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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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Journal DOI :
Korean Geotechical Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
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The Pullout Behavior of a Large-diameter Batter ]Reaction Piles During Static Pile Load Test for a Large Diameter Socketed Pipe Pile
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 1, 2002, Pages 5~16
The pullout behavior of large-diameter steel pipe piles(diameter = 2,500mm, length = 38~40m), which were designed as compression piles but used as reaction piles during a static compression load test on a pile(diameter = 1,000m, length = 40m), was investigated. The steel pipe piles were driven by 20m into a marine deposit and weathered soil layer and then socketed by 10m into underlying weathered and soft rock layers. The sockets and pipe were filled with reinforced concrete. The steel pipe and concrete in the steel pipe zone and concrete and rebars in the socketed zone were fully instrumented to measure strains in each zone. The pullout deformations of the reaction pile heads were measured by LVDTs. Over the course of the study, a maximum uplift deformation of 7mm was measured in the heads of reaction piles when loaded to 10MN, and 1mm of residual uplift deflection was measured. In the reaction piles, about 83% and about 12% of the applied pullout loads were transferred in the weathered rock layer and in the soft rock layer, respectively. Also, at an uplift force of 10MN, shear stresses due to the uplift in the weathered rock layer md soft rock layer were developed as much as 125.3kPa and 61.8kPa, respectively. Thus, the weathered rock layer should be utilized as resisting layer in which frictional farce could be mobilized greatly.
An Investigation of Tunnel Behaviour Using a Time-based 2-D Modelling Method
Shin, Jong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 1, 2002, Pages 17~28
Tunnel construction is a complex three dimensional operation. Since, however, it is neither possible nor useful to simulate all conditions and parameters in detail, a simplified two dimensional model is commonly employed in practice. The simulation of three dimensional conditions by a two dimensional model should use empirical parameters. The numerical predictions indicate that analysis results are highly dependent on the parameters. An improved modelling method based on time was adopted to account for three dimensional effect at the tunnel heading and time dependent nature, and used to perform an analysis of tunnelling in decomposed granite. The effects of weathering degree, tunnel shape and multi-drift excavation were investigated by using the method. It is identified that a structural benefit can be obtained by adopting a horse-shoe-shaped cross section with multi-drift excavation in mixed-force ground condition.
The Behavior of Overall Strain Range in Undrained Triaxial Compression Tests for a Weathered Soil
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 1, 2002, Pages 29~39
In order to evaluate the behavior of overall range from small strain to failure, the triaxial compression tests with LVDTs were performed for local displacement measurements. According to the result it was possible to evaluate the total range behavior from 0.001% to 10% and both secant moduli of undisturbed and disturbed weathered soils had a similar result in the small slain level. The normalized shear moduli
in the undrained triaxial compression tests were similar to those of resonant column tests but the maximum shear moduli
were strongly affected by the ratio of saturation. As a result of parametric study a constitutive model with anisotropic hardening could predict the behavior of total strain range.
A Study of a Variety of Sands in Stress-dilatancy Relationships
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 1, 2002, Pages 41~48
Anisotropy of stiffness, from extremely small strains to post-failure strains, of isotropically consolidated air-pluviated sands in plane strain compression was studied by using the newly developed instrumentation fur small strain measurements, Seven types of sand of world-wide origins were tested, which have been extensively used for research purposes. Stress-strain relationships for a wide range of strain from about 0.0001% to the peak were obtained by measuring axial and lateral strains locally free from the effects of bedding and membrane penetration errors at the specimen boundaries. The result showed that the relationship between the principal stress ratio and the principal strain increment ratio was constant, being rarely affected by the over-consolidation ratio and the confining pressure. Although in the small strain the anisotropy hardly affected the relationship between the principal stress ratio and the principal strain increment ratio, the K value around the peak varied according to the
value. In general, Rowe\`s stress-dilatancy equation works fairly well from the small strain to the peak.
Modeling of Electrical and Chemical Characteristics During the Electro]kinetic Remediation of Contaminated Soil by Heavy Metal
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 1, 2002, Pages 49~57
During the electrokinetic remediation, direct current applied to a soil-water-electrolyte system derives the variations of fluid transport phenomena in soil-water system and soil-water interface characteristics. Therefore, these variations affect the electrokinetic reaction. In this study, lab-scale electrokinetic remediation tests were performed to characterize the electrical and chemical parameters variation in soil. During the test, voltage gradient, electrical current, zeta potential and pH variations were measured. On the basis of experimental results, computer modeling techniques predicting the variations of these parameters are suggested.
Required Discharge Capacity for Horizontal Drains Installed with Vertical Drains
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 1, 2002, Pages 59~70
Horizontal drains are sometimes installed on the ground together with vertical drains in order to drain excess pore water. Taking into account the discharge capacity of horizontal drains, a new analytical method is developed in this paper, and then a new formula for the discharge capacity of horizontal drains is proposed. It is known from the analysis that the effect of the rate of surcharge loading is negligible in determining horizontal discharge capacity. This formula is described as the function of coefficient of consolidation, space of vertical drain, compression index, length of horizontal drains, and thickness of the compressible layer.
Back Analysis of the Earth Wall in Multi-layered Subgrade
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 1, 2002, Pages 71~78
This paper presents a back-calculation technique leer the prediction of the behavior of earth wall inserted in multi-layered soil deposit. The soil properties are back-calculated from the measured displacement at each construction stage and the behavior of earth wall far the next construction stage is predicted using back-calculated soil properties. For multi-layered soil deposit, the back-calculation would be very difficult due to the increase in the number of variables. In this study, to solve this difficulty, the back-calculation was performed successively from the lowest layer to the upper layers. An efficient elasto-plastic beam-column analysis was used for forward analysis to minimize the computation time of iterative back-calculation procedure. The coefficients of subgrade reaction and lateral earth pressure necessary for the formation of p-y curve were selected as back calculation variables, and to minimize the effect of abnormal behavior of the wall which might be caused by any unexpected action during construction, the difference between measured displacement increment and computed displacement increment at each construction stages is used as the objective function of optimization. The constrained sequential linear programming was used for the optimization technique to found values of variables minimizing the objective function. The proposed method in this study was verified using numerically generated data and measured field data.
The Evaluation of Interface Shear Strength Between Geomembrane and Ceotextile
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 1, 2002, Pages 79~89
Various geosynthetics used as liners or protection layers are installed in the solid waste landfills. The interface shear strength between geosynthetics installed at the slope of the landfill is a very important variable for the safe design of the bottom and cover systems in the solid waste landfills. The interface shear strength between Geomembrane and Geotexile is estimated by a large direct shear test in this study, The effects of normal stress, water existing between geosynthetics and surface condition of Geomembrae, i.e. smooth or textured, were investigated. The test results show that the effect varied depending on the level of normal stress and the type of geosynthetic combinations. The shear strength was evaluated by the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion in this research. The shear strength parameters obtained from tests considering the site specific conditions such as normal stress, dry or wet, and surface condition of geosynthetic should be applied to the design of geosynthetics installed at the slope of the landfill to construct a safe solid waste landfill.
A New Methodology for the Assessment of Liquefaction Potential Based on the Dynamic Characteristics of Soils (I) : A Proposal of Methodology
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 1, 2002, Pages 91~99
In this study, a new methodology for the assessment of liquefaction potential is proposed. Since there is no data on the liquefaction damage in Korea, the dynamic behavior of fully saturated soils is characterized through laboratory dynamic tests. There are two experimental parameters related to the soil liquefaction resistance characteristics : the one is the index of disturbance determined by
curve and the other is a plastic shear strain trajectory evaluated from stress-strain curve. The proposed methodology takes advantage of the site response analysis based on real earthquake records to determine the driving effect of earthquake. In the evaluation of liquefaction resistance characteristics, it is verified experimentally that the magnitude of cyclic shear stress has no influence on the critical value of plastic shear strain trajectory at which the initial liquefaction occurs. Cyclic triaxial tests under the conditions of various cyclic stress ratios and torsional shear tests are carried out far the purpose of verification. Through this study, the critical value at the initial liquefaction is found unique regardless of the cyclic stress ratio. It is also f3und that liquefaction resistance curve drawn with disturbance and plastic shear strain trajectory can simulate the behavior of fully saturated soils under dynamic loads.
A New Methodology for the Assessment of Liquefaction Potential Based on the Dynamic Characteristics of Soils (II) : Verification
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 1, 2002, Pages 101~112
In this study, a new methodology fur the assessment of liquefaction potential is proposed and characteristics of the proposed methodology are verified. The experimental parameter of this methodology, that is, the plastic shear strain trajectory, is compared with the dissipated energy. It is shown that this parameter can express the liquefaction behavior which is generated by excess pore water pressure. This methodology takes advantage of the shear strain time history determined from the site response analysis based on the real time history of earthquake. In this site response analysis, shock type and vibration type records of similar predominant frequency are inputted. The liquefaction safely factors based on the proposed methodology and Korean detailed assessment related to the classical method are calculated from the results of the site response analysis and laboratory dynamic tests. Through this study, it is found that the proposed methodology can not only simulate the liquefaction behavior of saturated soils hut also express the seismic characteristics reasonably : leading type, predominant frequency, maximum acceleration, duration time.
Mechanical Characteristics of Kaolin-cement Mixture
Lee, Kyu-Hwan ; Lee, Song ; Yi, Chang-Tok ;
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 1, 2002, Pages 113~125
Ground improvement technique of cement stabilization via Deep Soil Mixing with dry cement is gaining popularity, particularly in Japan and other parts of Southeast Asia and in Scandinavia. Cement can be mixed with deep soft clay deposits, typical of marine environments, to improve the bearing capacity and/or reduce the compressibility of the material so that an otherwise poor site can be developed. However, the strength/deformation behaviour and resulting soil structure of the clay-cement mixture is presently not well understood with respect to both dry and wet mix methods. An extensive laboratory test was carried out to determine the mechanical characteristics of kaolin-cement, with some brief examination of the effects of curing environment. Laboratory tests include triaxial tests, unconfined compression tests, isotropic consolidation testis and oedometer tests. Cement contents up to 10 percent were considered and water curing was employed. Samples were cured for 7 to 112 days while submerged in distilled water. Conventional laboratory tests were also performed. In this paper, the laboratory testing program is described and various sample preparation techniques are discussed. Preliminary triaxial compression test results and trends at varying moisture contents, cement contents, confining pressures and curing times will be presented.
The Evaluation of Dynamic Group Pile Effect by the Analysis of Experimental p-y Curves
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 1, 2002, Pages 127~132
Shaking table tests are performed on model group piles to investigate the mechanics of dynamic pile-soil interaction, and to evaluate the dynamic group pile effect. Tests are executed on a single pile as well as group piles(
) by varying a pile spacing from 3D to 8D. A lumped mass is located on top of piles to simulate a superstructure. Dynamic p-y curves of the single pile and the group piles are obtained from the tests and compared with the backbone slopes of API cyclic p-y curves. From the comparisons, dynamic pile group effects are evaluated in terms of a pile spacing, a shaking frequency, and a shaking intensity.
An Experimental Study on the Utilization of Phosphogypsum as Daily and Intermediate Cover Materials
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 1, 2002, Pages 133~140
Phosphogypsum is a by-product from the phosphoric acid process for manufacturing fertilizers. It consists mainly of
and contains some impurities such as
, and organic substances. The annual world production of this material is up to 150 million tons and is up to 1.57 million tons in Korea. Therefore studies describe application of phosphogypsum to daily and middle cover materials in landfill. For this Purpose, experiments were performed to evaluate the engineering properties of the material by sieve analysis, specific gravity, consistency of soil, compaction, CBR, permeability, mi environmental characteristics of leaching test, reactor test. The results of this study are as follows : The mixing and layer conditions of CBR value are 6.2~6.3%, coefficient of permeability is
. And leaching test results are far below than those of regulatory requirement of Waste Management Act, Soil Environment Preservation Act in Korea and RCRA in USA. Therefore phosphogypsum can be used as daily and intermediate cover materials in landfill.
Verification for the Cyclic Shear Behavior of Rough Granite Joint Using Constitutive Equation
Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, volume 18, issue 1, 2002, Pages 141~152
Although a number of constitutive models have been proposed to define the behavior of geotechnical materials including elastic, plastic, and dynamic response, flew numerical models have been developed for the cyclic shear behavior of rock joints or interfaces. Such realistic constitutive models play an important role in analyzing and predicting the response of joints under dynamic loads. The purpose of this research is to verify the constitutive model modified for rough granite joints based on Disturbed State Concept(DSC) model, which has been successfully verified with respect to other materials such as dry sand-steel interface and wet sand-concrete interface. Furthermore, DSC model is compared and verified with respect to cyclic shear tests and numerical analysis results based on Plesha model. Based on the results of this research, it can be stated that DSC model is capable of characterizing the cyclic shear behavior of rough granite joints under dynamic loads.