this study, fines content affects the maximum and minimum void ratios are investigated. The results of static and cyclic triaxial test on silty saturated sands are presented. These tests are performed to evaluate liquefaction strength and static and cyclic behavior characteristics. The samples are obtained from Saemangeum and drying on air. The main results are summarized as follows : 1) The maximum and minimum void ratio lines follow similar trends. 2) Maximum and minimum void ratios are established at 20~30% fines content. 3) As confining pressures and overconsolidation ratio are increased, the resistance to liquefaction are increased. 4) Instability friction angles are increased with increasing initial relative density. 5) The resistance to liquefaction are decreased with increasing effective stress ratio.
The Effect of Cut-slope on Structural Behavior of Cut-and-Cover Tunnel
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 17, issue 6, 2001, Pages 245~255
Existing cut-and-cover tunnels are designed regardless of cut-slope under the assumption that the overburden weight of backfill soil acts on tunnel arch and the earth pressure at rest acts on tunnel walls. However, actual earth pressures acting on the tunnel lining depend on open-cut size composed of cut-slope and cut-width, and thus the tunnel lining shows a different structural behavior. This study investigated the effect of cut-slope on structural behavior of the cut-and-cover tunnel lining as follows; Firstly, a comprehensive numerical analysis method using FLAC2D code was used and verified by field measurements of tunnel profile. Secondly, based on the verified numerical analysis technique, earth pressure acting on the lining, and displacement and sectional force developed on the lining were estimated with various shapes of cut-slopes
). Numerical analysis results indicate that the steeper cut-slope shows the more displacement and moment of the tunnel lining.